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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Home
    Descriptive info: .. AAAS Science Assessment.. beta.. Home.. About.. FAQ.. Topics.. Publications.. Misconception References.. My Item Bank.. Create Take Tests.. Log In.. or.. Register.. Welcome to the AAAS Project 2061 Science Assessment Website.. NGSS and Science Assessment Featured in AAAS Workshops for 2014.. Join us next year to advance your professional development in key areas of science education:.. Understanding and Using Next Generation Science Learning Goals.. Developing and Using Assessments Aligned to Science Learning Goals.. Visit our workshop page for more details.. The assessment items on this website are the result of more than a decade of research and development by.. Project 2061.. , a long-term science education reform initiative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.. Here you will find free access to more than 600 items.. The items:..  ...   doing in science and where they are having difficulties, broken out by gender, English language learner status, and whether the students are in middle school or high school.. My Item Bank, a feature that allows you to select, save, and print items and answer keys (requires.. site registration.. ).. A feature that allows you to create and take tests online using items from the item collection (requires.. Intended primarily for teachers, these assessment items and resources will also be useful to education researchers, test developers, and anyone who is interested in the performance of middle and high school students in science.. View key ideas, items, and misconceptions by.. browsing the topics.. Copyright 2014.. American Association for the Advancement of Science.. All Rights Reserved.. Read our privacy policy and terms of use..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ About
    Descriptive info: About the assessment items on this website.. The items and other resources available on this site were developed by AAAS Project 2061 with funding from the National Science Foundation.. The items are different from most multiple choice science test items in that they:.. assess students conceptual understanding, not just facts and definitions,.. test for common misconceptions and alternative ideas students have along with their correct ideas.. are precisely aligned to the science ideas they are intended to test.. In addition, data gathered during national field tests provide an up-to-date description of science learning broken out by gender and whether or not English is the student s primary language.. The data also show how much growth has occurred between middle and high school, on what are primarily middle school ideas.. How the items were developed.. Each item has gone through a rigorous  ...   of research on student learning was conducted to identify misconceptions and alternate ideas students have about the targeted ideas.. Clusters of items were written to be closely aligned to the target learning goals, and student misconceptions were included in answer choices.. Items were pilot tested, and written feedback about the items was obtained from students themselves.. Items and target learning goals were reviewed by assessment specialists, scientists, science teachers, and other science educators.. Items were field tested on a large national sample to obtain norming data.. The website presents each item as it appeared in the national field tests and includes student response data indicating the percent correct at each grade level, by gender, and by English or non-English as the students primary language; the misconceptions that are embedded in answer choices; and the distribution of responses from our national sample..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Faq
    Descriptive info: Frequently asked questions.. Who developed the assessment items, and how was the work funded?.. Do the assessment items on the website cover all of the essential middle school science learning goals?.. How many assessment items are available for each science idea?.. In designing the assessment items, how did the developers decide on the specific knowledge and skills that students would be expected to have for each science idea?.. Why does the AAAS science assessment website include only multiple-choice items?.. How were the assessment items piloted and field tested?.. Have the assessment items undergone bias review?.. What makes the assessment items developed for this website particularly useful for diagnostic purposes?.. Do you offer workshops on how to develop assessment items like these or offer technical assistance on a fee-for-service basis?.. What is meant by the boundaries that are described for each sub-idea?.. Am I allowed to use the assessment items on this website in my classroom?.. More than 20 AAAS staff, scores of reviewers, over a thousand teachers, and more than 150,000 students have been involved in this effort since work began in 2004.. The Project 2061 research and development team was led by George DeBoer, principal investigator and deputy director of Project 2061 and by Jo Ellen Roseman, co-principal investigator and director of Project 2061.. A high premium was placed on content accuracy, so item development in each topic area was coordinated by a research associate with a Ph.. D.. in a discipline closely related to that topic area.. At any one time, we typically had one research associate in the physical sciences, one in the earth sciences, and two in the life sciences working on the project.. In addition, all of the programming for the website and for the database where misconceptions, clarification statements, and drafts of items were stored was developed in-house.. Horizon Research, Inc.. , served as evaluator for the project.. A list of contributors (past and present) and their roles appears under.. Acknowledgments.. below.. The work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education in the Education and Human Resources Directorate (ESI grant # 03352473).. (view frequently asked questions).. Providing comprehensive coverage of a content area even for a single grade level was well beyond the scope of this project.. Instead, we wrote assessment items for a small number of key ideas that were fundamental to an understanding of topics widely taught in schools.. Topics such as chemical reactions, interdependence in ecosystems, evolution, plate tectonics, and energy are covered in all state and national standards documents, and the specific knowledge of those topics that we tested is of central importance, but we make no claim that our coverage is comprehensive for any of those topics.. How many assessment items are available for each science idea?.. The range is large.. For example, under the Cells topic, for the key idea that “.. cells in multicellular organisms repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair.. ,” there is only a single item.. But for the key idea that “.. although there are many different types of cells in terms of size, structure, and function, all cells have certain characteristics in common.. ,” there are 31 items.. We did not write assessment items for every aspect of the science ideas we were targeting, and we did not try to provide equal coverage of all of those ideas.. The items that we wrote are meant to illustrate the kinds of test items that could be used diagnostically to find out what students know and the misconceptions they hold.. In designing the assessment items, how did the developers decide on the specific knowledge and skills that students would be expected to have for each science idea?.. One of the most challenging aspects of assessment design is to be as clear as possible about what the expectations are for students.. Before we developed items for each topic, we first identified critical knowledge and skills—what we call key ideas—from the relevant content standards in.. Benchmarks for Science Literacy.. and in.. National Science Education Standards.. We also reviewed the research literature on student learning to identify common misconceptions that students have and the learning problems they encounter with certain science ideas.. With that information in hand, we then selected a set of ideas and crafted them into a coherent story, spelling out as specifically as possible what would be tested by the items, what was beyond the scope of those ideas, and the level  ...   