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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 53 - Argos on the World Wide Web
    Descriptive info: Argos Newsletter N° 53 - August 1998.. Jeff Wingenroth.. Service Argos, Inc.. E-mail:.. jw@argosinc.. com.. http://www.. argosinc.. Argos on the World Wide Web.. The Argos World Wide Web site was established in 1995 at Service Argos, Inc.. (.. ).. The intent was to inform current and potential Users about Argos, as well as showcase User activity.. The Argos www site starts off with a What's New link to recent notices of interest to Argos Users.. We welcome your input and suggestions for postings to this page.. The site itself is organized along six principal channels , namely,.. Mission and Organization,.. System Overview,.. Basic Services and Products,.. Environmental Protection,.. Oceanography Meteorology,.. Biology.. These areas focus on system capabilities as well as User activities in several major segments.. There is also a section on Argos Equipment Manufacturers and links to downloads of the Argos Application Form for new Users.. Each page on the site has links back to the home page or other relevant pages to facilitate easy movement through the site.. Mission and Organization.. In this section, visitors can learn about the why and how Argos was developed.. It also includes information on the  ...   over the Internet.. Links to NOAA, NASA and cnes are also provided here.. Basic Services and Products.. This section provides brief descriptions of the various Argos services with an emphasis on those available through the Joint Tariff Agreement (JTA).. User Sites and Activities.. The remaining channels address three large segments of User activity, with everything from a description of Argos capabilities to lists of Users who are willing to share information.. Some wonderful examples of User activity as well as links to other web sites resides here as well.. Future Plans.. We have moved the website to a more powerful server, and will continue to upgrade.. The new site will feature updated content as well as frames and image maps to ease navigation.. Some of the functions currently being considered for the web site include access to Argos data, consultation of program or platform information and a bulletin board for Users to share ideas on the system.. We welcome and encourage your comments on the web site, our plans for the future, links to other sites of interest to Argos Users, and any other ideas you might have.. Check us out at.. !!..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 53 - Seimac
    Descriptive info: Paul Hill.. Seimac Limited.. phill@seimac.. seimac.. Seimac.. Seimac Limited launched.. www.. in June of 1996 to help both current and new customers become familiar with our company and the products and services we provide.. Argos and Argos related products are the core of our oceanographic instrumentation business.. We have dedicated a large portion of our web site to the features and benefits of our Argos products.. Future plans are to incorporate a wide range of application notes describing the use of these tools in the field.. We have found that our web site is visited by marine biologists, oceanographic investigators and technicians, atmospheric scientists and support people, as well as private firms which service the earth science and environmental protection markets.. The Information Technology Group at Seimac is responsible for the design and implementation of the site.. This group is a high end software development team which services the defence underwater acoustics community and much of their work is in graphical user interfaces, so the design and implementation of our site was a natural fit for their capabilities.. This group also provides web master services to ocean related groups, which currently includes the Oceans '97 web site.. However, as with all web page developments,  ...   the buoy deployments below, are provided under the Instruments product page on the Seimac site.. Position tracks from a recent C-AST deployment by Dalhousie University and the Bedford Institute of Oceanography.. Both drogued and undrogued drifters were deployed at about 1900 hrs on Feb.. 15, 1996 at Lat 44.. 25 N, Long 62.. 95 W.. The undrogued AST moved generally northeasterly while the C-AST drogued at 15 m moved generally southwesterly.. More details of this experiment can be seen on the World Wide Web at.. http://wwww.. com/.. Another of the benefits of the world wide web is communication and information dialogue within our constituency which includes our customers, suppliers, industry associations, government departments, etc.. To achieve this goal, we will be launching a page on our site which offers links to research papers which have been published, new products which are available, new programs we have heard about and any information which we feel is relevant to the people who we talk to everyday.. Promoting and facilitating the use of the Argos system via the web is a natural evolution to enhancing the service which Argos suppliers can provide to their customers.. We have found it to be an effective communications tool for our business..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 52 - Satellite tracking of elephant seals
