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    Archived pages: 311 . Archive date: 2014-01.

  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Migration of the barnacle goose from Svalbard to Scotland
    Descriptive info: Argos Newsletter N° 51 - August 1996.. Dr.. A.. J.. Woakes.. School of Biological Sciences.. University of Birmingham.. B15 2TT, UK.. Tel.. 44 (0)121 414 5473.. E-mail:.. woakesaj@novell2.. bham.. ac.. uk.. Migration of the barnacle goose from Svalbard to Scotland.. The barnacle goose (.. Branta leucopsis.. ) is a small grey and white bird weighing less than 2 kg which breeds in the high Arctic and overwinters in coastal Europe.. One British population overwinters in the Solway estuary in southern Scotland and breeds in Svalbard, an island group between 77 and 79 north.. Our present project aims to estimate the energetic costs of breeding in barnacle geese, including the migratory phases of the yearly breeding cycle.. Heart rate and body temperature are recorded by implanted data loggers developed by ourselves.. They are programmed to store 76 days of data with one-minute resolution.. The autumn migration of these birds was also studied using miniature Argos Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) supplied by Microwave Telemetry Inc.. The PTTs weighed 33 g including the harness.. We caught six geese (failed breeders only,  ...   operate continuously for about 30 days, but a multiphase timer allowed optimum use of this restricted lifetime.. The duty cycle varied from low (6 hours on / 250 off) up to continuous transmissions when we expected migration to start.. In our first year, we successfully tracked them on their movements down through Svalbard, a rest on the small island of Byornoya, then along the coast of Norway to Scotland (Fig 1).. In 1995, another six birds were equipped with PTTs, but Microwave modified the timer and triggered it from the internal temperature sensor, as we had noted that the PTT temperature dropped considerably during flight.. In addition, their partners were implanted with data loggers along with a further six successful breeders.. Data from the loggers will not be gathered until the birds are recaptured this summer, but the Argos tracks show again that at least five birds reached Scotland.. The same path was followed as in 1994, although a long period of southerly winds held back the birds from crossing from southern Norway to Scotland.. Migration routes, Sept 94..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 51 - Amazon River Dolphin
    Descriptive info: Tony Martin.. Sea Mammal Research Unit.. Cambridge, UK.. ARM@wpo.. nerc.. Amazon River Dolphin.. A programme of re-search on the little-known boto, or Amazon River Dolphin, was initiated in 1994 as part of a multi-disciplinary study of a flooded rainforest ecosystem within the Mamirau Reserve, central Brazil.. The work is a collaborative venture between the National Institute of Research in Amazonia (INPA) based in Manaus, Brazil and the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) based in Cambridge, UK.. Radio telemetry formed an important part of the research from the outset, initially with VHF frequencies and ground-based automatic receiving stations.. Because the boto is a small cetacean, with adults around 2 metres in length, we chose to use a very compact and simple PTT package.. Rather than modify SMRU's existing design for small whales, our technical team developed a new package, taking into account the relatively minor pressure proofing required (around 10 atmospheres) but also the unfamiliar hazard of potential fouling in vegetation.. The final design was tubular, allowing attachment on the dorsal fin using SMRU's proven technique of  ...   visually both before and after the transmitters had fallen away to look for any evidence of changes in behaviour as a result of carrying the transmitter.. Signals were received for six and eight weeks respectively.. Almost inevitably, uplinks and locations were achieved far less frequently with botos than with the small whales living in high latitudes that have been the main focus of our recent cetacean work.. This is largely due to the much reduced frequency of satellite passes near the equator, the fact that botos surface for a second or less and that they live in narrow waterways bordered by tall, dense rainforest.. On average, usable locations were achieved every 20 hours of transmitter function.. Overall, we consider the results of this initial experiment sufficiently successful to warrant further deployments of transmitters which have been modified in the light of what has been learned.. Despite obvious limitations, due to the behaviour and habitat of this unique animal, Argos-linked transmitters offer the only possibility of tracking dolphins which venture outside their normal and rather small home range..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 48 - Satellite tracking of a juvenile Steller's Sea Eagle
    Descriptive info: Argos Newsletter N° 48 - August 1994.. B.. -U.. Meyburg.. (1).. E.. G.. Lobkov.. (2).. (1) World Working Group on Birds.. of Prey, Wangenheimstr.. 32.. 1000 Berlin 33 - Germany.. (2) Kronotzky Biosphere Reserve.. 684010 Elizovo - Russia.. Reprinted with kind permission.. from The Ibis, vol.. 136, n° 1, 1994.. Satellite tracking.. of a juvenile Steller's Sea Eagle.. The Breeding range of Steller's Sea Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus is confined to narrow strips of coast along the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, together with the forested valleys along the lower reaches of the salmon-rich rivers of these geological basins (Lobkov Neufeldt 1986, Babenko et al.. 1988).. This species, which is one of the most impressive of the world's birds of prey, has naturally always aroused consi-derable interest among ornithologists, the more so since still very little is known of its biology.. The first months after leaving the nest area are the most critical periods in the lives of young raptors.. In all raptor species so far studied in the wild, more than half the birds that fledged died in their first year (Newton 1979).. For practical reasons, adequate and systematic observation or location of individual birds over a long period has not been possible until recently, thereby leaving a large gap in our knowledge.. According to Lobkov Neufeldt (1986), part of the Steller's Sea Eagle population remains to overwinter in the breeding area.. The rest move southwards in autumn.. It is estimated that the major part of the Kamchatkan sub-population (at least 3500 [1985] to 4250 individuals [1986], of which around 80% are adults) does not leave the peninsula but merely moves to its southern part.. Here there is a major point of concentration on the Kurile Lake (Ladigin et al.. 1991).. The chief overwintering areas outside the breeding range are in the south of the Primorski Region on the Kuril Islands and on Sakhalin.. In addition, many birds overwinter on the Japanese island of Hokkaido, particularly on its east coast.. There, for example, around 2200 Steller's Sea Eagles, of which 93% were adults, were recorded in mid-February 1985 (Nakagawa et al.. 1987).. However the progress of individual birds to these overwintering regions has not been followed.. Satellite telemetry is a new technique that has only recently been developed for the location of medium-sized and large birds of prey so as to study their movements (Howey 1992).. In the summer of 1992, within the framework of a World Working Group on Birds of Prey programme (Meyburg et al.. 1993), we undertook a pilot project aimed at investigating the movements of a young Steller's Sea Eagle from the time it left the nest.. The single, fully-feathered nestling was in an eyrie in the Kronotzky Biosphere Reserve, on the River Bormotina near the Semiachik Lagoon (54°10N', 159°59'E) on the east coast of the easternmost part of Russia.. On 8 August, it was fitted with a 95-g satellite Platform Transmitter Terminal, or PTT, I.. D.. No.. 02913, produced by  ...   