persons are referred to as “student,” “scientist,” etc.. , so a student can assign whatever race, ethnicity, or gender the student wants in his or her own mind.. If a person’s gender is mentioned in an item, approximately the same numbers of items refer to males as females.. Finally, we included data on how well males and females and students whose primary language was and was not English performed on each item so that users of these items could exclude items if they felt a particular subgroup’s score was lower than expected.. What makes the assessment items developed for this website particularly useful for diagnostic purposes?.. The assessment items on this website have been designed using protocols, including multiple levels of expert review, that ensure an extremely close match between an item and a specific science learning goal.. As a result, there is a high probability that students who answer correctly have the knowledge that an item is testing and, conversely, that students who answer incorrectly do not have that knowledge.. Besides the close alignment of the items to the target learning goals, the incorrect answer choices used in the items are based on relevant misconceptions that many students have about the targeted science idea.. When students choose one of these misconceptions as their (incorrect) answer, teachers are better able to diagnose the nature of their students’ learning difficulties and target instruction to overcome those difficulties.. Finally, clustering test items around a key idea and rank ordering the items by how many students in the national field testing answered correctly makes it easy for teachers to see at glance the relative frequency of both the correct ideas and misconceptions and compare those data with the performance of their own students.. We offer a three-day workshop on assessment in which the basic principles of design are described and applied in a hands-on format.. Participants bring test items and target learning goals to the workshop so that they can see how the AAAS Project 2061 procedures can be applied in their own work.. The workshop covers basic ideas about learning goal clarification, the use of misconceptions in test design, close alignment of test items to learning goals, how to make use of student feedback during item development, and elementary statistical procedures including Rasch analysis.. We expect to develop more advanced workshops and offer them in an on-line format in the future.. For more information about the workshops, please contact Mary Koppal at 202 326 6643 or.. mkoppal@aaas.. org.. AAAS Project 2061 also offers technical assistance in the area of diagnostic assessment development to schools and school districts, as well as other educational programs, on a fee-for-service basis.. For more information about technical assistance, please contact George DeBoer at 202 326 6624 or.. gdeboer@aaas.. Just as we use sub-ideas to specify as precisely as possible the knowledge the test items can cover, we use boundary statements to specify what the test items do not cover.. In some cases the knowledge that is excluded may be too technical or too sophisticated for the intended grade level, and in some cases the knowledge that is excluded is tested under another idea.. In no way are we saying that students should not learn what is being excluded, only that we are not testing that idea in this set of test items.. Boundary statements are also used to note any particular conditions or contexts that were taken into account in designing a set of items (e.. g.. , “test items will involve situations in which forces are constant, not situations in which the forces are increasing or decreasing.. ”).. All of the resources on this website, including the items themselves, are intended to be used widely by science teachers and other educators as stated in AAAS’s.. terms of use.. policy (see Section 5: Educational Use of Material on Web Site).. For questions about other uses of the resources, such as requests to include those resources in published materials, please contact Barbara Goldstein at 202 326 6628 or.. bgoldste@aaas.. George E.. DeBoer, Ph.. , Principal Investigator.. Jo Ellen Roseman, Ph.. , Co-Principal Investigator.. Abigail Burrows, Senior Project Coordinator.. Natalie Dubois, Ph.. , Research Associate.. Jean Flanagan, Research Assistant.. Arhonda Gogos, Ph.. Cari Herrmann Abell, Ph.. Ed Krafsur, Technology Specialist.. Mary Koppal, Director of Communications.. Kristen Lennon, Ph.. Alice Lurain, Ph.. An Michaels, Ph.. Karina Nabors, Ph.. David Pollock, Research Assistant.. Tom Regan, Ph.. Brian Sweeney, Manager, Applications Development.. Jill Wertheim, Ph.. Ted Willard, Project Director.. Paula Wilson, Ph.. , Consultant..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Topics
    Descriptive info: Select a topic to browse assessment items and resources.. Select a science topic to see a list of the key ideas for that topic and options for viewing items and additional information and data.. Life Science.. Cells.. Evolution and Natural Selection.. Human Body Systems.. Interdependence in Ecosystems.. Matter and  ...   Atoms, Molecules, and States of Matter.. Energy: Forms, Transformation, Transfer, and Conservation.. Force and Motion.. Substances, Chemical Reactions, and Conservation of Matter.. Earth Science.. Plate Tectonics.. Weather and Climate I: Basic Elements.. Weather and Climate II: Seasonal Differences.. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition.. Nature of Science.. Control of Variables.. Models..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Publications
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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ References