    Descriptive info: Argos Newsletter N° 52 - July 1997.. Bernie McConnell.. Sea Mammal Research Unit.. Gatty Marine Lab.. University of St.. Andrews, Scotland.. b.. mcconnell@smru.. ac.. uk.. Satellite tracking.. of elephant seals.. Southern elephant seals (.. Mirounga leonina.. ) spend about ten months at sea, interrupted by two periods on land of around 3-4 weeks each: in November when they breed, and between January and March when they moult.. The largest moult and breeding site is at South Georgia in the South Atlantic.. In order to understand how they find and exploit food resources we need first to be able to describe their movements and dive behaviour.. To achieve this we have designed and built a Satellite Relay Data Logger (SRDL).. SRDLs.. While at sea, only ten percent of an elephant seal's time is spent at the surface.. This imposes a severe restriction on the uplink rate.. Thus data, rather than being sent in their raw form, must be processed and compressed.. Data from the srdl depth and submergence sensors are used to determine the activity of the seal: either a 'dive' (deeper than 6 m for at least 6 s), a 'haulout' (dry for at least 240 s), or else at the 'surface'.. Distance swum is determined by a turbine odometer.. Individual dive records include information on maximum depth, depth profile, distance swum, and dive and surface duration.. Dive and haulout records stored in memory are selected for transmission, such that those times of day when the Argos satellites are unavailable are adequately represented.. The SRDLs are attached with a two-part rapid setting epoxy resin on the back of the neck just behind the head, so that the aerial emerges when the seal surfaces.. System Performance.. Twelve seals were tagged on South Georgia between 1990 and 1994 and each produced an average of 119 days of data.. Their tracks are shown in Fig.. 1 (McConnell Fedak, 1996).. Females either travelled eastward,  ...   the narrow effective bandwidth.. This limitation is the result of the minimal time spent by the animals at the surface, the satellite coverage and the acceptable transmission rate.. To optimise the effectiveness of srdls, we would like to make each bit of information sent from the animal a useful one, receive as many bits as possible and know which bits have been received so as to minimise redundancy.. This would allow biologists to reduce the energy cost of sending useful information, allowing srdls to be smaller or last longer.. The proposed enhancements to the Argos system will help to do this.. Higher data transfer rates would allow more of the behavioural data gathered by the srdls to be relayed home.. Improved satellite receiver sensitivity would help to keep energy costs down.. More uplinks would be obtained providing more data and locations.. Alternatively transmissions could be at lower power levels, allowing either smaller batteries, or increased battery life.. Two-way handshaking between srdl and satellites (acknowledgement of the srdl message) would reduce the necessary redundancy of re-transmitting the same data, increasing the effective data transfer rate.. Finally downlink messaging would allow the srdl program to be modified in the light of its location and the animal's behaviour.. For example, if the srdl appeared to malfunction, biologists could command it to send diagnostic information or reset some of its parameters.. These could change program control functions to work around data collection problems or reset registers.. Or, for example, if the seal were diving near a frontal system (important to this work because such oceanographic features may affect prey distribution) biologists could reset the srdl to relay detailed temperature/depth data.. References:.. McConnell, B.. J.. , Chambers, C.. , and Fedak, M.. A.. (1992) Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean.. Antarctic Sci.. 4(4): 393-398.. (1996) Movements of southern elephant seals.. Can.. J.. Zool.. 74: 1485-1496..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 52 - The effect of Argos system enhancements on wildlife tracking
    Descriptive info: Stanley M.. Tomkiewicz, Jr.. Director, Environmental Programs.. Telonics.. Mesa, AZ, USA.. Tel.. : +1 602-892-4444.. Fax: +1 602-892-9139.. 75052.. 1563@compuserve.. The effect of Argos system enhancements.. on wildlife tracking.. Telonics in Mesa, Arizona.. Telonics, Inc.. , provides telemetry products that are used around the world in a variety of wildlife, oceanographic, meteorological and special applications.. Our firm includes approximately 100 engineers, technicians, and field support specialists engaged in developing fully integrated systems for data transfer, acquisition, and processing through the use of state-of-the-art micro-power and micro-miniaturization techniques.. Our laboratory is located in Mesa, Arizona.. We work extensively with the research community to provide information on technical advances, and to develop new products and applications which help researchers balance study goals with their critical budget and time considerations.. We have been developing technologies associated with