locations are expected to fall within 1 km.. Up to the time the young eagle left the nest, we received 11 locations of the bird in the nest, including two LC 1, which had this accuracy.. On 23 August, the eagle left the nest aged 89 days (±1 day) (D.. Lämmel, pers.. comm.. ).. After leaving the nest, the bird was observed twice during visits to the neighbourhood, the last time on 23 September.. On one occasion, it was sitting in a tree close to the eyrie.. On the second occasion, it was found 2 km from its nest.. The young eagle showed normal behaviour.. After fledging, the bird remained in the nest area for nearly 2 months, up to 16 October.. Between fledging and departure, it was located 43 times by Argos, six of which were Class 1.. These revealed that it never strayed beyond 3.. 7 km (±1 km) from the nest.. On 20 October, the young Steller's Sea Eagle was located for the first time outside the nest territory and was already near the southern tip of Kamchatka at 52°22'N, 157°45'E, about 280 km southwest of its nest area in a direct line to Cape Lopatka.. On 24 October, the bird was located three times, including one of Class 1.. We expected it to overwinter in Kamchatka, but it had already left the peninsula and was crossing the 65-km-wide Kurile Straits between the islands of Paramushir and Onekotan, about 180 km from the southern tip of Kamchatka.. Lobkov Neufeldt's (1986) supposition that the timing and extent of movement were wholly dependent on the food supply and condition of the ice was thus not confirmed by this bird.. On 28 October, the eagle was twice located further south, on the island of Raikoke, beyond the 90-km-wide Krusen Straits, where it remained up to at least 1 November.. On 5 November, it had already arrived in the south of the island of Simushir, where it was again reported on 9 November.. On 13 November, it was first in the north of Urup Island.. The young eagle had thus covered the 1360 km between its birthplace and Urup Island in 3 weeks.. In all, we received nine locations on this island of the South Kuriles, including one of Class 1.. The Steller's Sea Eagle provided its last location on 21 November at 0604h.. Thereafter we received no further locations.. Up to 30 November, the PTT still sent out signals, but the reception was too poor to provide a location.. Since the condition of the batteries, which had a life expectancy of 2 years, was excellent up to the last emission on 30 November, it has to be assumed that the young eagle met with an early death.. Dr Michael J.. McGrady, Dirk Lämmel, Alexander Ladygin and Kai-Uwe Hartleb kindly assisted in the field.. We also thank Mr.. R.. D.. Chancellor for linguistic help.. Members of the Argos staff (Toulouse) were very helpful in various ways..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 48 - Tracking the migration of the peregrine falcon
    Descriptive info: Paul W.. Howey.. Microwave Telemetry Inc.. ,.. USA.. Tracking the migration.. of the peregrine falcon.. Since we began experimenting with the Argos system in 1983 for the tracking of birds it has been our goal to track the long distance migrations of the Peregrine Falcon,.. Falco peregrinus.. , from its summer habitat in the North American Arctic and Greenland to its wintering grounds, thought to be in Southern South America.. Up until the present time the routes taken by these birds on their fall and spring migrations have remained largely a mystery, especially their movements south of latitude 20 deg.. N.. Their spring migrations northwards do not seem to be simply a reverse of the Fall migration routes.. In order to track these birds PTTs weighing less than 30 grams were needed.. Such a PTT on a 1000 gram bird would be only 3% of its body weight (the generally accepted limit is 5%).. Ideally the PTTs would have a lifetime sufficient to track the fall migration south and the springtime return to the breeding grounds.. In 1984 the first raptor was tracked by the Argos system, a Bald Eagle,.. Haliæetus leucocephalus.. , caught in the northern Chesapeake Bay which migrated south to Florida in the Fall of 1984.. This was achieved by using a PTT that weighed about 200 grams.. Ten years later the weight of the PTTs has been reduced to less than 30 grams.. The Microwave Telemetry PTT 100 transmitter, which has been used over  ...   now in Central Mexico and Nicaragua.. Another two birds tagged on the coast of Virginia, on their way south from the Arctic, are presently in Cuba and north west Argentina where they are overwintering.. As the winter proceeds we hope to continue to monitor the progress of these birds and in the spring watch their return to their summer habitat.. Track taken by two Peregrine falcons tagged with Argos PTTs on Assateague Island Virginia.. One bird is wintering in Western Cuba, the other in North West Argentina.. Data as of Jan 22, 1994 - Falcon of unknown origin.. Date.. Lat.. Deg N-S.. Long Deg.. W.. Grade of fix.. 14 0ct.. 38.. 063.. 75.. 223.. -.. 19 Oct.. 33.. 909.. 77.. 089.. 2.. 23 Oct.. 30.. 155.. 82.. 465.. 0.. 27 Oct.. 22.. 224.. 79.. 763.. 31 Oct.. 20.. 356.. 76.. 354.. 1.. 4 Nov.. 17.. 904.. 115.. 8 Nov.. 12.. 786.. 84.. 096.. 13 Nov.. 11.. 470.. 406.. 17 Nov.. 8.. 988.. 83.. 945.. 21 Nov.. 4.. 548.. 605.. 25 Nov.. 090 S.. 841.. 29 Nov.. 3.. 146.. 87.. 3 Dec.. 219.. 002.. 7 Dec.. 15.. 373.. 73.. 584.. 11 Dec.. 915.. 70.. 171.. 15 Dec.. 25.. 234.. 67.. 320.. |.. 19 Dec.. 251.. 68.. 428.. 24 Dec.. 273.. 476.. 1 Jan 94.. 272.. 377.. | Bird on.. 5 Jan.. 249.. 461.. | Winter habitat.. 9 Jan.. 298.. 438.. 13 Jan.. 358.. 462.. Data points used to construct the Map of the track of Peregrine Falcon ID #05734..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 48 - Tracking the emperor penguin across the pack ice
    Descriptive info: Dr Yvon Le Maho.. Research director, CNRS.. Dr Jean-Paul Gendner.. Research engineer, CNRS.. Centre d'Ecologie et de Physiologie Energétiques, CNRS.. 67087 Strasbourg Cedex.. France.. Tracking the emperor penguin.. across the pack ice.. During the polar night on the coasts of Antarctica, the air temperature falls to minus 50 C, and the wind can reach over 250 km/h.. The chill factor is increased by blizzards.. In thick blizzards and average wind speeds of 125 km/h, ten metric tons of snow per hour blow through a square meter perpendicular to the wind.. And yet in this hostile environment one creature lives and breeds-the emperor penguin.. This bird not only faces more intense cold than any other on Earth, but also survives incredibly long periods without food.. The time the penguins need to spend on the pack ice for breeding keeps them far from the sea, their only source of food.. The male penguin, which incubates the couple's single egg alone, goes for four months without food in mid-winter.. How the emperor penguin has adapted to survive so long without food has gradually been revealed.. However, these penguins do not defend territory, thus greatly reducing their energy outlay since they can maintain body temperature socially.. By huddling together ten to a square meter, emperor penguins cut their energy outlay to a minimum.. However, it remained a mystery how the birds coped with the long trip to the open sea.. After four months without food, male penguins in Adélie Land may be more than 200 km from the open sea when they leave their colony on the stable pack ice between the islands and the Antarctic mainland.. Treadmill tests of energy expenditure have shown that the penguins store enough for no more than about 180 km.. The Argos system has helped us discover how emperor penguins move across the pack ice and through drifting floes.. By overlaying the tracks of  ...   