    Descriptive info: AAAS Project 2061 (n.. d.. ) [Pilot and field test data collected between 2006 and 2010].. Unpublished raw data.. Abraham, M.. R.. , Williamson, V.. M.. , Westbrook, S.. L.. (1994).. A cross age study of the understanding of five chemistry concepts.. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.. ,.. 31.. (2), 147 165.. Adeniyi, E.. (1985).. Misconceptions of selected ecological concepts held by some Nigerian students.. Journal of Biological Education.. 19.. (4), 311 316.. Ahtee, M.. , Varjola, I.. (1998).. Students understanding of chemical reaction.. International Journal of Science Education.. 20.. , 305 316.. Ametller, J.. , Pinto, R.. (2002).. Students reading of innovative images of energy at secondary school level.. 24.. (3), 285 312.. Amsel, E.. , Brock, S.. (1996).. The development of evidence evaluation skills.. Cognitive Development.. 11.. , 523 550.. Anderson, C.. W.. , Sheldon, T.. , DuBay, J.. (1986).. The effects of instruction on college non-majors conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis.. (Research Series No.. 164).. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Institute for Research on Teaching.. W.. H.. , J.. DuBay.. (1990).. The effects of instruction on college nonmajors conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis.. 27.. (8): 761 776.. Anderson, D.. L.. , Fisher, K.. M.. , Norman, G.. J.. Development and evaluation of the conceptual inventory of natural selection.. 39.. (10), 952 978.. Andersson, B.. Pupils conceptions of matter and its transformations (age 12 16).. Studies in Science Education.. 18.. , 53 85.. Pupils explanations of some aspects of chemical reactions.. Science Education.. 70.. (5), 549 563.. Arnaudin, M.. , Mintzes, J.. J.. Students alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study.. 69.. (5), 721 733.. The cardiovascular system: Children s conceptions and misconceptions.. Science and Children.. 23.. (5), 48 51.. Aron, R.. , Francek, M.. A.. , Nelson, B.. , Biasrd, W.. Atmospheric misconceptions,.. The Science Teacher.. 61.. (1): 30 33.. Atwood, R.. K.. , Atwood, V.. A.. (1997).. Effects of instruction on preservice elementary teachers conceptions of the causes of night and day and the seasons.. Journal of Science Teacher Education.. 8.. (1), 1 13.. Banet, E.. , Ayuso, E.. (2000).. Teaching genetics at secondary school: a strategy for teaching about the location of inheritance information.. 84.. , 313 351.. Bar, V.. (1989).. Children s views about the water cycle.. 73.. (4): 481 500.. , Galili, I.. Stages of children s views about evaporation.. 16.. (2), 157 174.. , Travis, A.. S.. (1991).. Children s views concerning phase changes.. 28.. (4), 363 382.. Barak, J.. , Sheva, B.. , Gorodetsky, M.. (1999).. As process as it can get: students understanding of biological processes.. 21.. (12) 1281 1292.. Barker, M.. , Carr, M.. Teaching and learning about photosynthesis.. Part 1: An assessment in terms of students prior knowledge.. (1), 49 56.. Photosynthesis - can our pupils see the wood for the trees?.. (1): 41 44.. Barker, V.. , Millar, R.. Students reasoning about chemical reactions: What changes occur during a context-based post-16 chemistry course.. (6), 645 665.. Barman, C.. , Stein, M.. , Barman, N.. , McNair, S.. (2003).. Students ideas about plants: results from a national study.. 41.. (1), 46 51.. Baxter, J.. Children s understanding of familiar astronomical events.. , 502 513.. Benson, D.. , Wittrock, M.. C.. , Baur, M.. E.. (1993).. Students preconceptions of the nature of gases.. 30.. (6), 587 597.. Berkheimer, G.. D.. , Anderson, C.. , Lee, O.. , Blaskeslee, T.. (1988).. Matter and molecules teacher s guide: Science book.. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University.. Bishop, B.. Student conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution.. (5), 415 427.. Bizzo, N.. V.. From Down house landlord to Brazilian high school students: What has happened to evolutionary knowledge on the way?.. (5), 537 556.. Boo, H.. , Watson, J.. (2001).. Progression in high school students (aged 16 18) conceptualization about chemical reactions in solution.. 85.. , 568 585.. Students understandings of chemical bonds and the energetics of chemical reactions.. 35.. , 569 581.. BouJaoude, S.. B.. A study of the nature of students understandings about the concept of burning.. , 689 704.. (1992).. The relationship between students learning strategies and the change in their misunderstandings during a high school chemistry course.. 29.. (7), 687 699.. Boyes, E.. , Stanisstreet, M.. Misunderstandings of law and conservation : A study of pupils meaning for these terms.. School Science Review.. 72.. , 51 57.. Brody, M.. , Koch, H.. An assessment of 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-grade students knowledge related to marine science and natural resource issues.. Journal of Environmental Science.. , 16 26.. Brook, A.. , Driver, R.. (1984).. Aspects of secondary students understanding of energy: Full report.. Leeds, UK: The University of Leeds, Centre for Studies in Science Education and Mathematics Education.. , Wells, P.. Conserving the circus? An alternative approach to teaching and learning about energy.. Physics Education.. , 23, 80 85.. , Briggs, H.. , Bell, B.. Aspects of secondary students understanding of heat: Full report.. Brown, D.. , Clement, J.. (1987).. Misconceptions concerning Newton s law of action and reaction: The underestimated importance of the third law.. In J.. Novak (Ed.. ),.. Proceedings of the Second International Seminar: Misconception and educational strategies in science and mathematics, Vol.. III.. (pp.. 39 53).. Ithaca: Cornell University.. Students concept of force: the importance of understanding Newton s third law.. , 353 358.. Brumby, M.. N.. Misconceptions about the concept of natural selection by medical biology students.. 68.. (4): 493 503.. (1979).. Problems in learning the concept of natural selection.. Journal of Biological Education, 13.. (2), 119 122.. Buckley, B.. Interactive multimedia and model-based learning in biology.. International Journal of Science Education, 22.. (9), 895 935.. Cañal, P.. Photosynthesis and inverse respiration in plants: an inevitable misconception?.. (4), 363 371.. Cakici, Y.. (2005).. Exploring Turkish upper primary level pupils understanding of digestion.. (1), 79 100.. Cakmakci, G.. , Leach, J.. (2005, August).. Turkish secondary and undergraduate students understanding of the effect of temperature on reaction rates.. Paper presented at the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA), Barcelona.. , Donnelly, J.. A cross-sectional study of the understanding of the relationships between concentration and reaction rate among turkish secondary and undergraduate students.. Paper presented at the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.. (2006).. Students ideas about reaction rate and its relationship with concentration or pressure.. (15), 1795 1815.. Calik, M.. , Ayas, A.. A comparison of level of understanding of eighth-grade students and science student teachers related to selected chemistry concepts.. 42.. (6), 638 667.. Camacho, M.. , Good, R.. Problem solving and chemical equilibrium.. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26,.. 251 272.. Carlsson, B.. Ecological understanding 1: Ways of experiencing photosynthesis.. (7), 681 699.. Dramatic photosynthesis.. Australian Science Teacher s Journal.. 49.. (1), 26 35.. Carvalho, G.. , Silva, R.. , Lima, N.. , Coquet, E.. , Clément, P.. (2004).. Portuguese primary school children s conceptions about digestion: identification of learning obstacles.. 26.. (9), 1111 1130.. Catherall, R.. (1982).. Children s beliefs about the human circulatory system: An aid for teachers regarding the role intuitive beliefs play in the development of formal concepts in 7 14-year olds.. Vancouver: Educational Research Institute of British Columbia.. Cavallo, A.. , McNeely, J.. , Marek, E.. Eliciting students understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle.. International Journal of Science Education, 25,.. 