the Argos system since the late 1970s.. Over the past 20 years.. we have watched the Argos system develop from a system designed specifically for collecting meteorological and oceanographic information to a system also utilized extensively by wildlife professionals on a worldwide basis to track and recover data from free-ranging wildlife.. To accommodate the wildlife community, the system had to develop specific processing and dissemination approaches which accommodate the requirements of the wildlife field.. In addition, modification of Argos PTT (transmitter) specifications have been made to accommodate low power, micro-miniaturized smart Argos PTTs which can be successfully used to track and study a variety of wildlife species.. Although many early Argos ptts were suitable only for large animals, new ptt designs now exist and units in the 30g weight range allow for tracking of relatively small birds.. Several enhancements to the Argos system have been proposed, or are now being implemented, which will aid most users and which will have a very positive and significant impact on wildlife studies.. Among the notable improvements are the deployment of a new satellite receiver with increased sensitivity, deployment of the Argos satellite receiver on additional satellites, and the possibility for a specialized low power band to be used with PTTs which have power output of less than 300 mW (into a 50 ohm antenna).. All of these enhancements should make tracking wildlife  ...   link with the satellite.. Further, additional satellite overpasses (a result of having the receiver on board additional satellites) can effectively reduce the required on air time for obtaining position fixes.. This is especially important in wildlife applications where battery capacity is extremely limited and long operational life is often required.. Another benefit to having the additional satellites carrying the Argos receiver is that they will help fill in the time periods when the noaa satellites are not overhead.. The result is more continuous coverage over the 24-hour period.. One additional enhancement under consideration which holds promise involves utilizing a specialized frequency band for low power transmitters.. The separation of units based on power level could help prevent the low power units with limited antennas from being masked by higher power 1 watt units, with efficient antennas.. In general, these enhancements will allow studies which were impractical a few years ago a means to become operational in the near future.. Also among the future proposed system enhancements is the utilization of the two-way communication system which essentially allows the user, through a satellite down-link, to communicate with the transmitters.. This feature allows commands to be issued to the transmitter after deployment, such as turning the unit on and off, and/or reprogramming duty-cycles or data collection schemes.. Although the exact specifications for the receiving system have not yet been completely determined, a two-way system is more likely to emerge in the oceanographic and meteorological fields first.. The additional circuitry and antenna requirements necessary for the system will increase ptt size and complexity of the unit for the foreseeable future initially making it impractical for use in the wildlife field.. The technological constraints associated with this early receiver may preclude putting them on board Argos ptts designed for animals.. As with all technologies, maturation and miniaturization often go together and at some point in the future it may be possible that Argos PTTs, including a downlink receiver, can be incorporated in specific wildlife applications.. In general, then, these enhancements open the door to the further development of wildlife applications using the Argos system, which is today the only practical satellite system available to monitor and track..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 52 - Bird tracking and Argos-2 enhancements
    Descriptive info: Paul W.. Howey, Ph.. D.. President Microwave Telemetry.. Columbia, MD, USA.. (1) 410-290-8672.. Fax (1) 410-290-8847.. microwt@aol.. Bird tracking.. and Argos-2 enhancements.. Since 1991 Microwave Telemetry has been supplying miniature Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) designed especially for tracking migratory birds with Argos.. Back then, the lightest PTT that we produced weighed 95 grams.. This version is still being used by many researchers to globally track large birds weighing in the 3 kg and greater range, e.. g.. large eagles.. (The weight of the PTT limits the species that can be tracked as it is generally considered that the package should not weigh more than 3-5% of the weight of the bird.. ).. It has always been our goal to continually reduce the weight of our ptts using the latest miniature components and power sources.. In 1994, we converted the electronic module to a hybrid circuit that weighs only 3.. 