them.. An alternative method is to fit penguins with satellite tags.. Some months after this first success in tracking emperor penguins by satellite, a team led by G.. Kooyman from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego (U.. S.. ) studied emperor penguins from the Cape Washington colony at the start of the southern summer.. These birds swim out to sea, sometimes in loose packs, for food they store in their stomachs and regurgitate later for their young.. The study showed that the round trip on these foraging expeditions can be up to 1500 km.. Dive recorders interfaced to the Toyocom and Telonics transmitters showed that the penguins go down as far as 500 m (fig.. 2).. This means they scan considerable volumes of sea water for food.. 2 - Argos track of an emperor penguin with depth data at dive points.. Dive patterns and depth of sea floor are also shown.. The Argos system has helped us to clear up much of the mystery surrounding the movements of emperor penguins on the pack ice and at sea.. Argos location and data acquisition equipment, with the right sensors, improves our understanding of the penguins' food strategy, making them into valuable assistants for exploring some of the most inaccessible environments on Earth.. They can give us fundamental information about those environments, and indicate changes in marine resources in the Antarctic Ocean.. These changes are important, because we believe that the fragile Antarctic ecosystems will give early notice of major global changes.. Do emperor penguins always feed in the same sea areas, which assumes that the polynyas are fairly stable, or do these areas depend upon ice conditions? How does their food strategy vary as a function of available marine resources? These are just two of the unanswered questions.. Fascinating prospects are opening up as new equipment and techniques are developed in fruitful cooperation between manufacturers and users..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 48 - Satellite tracking of migrating cranes and swans in eastern Asia
    Descriptive info: Hiroyoshi Higuchi.. Research Center.. Wild Bird Society of Japan.. Higashi 2-24-5, Shibuya-ku.. Tokyo 150.. Japan.. Satellite tracking of migrating cranes and swans in eastern Asia.. In order to satellite track migrating cranes and swans, the Wild Bird Society of Japan is cooperating with other research organizations such as the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology (Japan), the Central Research Laboratory of Game management and Nature Reserves (Russia), and the International Crane Foundation (U.. A).. The purpose of the research project is to describe the migration routes and crucial resting, breeding and wintering areas of endangered swans and cranes, and use that knowledge to conserve them and their habitats.. We first attached transmitters in April 1990 to four Whistling Swans,.. Cygnus columbianus.. , at Lake Kuccharo (45.. 1 N, 142.. 3 E) on Hokkaido, the northernmost main island of Japan (Higuchi et al.. 1991 a, b).. The transmitters, developed by the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) Corporation, measured 112 mm x 35 mm x 19 mm, with a 187 mm antenna and mass of 83 g.. Three of the four transmitters were attached to the backs of the swans.. Two were set into leatherette harnesses with Teflon tubes, while one was glued straight onto the swan's back using epoxy resin adhesive.. The fourth transmitter was attached to a collar band, fitted loosely around the neck.. The four swans migrated along similar courses, traveling north via Sakhalin Island, stopping over in the north of that island or around the mouth of the Amur River in Russia.. They spent between several days and nearly a month there before going on.. One swan was successfully tracked to its breeding ground at the mouth of the Kolyma River (68.. 6 N, 161.. 3 E) in Russia.. The batteries lasted for 30, 39, 42, and 46 days, considerably less than the anticipated life expectancy of about 60 days.. The shorter duration may have been due to the long exposure to cold weather in northern areas.. In February 1991, we attached transmitters to five White-naped Cranes,.. Grus vipio.. , in Izumi (32.. 1 N, 130.. 2 E), southern Kyushu, the southernmost main island of Japan.. The shape and size of the transmitters were similar to those used in the above Swan study.. Three of the transmitters were attached to the backs of the cranes using leatherette harnesses with Teflon tubes, while the other two were glued directly onto the crane's back using epoxy resin adhesive.. Harnessing was not totally successful, since the three transmitters harnessed with Teflon tubes fell off after a few days.. The two cranes with glued transmitters migrated north through Tsushima Island (34.. 3 N, 129.. 3 E) and the Korean Peninsula toward the Demilitarized Zone (38.. 2 N, 127.. 2 E) of the North Korean-South Korean border.. They spent more than two weeks in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), but then the batteries became exhausted.. In September 1991, transmitters were attached  ...   areas were the North Korean-South Korean border, some wetlands along the east coast of North Korea, and around Lake Khanka in Russia.. The accumulated tracking distance was 2029, 1820, 2580, and 2290 km for the four White-naped Cranes.. It took 17-42 days to reach their breeding grounds from Izumi, Japan.. 1: Migration routes of five white-naped cranes tracked from Izumi, southern Japan, in 1992.. Higuchi et al.. (1992).. The two Hooded Cranes migrated through the Korean Peninsula and the Sanjiang Plain to around Tyrma (49.. 9 N, 132.. 8 E) and Imeni Poliny Osipenko (53.. 6 N, 135.. 9 E) in south-eastern Russia.. Crucial resting areas were some wetlands along the west coast of South Korea and North Korea, and the Sanjiang Plain.. The accumulated tracking dis-tances for the cranes were 3167 and 3800 km.. It took 32-38 days to reach their breeding grounds from Izumi.. In the two families of White-naped Cranes, the breaking up process of the family was traced.. In one family, the parent and the young separated soon after arriving at the breeding ground (Fig.. 2), while the other family had already broken up during their migration.. 2: Distances between white-naped crane parents and young during the course of migration.. The arrow is when the cranes reached their breeding sites.. It was very impressive to discover, through satellite tracking, that certain country borders, and the DMZ, are crucial for migrating birds.. Those borders were established by people, and so were meaningless for migrating birds.. However, it is very difficult or impos-sible for people to enter or develop such borders and their neighboring areas.. As a consequence, some borders such as the DMZ of the Korean Peninsula are now unofficial sorts of sanctuaries or nature reserves for migrants.. Those areas seem to be getting more and more important for wildlife, because the surrounding areas are being heavily developed.. We are studying the habitat charac-teristics and conservation measures of crucial resting, breeding, and wintering grounds shown in this study.. Landsat data and ecological surveys are used to analyze habitat characteristics.. Cooperative work with researchers and conservationists in many countries will be very important for considering conservation measures which will be derived from this satellite tracking study.. I thank the following colleagues for coworking in the field and the laboratory: Kiyoaki Ozaki, Go Fujita, Jason Minton, Masaki Soma, Noboru Kanmuri, Mutsuyuki Ueta, K.. Golovuskin, Oleg Goroshuko, Vladimir Krever, V.. Ilyashenko, Vladimir Andronov, George Archibald, Jim Harris, Sergei Smirensky and Steven Landfried.. References:.. Higuchi, H.. , Sato, F.. , Matsui, M.. , Soma, M.. , and Kanmuri, N.. 1991a.. Satellite tracking of the migration routes of Whistling Swans Cygnus columbianus.. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 23:6-12.. , and Kohiyama, K.. 1991b.. Satellite tracking of the migration routes of Whistling Swans.. Biotelemetry XI:100-103.. , Ozaki, K.. , Fujita, G.. , Kanmurui, N.. , and Ueta, M.. 1992.. Satellite tracking of the migration routes of cranes from southern Japan.. Strix 1:1-20..