583 603.. Champagne, A.. , Klopfer, L.. , Anderson, J.. (1980).. Factors influencing the learning of classical mechanics.. American Journal of Physics 48.. , 1074 1079.. Chang, J.. Y.. Teachers college students conceptions about evaporation, condensation, and boiling.. 83.. , 511 526.. Chi, M.. T.. H.. , Chiu, M.. -H.. , DeLeeuw, N.. Learning in a non-physical science domain: The human circulatory system.. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center.. Clement, J.. Students preconceptions in elementary mechanics.. American Journal of Physics 50.. (1), 66 71.. Clough, E.. , Wood-Robinson, C.. (1985a).. How secondary students interpret instances of biological adaptation.. (2), 125 130.. (1985b).. Children s understanding of inheritance.. Journal of Biological Education, 19.. (4), 304 310.. Cokelez, A.. , Dumon, A.. Atom and molecule: Upper secondary school french students representations in long-term memory.. Chemistry Education Research and Practice.. 6.. (3), 119 135.. Contento, I.. (1981).. Children s thinking about food and eating--a Piagetian-based study.. Journal of Nutrition Education.. 13.. (1), S86-S90.. Cuthbert, A.. Do children have a holistic view of their internal body maps?.. School Science Review, 82.. (299), 25 32.. D'Avanzo, C.. Application of research on learning to college teaching: ecological examples.. BioScience.. 53.. (11), 1121 1128.. Dahl, J.. , Anderson, S.. , Libarkin, J.. Digging into earth science: alternative conceptions held by K-12 teachers.. Journal of Science Education.. , 65 68.. Dal, B.. (2007).. How do we help students build beliefs that allow them to avoid critical learning barriers and develop a deep understanding of geology?.. Eurasia.. Journal of Mathematics, Science Technology Education, 3.. (4), 251 269.. Deadman, J.. , Kelly, P.. (1978).. What do secondary school boys understand about evolution and heredity before they are taught the topics?.. Journal of Biological Education, 12.. (1), 7 15.. DeBoer, G.. , Dubois, N.. , Herrmann-Abell, C.. F.. , Lennon, K.. (2008, April).. Assessment linked to middle school science learning goals: Using pilot testing in item development.. Paper presented at the National Association for Research on Science Teaching Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD.. , Wertheim, J.. , Roseman, J.. (2009, April).. Assessment linked to middle school science learning goals: A report on field test results for four middle school science topics.. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual Conference, Garden Grove, CA.. Dove, J.. Alternative conceptions about the weather.. 79.. , p.. 65 69.. Students alternative conceptions in Earth science: A review of research and implications for teaching and learning.. Research papers in education.. (2), 183 201.. Dreyfus A.. , Jungwirth, E.. The cell concept of 10th graders: curricular expectations and reality.. 10.. (2):221 229.. , Jungwirth E.. The pupil and the living cell: A taxonomy of dysfunctional ideas about an abstract idea.. (1):49 55.. Driver, R.. , Squires, A.. , Rushworth, P.. , Wood-Robinson, V.. Making sense of secondary science: Research into children s ideas.. New York, NY: Routledge.. , Newton, P.. , Osborne, J.. Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms.. , 84(3), 287 312.. Duit, R.. (1981, September).. Students notions about the energy concept -- before and after physics instruction.. Paper presented at the Conference on Problems Concerning Students Representation of Physics and Chemistry Knowledge, Ludwigsberg, Germany.. Learning the energy concept in school - empirical results from the Philippines and West Germany.. , 59 66.. Work, force, and power--words in everyday language and terms in mechanics.. In P.. Lijnse (Ed.. The many faces of teaching and learning mechanics.. Conference on physics education.. 227 233).. Utrecht: GIREP/SVO/UNESCO.. , Haeussler, P.. Learning and teaching energy.. Fensham, R.. Gunstone, R.. White (Eds.. The content of science: A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning.. 185 200).. Ebenezer, J.. V.. , Erickson, G.. Chemistry students conceptions of solubility: A phenomenography.. Science Education, 80,.. 181 201.. Eilam, B.. Strata of comprehending ecology: looking through the prism of feeding relations.. 86.. , 645 671.. Eilks, I.. , Moellering, J.. , Valanides, N.. Seventh-grade students understanding of chemical reactions: Reflections from an action research interview study.. Journal of Mathematics, Science Technology Education.. 3.. (4), 271 286.. Ekborg, M.. How student teachers use scientific conceptions to discuss a complex environmental issue.. 37.. (3) 126 132.. Erickson, G.. , Hobbs, E.. The developmental study of student beliefs about force concepts.. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education.. London, Ontario.. , Tiberghien, A.. Heat and temperature.. In R.. Driver, E.. Guesne, A.. Tiberghien (Eds.. Children s ideas in science.. 52 84).. Philadelphia: Open University Press.. Finegold, M.. , Trumper, R.. Categorizing pupils explanatory frameworks in energy as a means to the development of a teaching approach.. Journal of.. Research in Science Education.. , 19(1), 97 110.. Fischbein, E.. , Stavy, R.. , Ma-Naim, H.. The psychological structure of naive impetus conceptions.. Proceedings of the 2nd International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics, Vol.. 143 151).. International Journal of Science Education 11.. (1), 71 81.. Fisher, K.. , Anderson, K.. , Becvar, L.. , Noland, C.. , Anderson, A.. , Sandifer, C.. , Goessling, C.. (2000, April).. Evolution as an experimental science: Implications for developing and assessing students conceptions.. In.. Conceptual understanding in biology.. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans.. Flores F.. , Tovar, M.. , Gallegos, L.. Representation of the cell and its processes in high school students: An integrated view.. 25.. (2):269 286.. Ford, B.. , Taylor, M.. Investigating students ideas about plate tectonics.. Science Scope,.. (1), 38 43.. Ford, D.. Sixth graders conceptions of rocks in their local environments.. Journal of Geoscience Education, 51.. (4), 373 377.. Gale, D.. , Monaghan, D.. , MaKinster, J.. G.. , Stockton, J.. Changing children s conception of burning.. School Science and Mathematics, 101,.. 439 451.. Gallegos, L.. , Jerezano, M.. , Flores, F.. Preconceptions and relations used by children in the construction of food  ...   Reasoning and Higher Education.. Center for the Study of Thinking, Boise, Idaho.. Explaining the at rest condition of an object.. The Physics Teacher, 20.. , 10 14.. Mitchell, I.. and Gunstone, R.. Some student conceptions brought to the study of stoichiometry.. , 78 88.. Moyle, R.. Weather.. Learning in Science Project, Working Paper 21.. Munson, B.. Relationships between an individual s conceptual ecology and the individual s conceptions of ecology.. (Unpublished doctoral thesis).. The Graduate School of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.. Nakhleh, M.. , Samarapungavan, A.. Elementary school children s beliefs about matter.. 36.. (7), 777 805.. , Saglam, Y.. Middle school students beliefs about matter.. (5), 581 612.. , Duru, E.. A cross-cultural study: Middle school students beliefs about matter.. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST).. ,.. San Francisco, CA.. Nehm, Ross H.. Leah Reilly.. Biology majors knowledge and misconceptions of natural selection.. 