5 grams and, along with new batteries, this allowed us to produce PTTs that weigh less than 30 grams.. Recently by incorporating new power supply circuitry we have been able to produce an even smaller ptt, the PICO-PTT100 that weighs a little under 20 grams (Figure 1).. Figure 1: PICO-PTT100,.. weight 20 grams.. These tiny PTTs have opened up the ability to research the movements of many species which, until now were quite mysterious.. Dr.. Bill Seegar and his colleagues attached the first two PICO PTTs to male Peregrine falcons on Padre Island on the Gulf coast of Texas in April 1996.. Figure 2 shows the movements of these two birds.. PTT id 11978 was programmed to last 3 months while id 5696 was set to less intense duty cycles to follow the bird for a longer period.. The map is self explanatory and shows what can be achieved with the present system.. Figure 2:.. Movements of two male peregrine falcons radiotagged with PTTs on Padre Island, Texas, during spring migration, 1995.. Individuals are identified by different colored symbols; direction of travel (northward and southward migration) is indicated by the direction of the arrow on the symbol.. The advent of the enhanced Argos-2 equipment aboard NOAA-K, that is due to be launched in 1998, may allow us to further reduce the PTT weight and so make it possible to track even smaller species of birds.. Improved Receiver Sensitivity and Its Implications.. We have concluded over the years that with the present generation satellites  ...   would probably not allow for a significant reduction in the weight of the ptt electronics, which already weigh only 3.. 5 grams, but it should allow the use of lighter power sources.. This could potentially reduce the minimum ptt weight by up to 6 grams.. PTTs with such a reduction in power level however may not be suitable for use in all parts of the world.. Observations indicate that in some areas, especially Western Europe, receiver sensitivity is effectively limited by the background RF noise level emitting from the radio sources on the ground below.. The weak signals from these tiny PTTs might not be heard above this background noise.. However in radio quiet areas, very low power (50 mW) ptts should allow the tracking of many new species.. Increased Receiver Bandwidth.. It is proposed that the Argos-2 receiver's 80 kHz bandwidth be split into 2 sub-bands, one of which will be reserved for low power transmitters.. Along with the increased receiver sensitivity this should be an advantage for tracking low power ptts.. At the present time the signals from the low power PTTs compete for DRU (Data Recovery Unit) assignment on board the satellite.. A higher signal strength transmission emitting from a high power ptt may pre-empt assignment to a dru of a weaker signal from a low power ptt at the same received frequency.. Hence by assigning this separate sub-band for low power ptts the competition for drus will be purely between low power ptts and hence, the assignment will become unbiased.. The addition of 4 extra DRUs will also obviously help in recovering more uplinks especially in more PTT populated areas.. During the time while NOAA-K is in operation alongside the first generation satellites, we will have the opportunity to explore the possibilities of this low power sub-band; however transmitters set up to operate in this band will not be able to be received by the current satellites.. At first, this may seem a disadvantage; however it may also be a unique opportunity to track some very low power PTTs while the sub-band is very quiet.. We are looking forward to trying these advanced features of Argos-2 and hopefully using this unique asset to solve the mysteries of the movements of some of the world's smaller birds.. Argos Users Jim Dayton (left) and Bill Seegar (right) with Jeff Wingenroth of Service Argos, Inc.. and peregrine falcons on Chincoteague Island..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Spectacled eider tracking in the Bering and Chukchi Seas, Alaska and Russia
    Descriptive info: Argos Newsletter N° 51 - August 1996.. Margaret R.. Petersen.. Alaska Science Center.. National Biological Service.. Anchorage, Alaska, USA.. Margaret_Petersen@nbs.. gov.. Spectacled eider tracking.. in the Bering.. and Chukchi Seas, Alaska.. and Russia.. One of the last big mysteries of North American waterfowl has been the location of molting and winter-ing areas of the Spectacled Eider (.. Somateria fischeri.. It is even more mysterious since Spectacled Eiders spend nine to eleven months (females and males, respectively) at-sea, and flocks of birds have not been reported.. In the 1970s a U.. S.. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologist studying the birds in Alaska (Christian P.. Dau, Bethel, Alaska) suggested that a study be initiated using satellite telemetry to learn their at-sea distribution.. However, funding was not available nor were transmitters small enough (30 to 40 g) to place on birds weighing from 1000 to 1500 g.. Conventional telemetry to find areas where birds concentrate in winter somewhere in the Bering Sea was impractical because of the great expense and the high personal risk of flying small airplanes there.. In winter the amount of daylight is markedly reduced at 58 to 65 N latitude, winter storms are frequent and often unpredictable, and fog often blan-kets the area.. When it was shown that between the 1970s and 1990s nesting populations