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  • Title: CLS - Argos : Newsletter 48 - Tracking black bears using the Argos system
    Descriptive info: Fred H.. Harrington.. Mount St.. Vincent University.. Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6.. Canada.. Tracking black bears.. using the Argos system.. Black bears (.. Ursus americanus.. ) make excellent subjects for wildlife research.. Ongoing public fasci-nation with bears and their status as a game animal throughout North America have ensured that the species has been well studied.. Their large size and willingness to enter traps have predisposed them to radiotelemetry studies in a variety of habitats.. Until recently, however, black bear researchers were generally of the opinion that the species was dependent on forests of one type or another.. Through my graduate student, Alasdair Veitch, I became involved in a study to change that perception in early 1989.. Our introduction to the barren-ground black bear had come the previous year, while we were involved in studies of caribou in Labrador.. For two years we had travelled with Labrador Regional Biologist Stuart Luttich to the remote and uninhabited north coast of Labrador to deploy and retrieve PTTs from collared caribou on the calving grounds of the George River herd.. Each June we spent several weeks at the Labrador Wildlife Division's research cabin on the shores of Hebron Fiord where, on days unsuited for flying, we could hike and explore the fiord.. Our initial quarry had been a wolf pack that occupied a den about 16 km away.. We were contemplating a shift in research to these wolves once the caribou project was completed and Alasdair had hoped to study wolf and caribou interactions for his PhD.. Unfortunately, we rarely saw any wolves and when we did, they kept far away.. The local black bear population, however, was not as elusive.. We could watch as they travelled around the fiord going about their daily business.. Alasdair recognized that this was a unique population of black bears, the only one that lives north of treeline, and thought that a detailed study of their behaviour and ecology would make an interesting PhD project.. He convinced me to forego the wolves and focus instead on the bears.. Finding the means to study these bears was easy.. Because they are large animals in a treeless landscape, direct observation could yield insights into many aspects of their ecology: each year up to seven months are spent in the field watching bears.. But bears will wander and in a large and unforgiving landscape where most travel would be done on foot, we needed another means to keep track of them.. The standard radio-tracking equipment of black bear biologists, antennae mounted on a truck or fixed-wing aircraft, were not viable options for us, as the nearest roads and aircraft are some 500 km south.. The solution lay with satellite telemetry, and sitting in my office were enough used PTTs from our caribou studies to outfit six bears.. Our initial interest was to find out if bears on the tundra stay there year-round and if so, to determine how large an area each bear requires to eke out a living where both plant and animal foods are patchily distributed and often not abundant where they do occur.. To obtain the locations needed to directly answer these questions, our PTTs were programmed to transmit daily.. We have  ...   activity patterns, we devised a 32-h duty cycle.. Its 8-h transmission period advances 8-h each cycle, so we can collect temperature and short-term activity data throughout the 24-h day, albeit across several different days.. There is a downside to the 32-h cycle, however, because a small part of the transmission period occurs in dead time when no satellites are present overhead.. Our PTTs are likely some of the most widely travelled in the animal tracking business.. The six PTTs were all initially deployed in 1986.. They spent their first three deployments charting the movements and activity of woodland caribou in Labrador and now have been deployed another five years on bears.. They go out on the bears in April, while the bears are still snuggled in their dens, and come off in November once the bears are bedded down again.. Bear winter sleep is ideal for satellite telemetry because the denned period allows us to refurbish PTTs while the bears sleep soundly.. Our experience with PTTs on caribou did not prepare us for everything we have seen with the bears.. We anticipated somewhat poorer performance, as the bears generally keep their heads lower to the ground and prefer the lower elevations within the steep-walled fiord.. Our 73% and 62% success rates for obtaining at least one location per day for bear PTTs on 24-h and 32-h cycles is a big step down from the 97% and 84% success rates we enjoyed on caribou.. But the ability to keep track of wide-ranging bears when no other technique would be feasible more than compensates for a few missing days of data.. The rough treatment bears mete out to the PTTs amazes us.. We remove PTTs that are covered with teeth marks on the canister and tears in the collar belting, evidently inflicted by amorous males mating with collared females.. Dents and scratches are commonplace.. Our premature failure rate of PTTs is about twice as high as for the same PTTs on caribou, and small wonder.. One PTT deployed on an adult male went off the air within hours of its deployment.. I alerted Alasdair to the situation via HF radio and he soon located it not far from the capture site.. All that remained was the PTT lying mutely on the snow alongside a set of bear tracks.. The bear had ripped the collar belting completely through and thrown it off its neck.. That male certainly did not take kindly to ARGOS's intrusion into his daily routine!.. Over the past five years, however, sufficient PTTs have functioned long enough on these barren-ground black bears to allow us to understand many aspects of their behaviour and ecology in a way that would not have been possible prior to the advent of satellite tracking.. Our combination of traditional fieldwork with high tech satellite tracking has given us a unique glimpse into the ways these black bears use this harsh environment.. We plan to continue our studies on the bears and other wildlife species of the tundra in northern Labrador to gain further understanding about this remote and magnificent wilderness, and we look forward to improvements in existing technology and development of new technologies that will assist in this quest..