57.. (3): 263 272.. Neto Vaz, A.. , Carola, M.. , Neto, A.. (1997, March).. Some contributions for a pedagogical treatment of alternative conceptions in biology: An example from plant nutrition.. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching.. (NARST) Annual Conference.. Oak Brook, IL.. Newell, A.. , Ross, K.. Children s conception of thermal conduction--Or the story of a woollen hat.. 78.. (282), 33 38.. Novak, J.. , Musonda, D.. A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning.. American Educational Research Journal, 28,.. 117 153.. Novick, S.. , Nussbaum, J.. Junior high school pupils understanding of the particulate nature of matter: An interview study.. (3), 273 281.. Pupils understanding of the particulate nature of matter: A cross-age study.. (2), 187 196.. Nussbaum, J.. The Earth as a cosmic body.. Osborne, J.. , Wadsworth, P.. , Black, P.. , Meadows, J.. SPACE research report: The Earth in space.. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.. Osborne, R.. Force.. (LISP Working Paper #16).. Hamilton, New Zealand: Science Education Research Unit, University of Waikato.. Building on children s intuitive ideas.. Osborne P.. Freyberg (Eds.. Learning in Science.. The implications of childrens science.. 41 50).. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann.. , Cosgrove, M.. Children s conceptions of the changes of state of water.. (9), 825 838.. Ozay, E.. , Oztas, H.. Secondary students interpretations of photosynthesis and plant nutrition.. (2), 68 70.. Ozmen, H.. Students difficulties in understanding of the conservation of matter in open and closed-system chemical reactions.. 4.. (3), 279 290.. Papadimitriou, V.. , Londridou, P.. (2001, April).. A cross-age study of pupil s conceptions concerning the movement of air masses in the troposphere.. Paper presented at the IOSTE Symposium in Southern Europe.. Papadouris, N.. , Constantinou, C.. , Kyratsi, T.. Students use of the energy model to account for changes in physical systems.. 45.. (4), 444 469.. Passmore, C.. , Stewart, J.. A modeling approach to teaching evolutionary biology in high schools.. , 185 204.. Pelaez, N.. , Boyd, D.. , Rojas, J.. , Hoover, M.. Prevalence of blood circulation misconceptions among prospective elementary teachers.. Advances in Physiology Education, 29.. (3), 172 181.. Penner, D.. , Giles, N.. , Lehrer, R.. , Schauble, L.. Building functional models: Designing an elbow.. 34.. (2), 125 143.. Pfundt, H.. Pre-instructional conceptions about substances and transformations of substances.. The International Workshop on Problems Concerning Students Representation of Physics and Chemistry Knowledge, Pedagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg, Germany.. Quiggin, V.. (1977).. Children s knowledge of their internal body parts.. Nursing Times, 73.. (30), 1146 1151.. Rea-Ramirez, M.. , Nunez-Oviedo, M.. (2002, January).. Discrepant questioning as a tool to build complex mental models of respiration.. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science, Charlotte, NC.. Reiner, M.. , Eilam, B.. Conceptual classroom environment a system view of learning.. (6), 551 568.. Renstrom, L.. , Andersson, B.. , Marton, F.. Students conceptions of matter.. 82.. (3), 555 569.. Roald, I.. , Mikalsen, O.. Configuration and dynamics of the Earth-Sun-Moon system: An investigation into conceptions of deaf and hearing pupils.. (4), 423 440.. Ross, K.. , Shuell, T.. Children s beliefs about earthquakes.. Science Education, 72.. (2), 191 205.. Roth, K.. The power plant teacher s guide.. , Occasional Paper No.. 112.. Institute for Research on Teaching.. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.. Sadanand, N.. , Kess, J.. Concepts in force and motion.. The Physics Teacher 28.. (8), 530.. Salierno, C.. , Edelson, D.. , Sherin, B.. The development of student conceptions of the earth-sun relationship in an inquiry-based curriculum.. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53.. (4), 422.. Samaragungavan, A.. , Vosniadou, S.. , Brewer, W.. Mental models of the earth, sun, and moon: Indian children s cosmologies.. Cognitive Development 11.. (4): 491 522.. Schauble, L.. , Glaser, R.. Scientific thinking in children and adults.. Contributions to Human Development, 21.. , 9 27.. Schollum, B.. Arrows in science diagrams: Help or hindrance for pupils?.. Research in Science Education, 13.. , 45 59.. Schwartz, C.. , White, B.. Meta-modeling knowledge: Developing students understanding of scientific modeling.. (2), 165 205.. Sewell, A.. Cells and atoms Are they related?.. Australian Science Teachers Journal.. 48.. (2), 26 30.. Seymour, J.. , Longden, B.. (1991) Respiration that s breathing isn t it?.. (3), 177 183.. Sharp, J.. Children s astronomical beliefs: A preliminary study of year 6 children in south-west England.. (6), 685 712.. Simpson, M.. , Arnold, B.. The inappropriate use of subsumers in biology learning.. European Journal of Science Education,.. 4,.. 173 182.. Singh, C.. , Rosengrant, D.. Students conceptual knowledge of energy and momentum.. Proceedings of the Physics Education Research Conference, Rochester, NY.. Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts.. American Journal of Physics.. 71.. (6), 607 617.. Sjoberg, S.. , Lie, S.. Ideas about force and motion among Norwegian pupils and students.. Centre for School Science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.. Smith, C.. , Maclin, D.. , Houghton, C.. , Hennessey, M.. Sixth-grade students epistemologies of science: The impact of school science experiences on epistemological development.. (3), 349- 422.. , Grosslight, L.. , Davis, H.. Teaching for understanding: A study of students preinstruction theories of matter and a comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to teaching students about matter and density.. 15.. , 317 393.. , Wiser, M.. , Krajcik, J.. , Coppola, B.. Implications of research on children s learning for assessment: Matter and atomic molecular theory.. Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement, Center for Education.. Washington, DC: National Research Council.. Smith, E.. (1986, April).. Alternative student conceptions of matter cycling in ecosystems.. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA.. Sneider, C.. Children s cosmographies: Understanding the Earth s shape and gravity.. 67.. (2), 205 221.. Solomon, J.. Messy, contradictory and obstinately persistent: A Study of children s out-of-school ideas about energy.. (231), 225 229.. Teaching the conservation of energy.. (4), 165 170.. Solomonidou, C.. , Stavridou, H.. From inert object to chemical substance: Students initial conceptions and conceptual development during an introductory experimental chemistry sequence.. , 382 400.. Stavridou, H.. , Solomonidou, C.. Conceptual reorganization and the construction of the chemical reaction concept during secondary education.. Stavy, R.. (1990a).. Children s conceptions of changes in the state of matter: From liquid (or solid) to gas.. , 247 266.. (1990b).. Pupils problems in understanding conservation of matter.. (5), 501 512.. Children s ideas about matter.. School Science and Mathematics.. 91.. (5), 240 244.. , Eisen, Y.. , Yaakobi, D.. How students aged 13 15 understand photosynthesis.. 9.. (1), 105 115.. Stead, B.. Energy, Working Paper No.. 17.. Learning in Science Project.. Stern, L.. (2004, April).. How does resistance to antibiotics develop in bacteria?: The use of benchmarks and national standards to evaluate assessment tasks aimed at natural selection.. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual Conference, St.. Louis, MO.. , Hagay, G.. ) High school students conceptions related to speciation and common descent.. Manuscript in preparation.. Haifa, Israel: Department of Education in Technology and Science, Technion-ITT.. Can middle-school science textbooks help students learn important ideas? Findings from Project 2061 s curriculum evaluation study: Life Science.. (6), 538 568.. Summers, M.. , Kruger, C.. Long term impact of a new approach to teacher education for primary science.. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the British Educational Research Association, Liverpool, England.. Tamir, P.. (1989) Some issues related to the use of justifications to multiple-choice answers.. Journal of Biology Education.. (4), 285 292.. Teixeira, F.. What happens to the food we eat? Children s conceptions of the structure and function of the digestive system.. (5), 507 520.. Thomaz, M.. , Malaquis, I.. , Valente, M.. , Antunes, M.. An attempt to overcome alternative conceptions related to heat and temperature.. (1), 19 26.. Tomasini, G.. , Balandi, P.. Teaching strategies and children s science: An experiment on teaching about hot and cold.. Paper presented at the 2nd International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics, Ithaca, NY.. Treagust, D.. , Chittleborough, G.. , Mamiala, L.. Students understanding of the role of scientific models in learning science.. International Journal of Science Education, 24.. , 357 368.. Trend, R.. An investigation into understanding of geological time among 10-and 11-year old children.. (8), 973 988.. Tretter, T.. , Jones, M.. , Andre, T.. , Negishi, A.. , Minogue, J.. Conceptual boundaries and distances: Students and experts concepts of the scale of scientific phenomena.. 43.. (3), 282 319.. Trumper, R.. Being constructive: An alternative approach to the teaching of the energy concept Part one.. , 343 354.. Children s energy concepts: a cross-age study.. (2), 139 148.. (1997a).. The need for change in elementary school teacher training: The Case of the energy concept as an example.. Educational Research.. (1997b).. A survey of conceptions of energy of Israeli pre-service high school biology teachers.. (1), 31 46.. A longitudinal study of physics students conceptions of energy in pre-service training for high school teachers.. Journal of Science Education and Technology.. (4), 311 318.. , Gorsky, P.. Learning about energy: The influence of alternative frameworks, cognitive levels, and closed-mindedness.. (7), 637 648.. Tschirgi, J.. Sensible reasoning: A hypothesis about hypotheses.. Child Development, 51.. , 1 10.. Twigger, D.. , et al.. The conception of force and motion of students aged between 10 and 15 years: An interview study designed to guide instruction.. (2), 215 229.. Valanides, N.. Primary student teachers understanding of the particulate nature of matter and its transformations during dissolving.. Chemistry Education Research and Practice,.. (2), 249 262.. Van Driel, J.. Students corpuscular conceptions in the context of chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics.. , 3,.. 201 213.. , De Vos, W.. , Verloop, N.. , Dekkers, H.. Developing secondary students conceptions of chemical reactions: The introduction of chemical equilibrium.. International Journal of Science Education, 20,.. 379 392.. Vaz, A.. N.. (1997, March).. National Association for Research in Science Teaching.. (NARST) Annual Conference, Oak Brook, IL.. Venville, G.. , Gribble, S.. , Donovan, J.. An exploration of young children s understandings of genetics concepts from ontological and epistemological perspectives.. Science Education, 89.. (4), 614 633.. Viennot, L.. Spontaneous reasoning in elementary dynamics.. European Journal of Science Education 1.. In W.. Archenhold.. Driver, A.. Orton, C.. Wood-Robinson (Eds.. Cognitive development research in science and mathematics:.. Proceedings of an international seminar.. 273 274).. Leeds: University of Leeds.. Vosniadou, S.. Conceptual development in astronomy.. In S.. Glynn, R.. Yeany, B.. Britton (Eds.. The psychology of learning science.. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.. Mental models of the day/night cycle.. Cognitive Science.. , 123 183.. Wandersee, J.. (1983, June).. Students misconceptions about photosynthesis: a cross-age study.. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the International Seminar: Misconceptions in Science and Mathematics, Ithaca, NY.. Watts, D.. , Gilbert, J.. Appraising the understanding of science concepts: Force.. Guildford: Educational Studies.. A study of schoolchildrens alternative frameworks of the concept of force.. European Journal of Science Education 5.. (2), 217 230.. Some Alternative Views of Energy.. (5), 213 217.. Watts, M.. , Zylbersztajn, A.. A survey of some children s ideas about force.. Physics Education 16,.. 360 365.. Webb, P.. , Boltt, G.. Food Chain to food web: a natural progression?.. Journal of Biological Education, 24.. (3), 187 190.. White, P.. Naive ecology: Causal judgments about a simple ecosystem.. British Journal of Psychology, 88.. , 219 233.. Wiser, M.. The differentiation of heat and temperature: An evaluation of the effect of microcomputer teaching on students misconceptions.. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.. Wollman, W.. (1977a).. Controlling variables: Assessing levels of understanding.. Science Education, 61.. , 371 383.. (1977b).. Controlling variables: A neo-Piagetian developmental sequence.. , 385 391.. , Lawson, A.. Teaching the procedure of controlled experimentation: A Piagetian approach.. , 57 70.. Zimmerman, C.. The development of scientific reasoning skills.. Developmental Review.. , 99 149.. (2005).. The development of scientific reasoning skills: What psychologists contribute to an understanding of elementary science learning.. Report to the National Research Council, Committee on Science Learning Kindergarten through Eighth Grade.. Washington, DC: National Research Council.. Testing positive versus negative claims: A preliminary investigation of the role of cover story in the assessment of experimental design skills.. (Tech.. Rep.. No.. 554).. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST)..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Log In/Registration
    Descriptive info: Log In/Registration.. Log in or register to select, save, and print items and answer keys and create and take tests using items from the item collection.. My email address is.. Are you registered on the site?.. Yes, my password is.. No, I am not yet registered.. go.. Have you lost your password?.. You can reset it..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Site Registration
    Descriptive info: Register Now.. Required.. Email Address.. Please Retype Your Email Address.. Note: A valid email address is required to complete registration.. We will.. not.. give or sell your email address to any third party.. Password.. (at least six characters).. Confirm Password.. This website contains proprietary educational materials.. To preserve the integrity and value of the assessment items, all reasonable measures should be taken to ensure that the items and answers remain secure.. If you use any of these assessment items or other resources, please give appropriate credit to AAAS Project 2061  ...   conditions described above by clicking on the I agree box.. I agree to make every effort to keep the items and answers secure.. Optional.. Name.. Organization.. I am primarily interested in this site as a.. Parent.. Student.. Classroom Teacher.. School Administrator.. Researcher.. Test Developer.. University Professor.. Other.. Notify me by email with site updates.. Sign me up for.. Project 2061 Connections.. , an electronic newsletter that offers an in-depth look at Project 2061 s current research and how its findings, tools, and resources can be applied to promote science literacy..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Policies