had dropped by 96% on the major nesting area in western Alaska, the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.. It was possible that some change in habitat or some perturbation at-sea could have contributed to the decline, especially considering they spend most of their life at sea.. Without the basic dis-tribution information no assessment was possible.. As a result I initiated a study using satellite Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) as an aid to determining the at-sea distribution of Spectacled Eiders.. By the early 1990s small PTTs were in use by biologists studying birds in many locations throughout the world.. Those transmitters were large ( 45 g) and attached by back-pack harnesses, glued to the feathers, or attached to neck col-lars.. These techniques were inappropri-ate for diving ducks because of delete-rious changes in their behavior with those attachment techniques.. Because of this behavioral response, we decided to imp-lant the transmitters.. This technique was being developed by C.. E.. Korschgen (U.. National Biological Service, La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA) and success-fully used on diving ducks.. By 1993 a PTT transmitter weighing 30 g, which could be hermetically sealed and was small enough to fit in the body cavity of an eider, had just been developed and tested by Paul W.. Howey (Telemetry 2000, USA).. In 1993 we deployed 12 PTT transmitters in western Alaska, in 1994 22 PTT transmitters in western Alaska, and in 1995 30 PTT transmitters in Russia (10) and western and  ...   next two seasons, from the PTT locations and the data gathered from aerial surveys in Russia and Alaska, we delineated:.. molting areas at two locations (one not surveyed) in Russia used by males from Russia and western Alaska.. a molting area off northwestern Alaska used by males.. a molting area used by females from western Alaska.. use of some of these molting areas by females from northern Alaska.. the area where birds from all nesting areas congregate in early winter.. The 1994 aerial survey in waters off eastern Russia was very successful.. The FWS biologists received good co-operation from the Russian officials and found a large ( 10,000) concentration of birds.. They attempted to duplicate the effort in 1995 with the hope to expand into the areas off northern Russia where we suspected many males molted.. The political climate and spirit of cooperation at some regional and local levels had changed by 1995, however, and only part of eastern Russia was surveyed.. From the surveys conducted at-sea, it became clear why few observations of molting or staging Spectacled Eiders had been recorded.. These birds congregate in very dense flocks far from land, they frequent areas few vessels visit in summer and fall (and none in winter), and they are easily missed if the survey plane is not within a few km of a flock.. The birds are far from land and beyond the distance usually flown by single engine aircraft.. Although by fall 1994 we knew much more than before about the at-sea distribution of eiders, we still did not know where birds were in midwinter (January-March).. It was not until February 1995 when a single location was received from a bird from what seemed the middle of the pack ice in the Bering Sea.. Based on that location, Bill Larned flew to that general area and located dense flocks of Spectacled Eiders in holes in the pack ice north-east of St.. Matthew Island, Alaska.. Bill flew again in March, and he photographed tens of thousands of eiders.. At long last, we believe we have found the primary wintering area of Spectacled Eiders.. As of late winter 1996, surveys have been delayed for four weeks because of weather and mechanical problems.. The plan is to survey the wintering area located in 1995 and adjacent areas.. I expect to deploy transmitters on 12 males and 12 females from the northern Alaska breeding area in summer 1996.. By the time the project is finished, we hope to:.. provide information on the general use of molting and wintering areas over a 4-year period.. identify primary molting, staging, and wintering areas of birds from the three major breeding grounds.. provide the basic information on distribution and abundance needed to begin ecological studies of Spectacled Eiders at-sea..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Chessie the manatee: from Florida to Rhode Island
    Descriptive info: Jim Reid.. Sirenia Biologis.. U.. Department of the Interior.. 412 NE 16th Avenue, Room 250.. Gainesville, FL 32601.. sirenia@nervm.. nerdc.. ufl.. edu.. Chessie the manatee:.. from Florida to Rhode Island.. The Sirenia Project, with the U.. Department of the Interior's National Biological Service (NBS), has been using the Argos location system to track manatees (.. Trichechus manatus.. ) in Florida since 1985.. Their research has documented manatee movements and local use areas, including manatee use of winter aggregatic sites in Florida and Georgia.. In 1995, they also used Service Argos to track a manatee named Chessie from Florida to Rhode Island.. Chessie first gained the public's attention in the fall of 1994 after he was captured in the Maryland waters of the Chesapeake Bay.. This area is considered to be outside the normal range for Florida manatees, and sightings north of Georgia are sometimes followed by recovery of carcasses during cold weather.. Chessie was returned to Florida, equipped with an Argos satellite-monitored radio tag, and released near the Kennedy Space Center on October 7, 1994.. That winter he swam to southern Florida, but when the weather warmed, he again began a long trek north.. A buoyant housing containing a PTT was tethered to a belt around the  ...   