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  • Title: News - Argos
    Descriptive info: Home.. Information.. News.. News.. 10-2013:.. Learn more.. 08-2013:.. Tracking sea turtles in Brazil via the Argos system.. Sea turtles, are highly migratory, have a complex life cycle and use a wide range of habitats.. All five turtle species found along the Brazilian coast are endangered.. 09-2012:.. Argos and the Pacific white sharks.. White sharks are currently threatened all over the world, and the general public does not know enough about their behavior and evolution.. 03-2012:.. The mystery of Swiss black kits.. Black kites are very mysterious birds.. 02-2012:.. Reintroducing bison in Russia s Bryansk forest.. The population of European bison has continuously decreased throughout the 20.. th.. century.. Today, many scientists are trying to reintroduce the species in Russia.. 01-2012:.. Mini-drifters: A breakthrough in coastal Oceanography.. Nomad Science company has developed a new concept for measuring ocean currents in Japanese coastal zones.. Argos sheds light on migration of Cuckoos’ from Britain to Africa.. Thanks to the Argos satellite system and the 5g tag, the species can be tracked as  ...   views of the mystical Mount Daisen.. Located on the northwest side of Japan, this unique coastline has become increasingly polluted.. Large amounts of solid waste are drifting to shore and polluting the Sea of Japan, coming from domestic island areas as well as foreign countries.. 09-2010:.. Samson, the short-toed eagle, takes flight.. In September 2009 , a young, short-toed eagle, named Samson, arrived at the.. ATHENAS rehabilitation center.. in the Lons-le-Saunier region of France.. The young eagle suffered from retarded feather development and notably had no flight feathers.. This handicap would prevent the young eagle from flying freely and pursing his migration route towards Subsaharan Africa.. 03-2010:.. Max the stork caught cheating.. After spending the winter in Spain, famous marked stork "Max" has returned to her nest in Tüfingen, near Lake Constance, Germany on February 21th.. Only to discover that her nest was occupied by an unknown male stork.. 02-2010:.. Tracking Dutch purple herons.. The Argos satellite system is an important tool used by scientists to study purple herons..

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  • Title: Forum - Argos
    Descriptive info: Accueil.. Forum.. Forum.. Argos forum #77.. - Les oiseaux et ARGOS, un voyage autour du monde.. - Comprendre les déplacements des urubus à tête rouge le long des côtes équatoriales,.. - Suivre les cacatoès à rectrices blanches dans l ouest australien,.. - Dispersion natale des grands-ducs d Europe: un projet à l échelle européenne.. - Etudier les marabouts d Afrique autour du bassin du la Victoria,.. - Suivre l évolution spatio-temporelle des pigeons ramiers en Europe.. - Traversée ou détours? Etudier la stratégie migratoire des bondrées orientales en Asie de l est,.. - Concours NorthStar : présentation des deux projets gagnants.. - Zoom sur :le suivi de percnoptères au Moyen-Orient.. - Nouveautés produits : ARGOS-3 HD : transmission d’images jpeg en complément des données météorologiques.. GONIOMÈTRE RXG-134 : outil portatif indispensable à la récupération d émetteurs ARGOS sur le terrain.. Argos forum #76.. - Amérique du Sud.. PROGRAMMES UTILISATEURS.. - Esquisser les contours de l habitat des Harpies féroces en Amazonie brésilienne.. - Ecologie spatiale des vigognes dans l altiplano chilien.. - Suivre les tortues marines au Brésil.. - Approfondir les connaissances hydrologiques en Guyane française.. - Lever le voile sur les déplacements et migration de la baleine à bosse zoom sur le Sud-Ouest de l Océan Atlantique.. - Préserver les requins à l aide de nouveaux instruments en Patagonie.. Argos forum #75.. - Océan Indien.. - Lever le mystère sur la migration des tortues marines dans l Ouest de l Océan Indien.. - Un éclairage nouveau sur la ZMO de la mer d Oman grâce aux données Argo relatives à l oxygène.. - L étude des requins baleines dans l Océan Indien oriental.. - Gestion durable du thon au nord de l Océan Indien.. - Le programme Argo dans l Océan Indien.. Argos forum #74.. - Mise en place, gestion et évaluation des espaces marins protégés avec Argos.. Les vagabonds de l Océan.. Les aires d alimentation des oiseaux marins, indicateurs d aires marines à protéger en priorité.. Des plumes et des balises Argos.. Les requins de l aire marine protégée des Galapagos.. les tortues marines suivies à la trace.. Argos forum #73.. - Argos traque les pollutions.. Tsunami : suivi des débris marins.. Une nouvelle technique de suivi pour les grèbes élégants touchés par des pollutions hydrocarbures.. Les îles poubelles : 28 ans de données Argos pour comprendre un tel phénomène ?.. La marée verte chinoise sous l’oeil d’Argos.. Les plus d Argos-3 : le projet pilote DBCP livre ses résultats.. Argos forum #72.. - Mesurer en conditions extrêmes.. Déplacements saisonniers et utilisation de l’habitat chez les bélugas de la mer d’Okhotsk.. Le programme Argo pour l’océan Austral la dernière frontière.. Observations du réseau ROSAME dans l’océan Austral et en Antarctique.. ARGOS-3 au pôle nord.. Plus de positions et une meilleure précision pour les flotteurs Argo !.. Argos forum #71.. - Quand la faune rencontre l homme.. Comprendre la dispersion potentielle du virus HPAI H5N1 par les oiseaux sauvages migrateurs.. Réduction des risques de collision entre balbuzards pêcheurs et avions.. Effets de la pollution sur les fuligules femelles dans la région des Grands Lacs.. Argos-3 aux Îles Canaries.. Des colliers ultra-robustes pour la Russie.. Argos forum #70.. - Argos Guinness Book.. Max, record de longévité pour un suivi d’oiseau.. L’éléphant, le plus gros animal terrestre jamais suivi par satellite.. Le suivi ARGOS le plus improbable: la méduse géante.. Mission Antarctique - record de température minimale mesurée.. Record absolu de durée de vie pour une bouée dérivante.. Record de