    Descriptive info: Privacy Policy.. This site is goverened by AAAS s privacy policy; see.. http://www.. aaas.. org/privacy.. shtml.. Terms of Use.. All of the resources on this website, including the items themselves, are intended to be used widely by science teachers and other educators as stated in AAAS s..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Topics ~ Cells
    Descriptive info: Browsing Topics.. /.. Topic: Cells.. Below is a list of key ideas related to Cells.. For each key idea, you will find a list of sub-ideas, a list of items, results from our field testing, and a list of student misconceptions.. After clicking on a tab, click on it again to close the tab.. All living things are composed of one or more cells.. Sub-Ideas.. Items Student Performance.. Misconceptions.. Students are expected to know that:.. All organisms, including animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms, are made up of cells.. Cells vary in size, shape, and specialized functions.. Most cells are so small that their details can be seen only with a microscope.. Living things can be made of just one cell to many millions of cells.. Some organisms are made of many types of cells and many of each type.. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria, the single cell carries out all of the functions needed for the organism to stay alive; in organisms made of many cells, individual cells work together with (depend on) other cells to carry out their essential life functions.. In multicellular organisms, the structures that make up those organisms (including brain, muscles, skin, and lungs in animals, and stems and flowers in plants) are made up of cells.. Boundaries:.. Students are not expected to know the terms "prokaryote" or "eukaryote" or the differences between these types of cells.. Items will not test students’ knowledge of fungi.. Percent of students answering correctly (click on the item ID number to view the item and additional data).. Item ID.. Number.. Knowledge Being Assessed.. Grades.. 6 8.. 9 12.. Select This Item for My Item Bank.. CE101004.. Both the brain and muscles of the body are made of cells.. 67%.. 72%.. CE103003.. Both the flowers and stems of plants are made of cells.. 63%.. CE033002.. When looking through a microscope at leaf and root samples, one would see that both are made of cells.. 70%.. CE102003.. Both the leaves and roots of plants are made of cells.. 61%.. 71%.. CE053002.. Different cells can have different sizes and shapes.. 57%.. CE100004.. Both the skin and the lungs of the body are made of cells.. 55%.. 64%.. CE010001.. Different organisms range in the number of cells they have, from only one cell to many millions.. 52%.. 60%.. CE128001.. 48%.. 56%.. Frequency of selecting a misconception.. Misconception.. ID Number.. Student Misconception.. CEM001.. All cells are the same size and shape, i.. e.. , there is a generic cell (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 43%.. 37%.. CEM005.. There are no single-celled organisms (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 39%.. 30%.. CEM003.. Some living parts of organisms are not made of cells (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 36%.. 29%.. CEM004.. Plants are not made of cells (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 7%.. 5%.. Frequency of selecting a misconception was calculated by dividing the total number of times a misconception was chosen by the number of times it could have been chosen, averaged over the number of students answering the questions within this particular idea.. Although there are many different types of cells in terms of size, structure, and function, all cells have certain characteristics in common.. All cells are composed of complex molecules made by the cells themselves from simpler molecules (such as amino acids, simple sugars, and fatty acids) that enter the cells from outside the cells.. In multicellular organisms, cells provide structural support for the organism they are part of and carry out essential life functions for that organism.. In cells of plants and animals, there are internal structures that perform specialized functions such as extracting energy from food, making new molecules for growth, and eliminating wastes.. In addition to the internal structures that perform specialized functions for cells, the interior of cells is also filled with water and molecules that are dissolved in that water.. A membrane makes up the outer surface of a cell, which controls what enters and leaves the cell.. For example, small molecules such as amino acids, fatty acids, and simple sugars can enter and leave through the cell's membrane.. Many of the same basic life processes, such as extracting energy from food, making the materials needed for their own growth, and eliminating wastes, take place within the individual cells of all organisms (including plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms).. Plant and animal cells need molecules from food, water, oxygen, and a way to eliminate wastes in order to continue to function.. Bacteria need molecules from food, water, and a way to eliminate wastes to continue to function.. Some bacteria need oxygen and others do not.. Students are not expected to know specific internal cell structures (organelles) or differences between bacterial, plant, and animal cells.. Students are not expected to know the process of either active or passive transport through the cell membrane.. Fungi and microorganisms are used as contexts only when students are also told that these are living organisms.. Students are not expected to know which bacteria need oxygen and which do not, and they are not expected to know the terms “anaerobic” and “aerobic.. ”.. CE093002.. Small molecules enter the cell through the cell membrane.. CE133001.. The inside of an animal cell contains liquid  ...   of a cell is solid (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 13%.. 11%.. CEM008.. The interior of a cell is filled with air (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 9%.. Cells in multicellular organisms repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair.. In multicellular organisms, new cells needed for growth and repair come from the division of existing cells.. Cell division results in the formation of two nearly identical cells from a single original cell.. Individual cells grow by creating new complex molecules that make up the cells’ structures, using molecules from food that enter the cells.. In multicellular organisms, both an increase in individual cell mass and an increase in cell number cause the organism of which they are part to increase in size and mass.. The successive duplication of cells explains how multicellular organisms can develop from a single cell.. Students are not expected to know that following the initial development of an organism’s body structures, only certain types of cells divide.. They are not expected to know that there are differences in rates of division between types of cells, the length of time different cells are alive, or any other details of the life cycle of cells.. Students are not expected to know the terms "mitosis" or "meiosis" or any of the terminology associated with the phases of cell division.. CE119002.. The difference in size between young children and fully grown adults can be explained by the repetitive process of cell growth and division.. 