August 13.. His satellite tag, designed to break free if entangled, detached properly and was recovered off Connecticut on August 22.. Public sightings reported to local marine mammal stranding facilities documented his return south until he was finally seen in Florida on November 16.. Successful Argos satellite monitoring of Chessie's travels has provided a better understanding of manatee migratory behavior.. Chessie set records for Florida manatees both in sustained rate of movement during his three-month journey in 1995 and in overall distance traveled (2000 km).. However, his rate of travel (20 - 35 km per day) and behavior en route were typical for manatees that migrate north during warm weather.. The extremely warm weather during the summer of 1995 increased water temperatures in the northeast, perhaps allowing Chessie to comfortably travel into more northern coastal waters.. Having documented what an individual of this species can achieve, it is likely that moves such as Chessie's have been made by other manatees in the past and may be made again in the future.. Fortunately, Sirenia Project personnel were able to retag Chessie in February of 1996 while he was wintering in southern Florida.. If his tethered transmitter remains attached, Chessie's travels during the summer of 1996 may also be revealed..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Geographical movements of free-ranging male Japanese monkeys
    Descriptive info: Naosuke Itoigawa,.. Tetsuhiro Minami,.. Tadahiro Kanazawa,.. Shinji Imakawa,.. Jun Yasuda.. Department of Comparative.. and Developmental Psychology,.. Faculty of Human Sciences,.. Osaka University.. itoigawa@hus.. osaka-u.. jp.. Geographical movements.. of free-ranging.. male Japanese monkeys.. We have investigated the life histories of Japanese monkeys (.. Macaca fuscata.. ) in a free-ranging group for more than 30 years.. We have known for some time that as juvenile males mature they gradually decrease their interactions with matrilineal relatives in the central area of the group and spend more time in the peripheral area.. Eventually, between the ages of three and eight, most of the young males disappear from their native group.. This facilitates inter-group breeding.. This male exodus is extremely important to understand, because it is the primary source of breed-ing between otherwise genetically-isolated groups.. Our project aims to investigate the geographic movements of such males who gradually peripheralize and exit  ...   of young males with individuals from different groups.. In this project, a TOYOCOM T-2038 PTT was sewn into a cloth belt collar which was put around the neck of an adult male monkey.. Because the experiment area was mostly at the bottom of a valley, and the satellite passes therefore short, the repetition period was changed from the initial setting of 90 seconds to 60 seconds.. A control timer with a 60-hours-off / 12-hours-on duty cycle was connected to the PTT to increase battery lifetime.. Thanks to these changes, the experiment lasted over 120 days beyond the 30-day battery lifetime.. This experiment is the first real effort to accurately record and understand these highly significant activities of male mon-keys.. Our project promises to open en-tirely new avenues of investigation into the life histories of elusive male monkeys, and contribute significantly to the general study of non-human primates..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Green sea turtle tracking in Taiwan
    Descriptive info: I-Jiunn Cheng.. Institute of Marine Biology.. National Taiwan Ocean University.. Taiwan 202, ROC.. b0107@ntou.. twn.. Green sea turtle.. tracking in Taiwan.. The geographic origins of green turtles (.. Chelonia mydas.. ) nesting at Wan-An Island in the Peng-Hu archipelago have been a mystery for centuries.. Every year, ten to fifty turtles come ashore to nest in the summer night, and the hatchlings rush to the sea in the dawn 50 days later.. In 1992, the Republic of China (ROC) Council of Agriculture started a research project to study the biology of the green sea turtle.. This is a joint project in cooperation with zoologist George Balazs, head of marine turtle research at the National Marine Fisheries Service in Honolulu, USA.. Five Telonics Argos transmitters (two ST-6 models in 1994, and three ST-14 in 1995) were used to study the turtles' migration behavior and diving patterns.. All the transmitters operated success- fully.. From the Argos locations, we ob-served post-nesting migration  ...   