distance pour les ballons plafonnant de couche limite.. Flotteur ARVOR la génération ARGOS-3.. La nouvelle localisation ARGOS: plus de précision.. Argos forum #69.. - 30 years of oceanography with Argos (en anglais).. JCOMMOPS and Argos: 30 years of close cooperation (p 4).. Satellite-derived motion analysis using Argos ice buoys (p 6).. A short history of the surface velocity program drifter (SVP) (p 8).. JAMSTEC s m-TRITON: high-speed data transmission (p 10).. News: Exciting results for the ARGOS-3 DBCP pilot project (p 11).. Argos forum #68.. - 30 years of wildlife tracking with Argos (en anglais).. Satellite tracking and avian conservation in Asia (p 4).. Tracking marine mammals over the seas and under the waves (p 6).. Tracking Canada s caribou with Argos (p 8).. Happy thirtieth birthday Argos! (p 10).. News: Enhancing underwater geolocation with Track Loc: a service dedicated to archival tag data processing (p 11).. Poster (p 1, p 2).. Argos forum #67.. - New tools for operational oceanography (en anglais).. Moored Buoy networks: the key to understanding the tropical oceans (p 4).. ARGO: a global ocean observing system for climate research  ...   Buoy (SLDMB) (p 4).. Ressources en eau et expériences de télérelève de niveau d’eau (p 8).. Ressources en eau et applications humanitaires (p 14).. Projets : VR3-Argos déployés dans le cadre du projet FADIO (p 18).. Projets : Des appareils de surveillance de l’activité pélagique (p 18).. Actualités : ArgoNautica : Argos et l’Éducation (p 19).. Actualités : Argos Web (p 19).. Argos forum #61.. - Reporters des grands fonds.. Le projet Argo : Système d’observation océanique in situ du 21e siècle (p 4).. Les éléphants de mer prédateurs et “océanographes” de l océan Austral (p 8).. Signals of Spring les enfants ont accès aux données Argos (p 14).. Projects: La nouvelle KiwiSat PTT-202 de Sirtrack (p 18).. Projects: Argonautica : projet éducatif (p 18).. News: Argos data on-line, accès aux données Argos via le web (p 19).. News: CLS annonce l’ouverture d’un nouveau bureau en Indonésie (p 19).. Argos forum #60.. - Nouvelles perspectives.. Système Argos pour le suivi de l’alimentation scolaire (p 4).. Reduire les collisions entre les véhicules et la faune (p.. 8).. Des animaux comme instruments de mesure océanographique (p.. 13).. Projets : L’OPSCOM participe à un équipement de Cigogne (p 18).. Actualités : La nouvelle balise bi-directionnelle Argos (p.. 19).. Argos forum #59.. - Observation des océans.. Etude de la circulation océanique globale grâce à des flotteurs profileurs (p 5).. MINOS une mini station automatique pour navires d’opportunité (p 9).. Bouées dérivantes en Mer Noire : résultats et perspectives (p 12).. Projet : “Smart Buoy” : possibilités et avantages (p 18).. Actualités : Mise au point d un émetteur GPS-Argos PTT pour le suivi des animaux marins (p 19).. Argos forum #58.. - Spécial suivi d animaux.. L interface utilisateur Argos (p 3).. Suivi de tortues vertes dans le Golfe du Mexique (p 5).. Suivi par satellite de l aigle Pyargue de Stellar en Russie Orientale (p 9).. Le Faucon sacré de Mongolie : migratuer, nomade ou sédentaire ? (p 11).. North Star Science and Technology, LLC propose de petits émetteurs aérodynamiques pour les oiseaux et de nouveaux colliers (p 13).. Emetteur de Microwave Telemetry en Europe: Argos 2 et SiVTM.. Emetteur solaire PTT-100 de 18 g.. Nouvelle version de l émetteur enregistreur (Pop-Up) pour le suivi de poissons (p 15).. Argos forum #57.. - Des balises Argos sur l océan gélé.. Des bouées Argos sur l océan gelé (p 3).. Le Programme international des bouées Arctiques (p 5).. Le Programme international pour les bouées Antarctiques (p 9).. ICEXAIR - L artisan infatigable de la surveillance du climat en Arctique (p 13).. Argos forum #56.. - Innovations pour le suivi des animaux.. Étaler les fréquence des émetteurs pour mieux transmettre (p 3).. Observation des migrations du thon rouge de l’Atlantique grâce à la technologie ML (marqueur largable) (p 5).. Observation des albatros en Géorgie du Sud (p 9).. Suivi de tortue verte dans l’océan Indien (p 11).. North Star Science and Technology, LLC se lance sur le marché du suivi d’animaux (p 13).. Innovations de Microwave Telemetry, Inc.. (p 15).. KiwiSat PTT-101 de Sirtrack (p 15).. Argos forum #55.. - Transmettre plus et mieux.. Le VSI surveille les volcans en permanence (p 5).. Transmission des données des bouées TRITON via Argos (p 9).. Bouée autonome de localisation (p 13).. Utilisation efficace des messages Argos sur les bouées dérivantes (p 13).. Argos forum #54.. - Argos, la mission continue.. Bouées de surface et système Argos (p 5).. Argos: le futur d un grand outil face à des enjeux scientifiques majeures (p 9).. Argos et GPS (p 11).. Contribution d Argos à l étude d El Niño (p 13).. Vers une nouvelle interface Argos et des capacités de traitement accrues : Argos 2001 (p 15).. Bidirectionnalité du système Argos : Questions fréquemment posées (p 17).. Meilleure réception de signaux montants de faible puissance (p 21).. PopUp Satellite Tag pour le suivi de poissons (p 23).. Emetteur Smart Position-Only Transmitting (SPOT) (p 23).. Newsletter #53.. Editorial.. The Global Drifter Center at NOAA/AOML.. WOCE Works the Web.. The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array World Wide Web Site.. Polar Science Center International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP).. The Migration Route Satellite-tracked by ArgoSat NTT.. Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species.. Data Buoy Cooperation Panel.. The.. Centre de Météorologie Marine.. Web site.. Argos on the World Wide Web.. Seimac.. Newsletter #52.. Tracking elephant seals.. The effect of Argos system enhancements on wildlife tracking.. Bird tracking.. Newsletter #51.. Spectacled eider.. Manatee.. Male Japanese monkeys.. Green sea turtle.. Great White Pelican.. Black storks.. Barnacle goose.. Newsletter #48.. Steller's Sea Eagle.. Peregrine falcon.. Emperor penguin.. Cranes and swans.. Black bears.. English..