area of China's eastern seaboard.. Several possible feeding grounds were located.. In addition to the tracking experiment, sensors also allowed us to compare the diving behavior of turtles between the internesting and post-nesting periods.. In general, turtles engaged in internesting activities tended to stay under the water longer, during the daytime, than those already embarked on their post-nesting migration.. However, individual subjects in the two groups spent similar amounts of time underwater each day.. These are very exciting results.. The experiments made headline news in Taiwan, and even in mainland China, in 1994 and 1995.. Several industrial donors featured our tracking studies in their conservation campaigns or advertise-ments.. The success of this project, and massive campaigning for the Year of the Sea Turtle in the Pacific under the South Pacific Regional Environmental Programme, have made the sea turtle a flagship species for wildlife conservation in Taiwan.. More programs to track turtles, and other animals, using Argos transmitters are now planned..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Migration of the Great White Pelican from Europe to Africa
    Descriptive info: Ido Izhaki.. University of Haifa at Oranim,.. Israel.. Migration.. of the Great White Pelican.. from Europe to Africa.. The Great White Pelican (.. Pelecanus onocro-talus.. ) is a large bird (120-180 cm in body length, 7-13 kg body mass) widely distribu-ted in eastern Europe, Asia and Africa.. Pelicans migrate from Europe to Africa in fall, and return to their breeding grounds in Europe in spring.. Israel, despite its small size, is a bottleneck into which all or a large part of the European populations of this species concentrate during fall migration (70,000 individuals per year).. Most stop over in Israel for several days and continue southward to Africa, but several hundred stay for the winter.. While the population size in Africa is relatively stable, their numbers in Europe decreased sharply in the first half of this century due to human activity such as the drainage of natural feeding sites, hunting, etc.. Hence, the aquaculture sites used for intensive fisheries have become their favourite feeding places, either during migration or during  ...   their survival along their migration routes.. One of the questions we are studying is where in Africa most pelicans spend their winter.. We started a very encouraging preliminary satellite-tracking program in January 1995 by attaching a 95-g Microwave Telemetry Inc.. transmitter to a one-year old pelican in its wintering grounds in Israel.. The duty cycle was 48 hours off, 8 hours on.. The pelican left Israel at the end of April 1995, and in five days crossed Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania to reach the Danube.. We tracked it for more than five months as it wandered in the Danube area but stayed away from the breeding colony.. In the first half of October 1995 the pelican left Romania and migrated back to Israel, where it spent its second winter.. The Argos location results again taught us a lot about its winter movements.. The next stage in our program will be to attach transmitters to four pelicans as they continue their migration to Africa, and discover where their wintering grounds are..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Satellite and VHF radio-tracking of black Stroks migrating from Europe to Africa
    Descriptive info: L.. Peske, M.. Bobek,.. F.. Pojer, J.. Simek,.. V.. Mrièk.. Academy of Science.. of the Czech Republic.. peske@site.. cas.. cz.. Satellite and VHF radio-tracking.. of Black Storks,.. migrating from Europe to Africa.. The Black Stork (.. Cicona nigra.. ), a rare and en-dangered species in many countries, has reoccupied central and western Europe in recent decades.. Its westbound drift has revitalized a migration route via Gibraltar.. To gain more information about the species and its migrations, we set up the African Odyssey project, with help from Czech Radio, the National Museum in Prague and many sponsors.. A ground expedition followed one of three Argos+VHF tagged birds from its breeding place near Prague through Germany, France, Spain, Morocco, the Western Sahara and Mauritania to the eastern Senegal/Mali region.. The expedition also tracked the second bird in eastern Chad..  ...   sites between August 24 and September 17, using different migration routes: via Gibraltar, the Dardanelles, and the Bosphorus.. The times and distances on their way to wintering areas were as follows:.. Wintering area.. Numbers of days of the migration.. Straight-line distance (km).. Senegal.. 31.. 4620.. Chad.. 58.. 4350.. Ethiopia.. 101.. 4750.. In the wintering grounds, the birds rested in very restricted areas, using just a few small water bodies.. As the weather became drier, the storks moved further south, the maximum straight line distances from their nests now reaching 4652, 4740 and 5320 km.. While flying over the Sahara, they covered up to 476 km a day.. Daily migration distances were usually between 150 and 350 km.. The birds did not follow the sea coasts but were observed inland, often crossing hilly country and even mountain ranges..

    Original link path: /doc/argos/documents/publications/newsletter/nslan51/black_storks_en.html
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