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  • Title: Flash - Argos
    Descriptive info: Flash.. Flash.. #25 - ArgosFlash #25.. -Accédez à un an de données archivées via ArgosWeb : c est rapide et facile !.. -Retrouvez vos plates-formes sur le terrain avec le nouveau goniomètre de CLS.. -Les données archivées disponibles immédiatement avec ArgosWeb.. -Comment exporter les trajectoires d’ArgosWeb sur Google Earth directement ?.. -Améliorer la couverture en temps-réel : un travail en continu !.. -FAQ : Comment télécharger mes informations de trajectoires depuis ArgosWeb ?.. -Une mise à jour complète de la station de récéption du Tahiti.. #24 - Mai 2013.. - Lancement de deux nouveaux satellites : METOP-B et SARAL.. - Nouveau Goniomètre.. - CLS se dote d une nouvelle infrastructure.. - FAQs.. - Les avantages du WebService ARGOS pour accéder à ses données.. #23 - Juin 2012.. - Filtrer la distribution des localisations de vos plates-formes en fonction de leur précision.. - La mise en place d un filtre sur Argos Web pour optimiser le tracé des trajectoires.. - Argos: un service de distribution de données performant.. - En bref: consultez et payez vos factures Argos en ligne.. #22 - décembre 2011.. -Soyez notifiés dès le changement de statut ou d’activité de votre plate-forme Argos.. -ArgosWeb: L’export des ellipses d’erreur vers Google Earth.. -Améliorer les délais de distribution de données.. -FAQ: Comment utiliser les informations fournies par l’ellipse d’erreur ?.. -En bref: De nouveaux satellites Argos-3 en 2012.. #21 - Juillet 2011.. - Les données ARGOS au format XML.. - Près de 70% des plates-formes ARGOS bénéficient du filtrage de Kalman.. - Rappel : rendez vos numéros IDs non-utilisés et n oubliez pas les numéros ID à 6 chiffres !.. - FAQ: Quelle est la précision des localisations de Classe B calculées à partir d’un seul message avec le filtre de Kalman?.. - En bref : Deuxième station globale METOP opérationnelle en Antarctique.. #20 - Février 2011.. - A vous de choisir l’algorithme de localisation Argos !.. - Le filtre de Kalman ou moindres carrés : un aperçu.. - Retraitement de vos localisations avec le nouvel algorithme de Kalman.. - FAQ: Je souhaite appliquer l’algorithme de traitement basé sur le filtre de Kalman pour les plates-formes d’un programme existant.. Comment dois-je faire ?.. - En bref : Bienvenue à 4 nouvelles stations de réception !.. #19 - Septembre 2010.. - Edition spéciale : La localisation Argos au meilleur de sa forme !.. - Océanographe ou biologiste, vos données sont améliorées….. - Plus de positions, plus de précision.. - FAQ: Quel est l’impact de la nouvelle localisation sur la distribution de mes données ?.. - Zoom sur la méthode : Un algorithme de localisation basé sur un filtrage de Kalman.. #18 - Mai 2010.. - Le système Argos-3 fonctionne toujours à 100 %.. - Un nouveau mode de distribution des données Argos.. - Votre SUA et demande de numéro ID en ligne.. - FAQ: Comment choisir sa période de transmission optimale ?.. - En bref:.. - Un nouvel algorithme de localisation par effet doppler.. #17 - Février 2010.. - Numéros d identification 6 digits: compatibilité à tester dès à présent.. - Etude sur les tortues de mer.. - Les dernières nouvelles sur Argos-3.. - FAQ: Puis-je partager mes données dans ArgosWeb ?.. - Quoi de neuf sur ArgosWeb ?.. #16 - Septembre 2009.. - Des résultats positifs pour les projets pilotes Argos-3!.. - Le service MBM-GPS : un nouveau service pour surveiller vos plates-formes.. - FAQ: Mon logiciel de traitement des données Argos est-il compatible aux N° ID à 6 digits?.. - Le système Argos fête ses 30 ans.. - Projet de web service Argos.. #15 - Juin 2009.. - Deuxième système Argos-3 opérationnel sur NOAA-19.. - L intégration de la PMT Argos-3 avance.. - Attention  ...   démarré.. - FAQ: Avec quel navigateur web pourraisje ouvrir ArgosWeb ?.. - En bref: Optimiser le traitement des données - Les caractéristiques de la nouvelle chaîne de traitement Argos - Enquête de satisfaction client.. #9 - Octobre 2006.. - ArgosWeb : pour accéder à vos données via un site Internet sécurisé.. - Les premières PMTs sont prêtes pour Argos-3.. - FAQ: Est-ce qu’ArgosWeb est compatible avec PC, Mac et Linux ? Comment puis-je obtenir un nom d’utilisateur et un mot de passe pour le nouveau site web ? J’ai de nombreux programmes et données.. Puis-je utiliser ArgosWeb ?.. - En bref: Préparation pour la nouvelle génération d’Argos, mise à jour des stations sols - Remise à neuf du réseau de balises d’orbitographie - Qualification opérationnelle des traitements des données Argos-3.. #8 - Mars 2006.. - Easier data access and better data management.. - ArgosShare: Automatically share your data with colleagues by program, platform, time interval or geographic areas.. - Argos-3 on MetOp.. Join our test program! - CLS AMERICA: Brand New.. with 20 Years of heritage.. - FAQ: What s the impact of the maximum speed of my platform, which value should I give?.. - En bref: How can I turn in any unusued ID numbers to avoid fees? - How can I add new ID numbers to an existing program? - Monthly Data Bank.. #7 - Octobre 2005.. - An easier data access and management.. - ArgosDirect: your data directly at your desk.. - NOAA-N (NOAA-18) the constellation grows.. - FAQ: Does accuracy increase with the number of received messages?.. - En bref: 2 new antennas - International Argos User Conference.. #6 - Juin 2004.. - Étalement de la fréquence Argos.. - Améliorer la localisation grâce à une meilleure estimation de l’altitude.. - Accord d’utilisation du système Argos (SUA) : renouvellement.. - FAQ: Quelle est la signification des classes de localisation ?.. - En bref: Fin d’un programme, Numéros d’identification non-utilisés - Mise à jour de vos coordonnées - Satellite NOAA-11 (H) désactivé - Nouvelle filiale à Djakarta.. #5 - Décembre 2003.. - L avenir d Argos, capacités et constellation.. - Recevoir ses données chiffrées.. FAQ: Que dois-je faire si ma plate-forme n émet que 2 ou 3 messages par passage satellite?.. Ai-je besoin du service Localisation Plus ?.. En bref: Nouvelles antennes, Michel Cazenave prend sa retraite, Information.. #4 - Juillet 2003.. - Les données Argos disponibles en ligne sur le web.. - Feu vert pour ADEOS-II !.. - FAQ: Pourquoi utiliser le GPS ?.. - En bref: Nouvelle antenne, Symposium sur le suivi d’animaux par satellite : un véritable succès !!.. #3 - Janvier 2003.. - Lancement réussi pour Adeos-II.. - Apports de la voie descendante Argos à l’utilisateur.. - FAQ: Comment utiliser un GPS avec Argos ?.. - En bref: Symposium sur le suivi d’animaux, Migrateurs sans frontières.. #2 - Septembre 2002.. - Lle lancement de NOAA-M.. - Symposium sur le suivi des animaux par satellite.. - NOAA, ADEOS-II Orbites Satellitaires.. - Le terminal d’émission–réception et Argos bidirectionnel.. - FAQ: Comment fonctionne la localisation Argos par effet Doppler?.. - En bref: Lancement réussi de la fusée japonaise, Solitaire du Figaro du 4 au 29 août.. #1 - mai 2002.. - Nouveau numéro… Nouvelle maquette.. - Le système Argos 2 avantages.. - Traitement capteurs priorité aux déclarations Bureau Utilisateurs.. - FAQ: Comment localiser ma plateforme?.. - En bref: Mission banquise, Nautisme, Oceanology International.. Février 2001.. - NOAA-L operational.. - New customer service Departement at CLS.. - In brief: Argos user s manual on cd-rom, International users conference hosted by Service Argos Inc.. Août 2001.. - Argos downlink is rapidly approching.. - In brief:Argos Brochure, NASDA successfully launched H-IIA, Upcoming shows and conferences..

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  • Title: Actualité - Argos
    Descriptive info: Actualités.. Actualité.. Le saviez-vous ?.. La harpie féroce utilise la cime des arbres pour nidifier et elle chasse dans cette strate forestière, principalement des mammifères arboricoles, comme plusieurs espèces de paresseux (Bradypus spp.. et Choloepus spp.. ), de singes (par exemple, Cebus spp.. et Alouatta spp.. ) et de porcs-épics (Coendou spp.. Les oiseaux et reptiles font aussi partie de son régime alimentaire, mais en moindre proportion.. Actualité.. Mieux comprendre et préserver les harpies féroces en Amazonie.. A l’origine, on pouvait apercevoir la Harpie Féroce au Mexique, en Amérique centrale et en Amérique du Sud.. Cette espèce a vu sa population réduite à seulement quelques couples dans plusieurs de ces régions et, est tenue pour éteinte dans d'autres.. Aujourd’hui harpie est considérée par l’IUCN (Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature) comme une espèce proche de l'extinction.. C'est en Amérique du Sud, et tout particulièrement dans la forêt amazonienne, qu'elle trouve refuge et parvient à maintenir le renouvellement de ses populations.. Comprendre le comportement de l’espèce.. En 2012, Helena Aguiar-Silva débute ses travaux de doctorat dans l'idée d'installer dix balises radios-émetteurs sur des harpies adultes qui  ...   leurs nids puis équipées d’émetteurs satellite couplés à des capteurs d'altitude et de vitesse, que l’on attache comme des sacs à dos.. Les résultats obtenus grâce au suivi Argos.. D’après les premières analyses, l'individu solitaire, donc pas encore adulte ni en couple, se déplace à travers la forêt à la recherche de proies ; il parcourt près de 6,7 km/mois, utilise une aire de 111 km²/an et revient dans certaines zones au cours de différents mois, sans toutefois établir de territoire (carte).. Nous observons aussi que cet individu vit le plus fréquemment en lisière de forêt, ce qui suggère un comportement de chasse puisque sa principale proie, les paresseux, vit en lisière de forêt et dans la canopée.. En 2013 et 2014, d'autres spécimens de cette espèce seront équipés de balises Argos : des individus reproducteurs sauvages et des individus blessés qui, une fois secourus, présentent un potentiel de réintroduction dans la nature après réhabilitation.. Retour à la liste d'actualités.. Contacts :.. Francisca Helena Aguiar-Silva, INPA.. aguiarsilva.. fh@gmail.. com.. Tânia M.. Sanaiotti, INPA.. tania.. sanaiotti@gmail.. En savoir plus :.. gaviaoreal.. inpa.. gov.. br.. ProgramaDeConservacaoDoGaviaoReal.. www.. ibama.. br/publicadas/harpia-harpyja-ave-rarissima-e-resgatada-e-entregue-ao-cetas/go..

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