59%.. CEM022.. In the early development of an organism, cells that result from cell division do not grow before dividing again (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 15%.. CEM020.. Organisms grow by cell division, but the cells do not themselves increase in size or mass (AAAS Project 2061, n.. CEM023.. In the early development of an organism, cells grow in size but the number of cells remains constant (AAAS Project 2061, n.. CEM024.. In the early development of an organism, the organism grows in size and mass without cell division or cell growth (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 6%.. Different body structures are made up of different types of cells.. The different body structures of plants and animals (including brain, muscles, skin, and lungs in animals, and stems and flowers in plants) are made up of different types of cells.. The different types of cells that make up the body parts of animals develop from one single cell.. The different types of cells that make up the body parts of plants can develop from one single cell.. After a single cell goes through a series of cell divisions, the cells begin to differentiate into a variety of types of cells with specialized structures and functions.. The different types of cells continue to reproduce and further differentiate to form the specialized body structures that make up most multicellular organisms.. Groups of cells work together to perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms.. These include.. red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all cells of the body, muscle cells, which allow movement of the organism, and nerve cells, which transmit electrical signals between the brain and the rest of the body.. Students are not expected to know the stages of cell differentiation (e.. , blastula, gastrula) or the role of differential gene expression in cell differentiation.. Students are not expected to know the process of cell differentiation.. Students are not expected to know that plants can reproduce asexually (in which case they come from many cells).. CE142002.. Red blood cells supply oxygen to cells of the lungs and cells of the rest of the body.. CE097004.. All parts of the body, including the muscles and the brain, develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CE096004.. All parts of the body, including the skin and lungs, develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CE139003.. Red blood cells supply oxygen to both muscle cells and nerve cells.. CE140002.. Red blood cells supply oxygen to both muscle cells and cells of the digestive tract.. CE098004.. Both the leaves and the roots of a plant can develop from a single fertilized cell.. CE141002.. Red blood cells supply oxygen to both cells of the digestive tract and nerve cells.. CE099004.. Both the flowers and the stem of a plant can develop from a single fertilized cell.. CEM065.. The leaves of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.. CEM059.. Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to cells of the digestive tract.. CEM067.. The flowers of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.. CEM068.. The stems of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.. CEM064.. The muscles of animals do not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CEM058.. Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to nerve cells.. CEM061.. The lungs of animals do not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CEM062.. The skin of animals does not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CEM066.. The roots of plants cannot develop from a single fertilized cell.. CEM063.. The brain of animals does not develop from a single fertilized egg cell.. CEM060.. Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to cells of the lung.. 20%.. CEM057.. Red blood cells do not supply oxygen to muscle cells..

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  • Title: AAAS Science Assessment ~ Topics ~ Evolution and Natural Selection
    Descriptive info: Topic: Evolution and Natural Selection.. Below is a list of key ideas related to Evolution and Natural Selection.. There are similarities and differences between organisms living today and those that lived in the past.. Fossils include the remains of, or impressions left by, organisms that lived in the past and that have been preserved in rock or gradually replaced by rock.. Fossils can be used to study the anatomical features of extinct species, and to compare their features with those of existing species.. If available, DNA can be analyzed to learn about species from the past.. Scientists have found similarities and differences among existing species, among extinct species, and between existing and extinct species.. Although many species have undergone little change for many millions of years, and a few appear to have changed very little since the early history of life, most species living today did not exist when life first began on earth.. Extinctions have occurred throughout the history of life and continue to occur.. Boundaries.. :.. Students are not expected to know the different kinds of fossils.. Students are not expected to know the fossilization process.. EN053001.. There are both similarities and differences between extinct and existing species.. 74%.. EN051001.. Fossils can be used to study the anatomical features of extinct species and to compare the features of extinct species with those of existing species.. 75%.. EN015002.. Scientists can use both fossils and DNA to study organisms that lived in the past.. EN052001.. A scientist studying the fossils of an extinct species of fish could discover what anatomical features the extinct species had, and he could discover similarities and differences between the features of the extinct fish and those of currently existing fish.. EN014002.. Many species have become extinct throughout the history of life on earth.. EN013002.. The term fossil can refer to both a bone in which the original matter has been replaced by rock and an impression left by a bone in rock.. EN054003.. There are both similarities and differences between a cow and a Tyrannosaurus rex.. EN055001.. Most species living today did not exist at the time life began.. EN054001.. There are both similarities and differences between cats and worms.. EN054002.. There are both similarities and differences between maple trees and lizards.. ENM051.. Species that have no apparent, obvious, or superficial similarities have no similarities at all (see Shtulman, 2006).. ENM049.. Up until recently, extinction was rare; humans have caused the majority of extinctions (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 21%.. ENM048.. Except for periodic mass extinction events, extinction is very rare (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM020.. Only a few of the many species of organisms that lived in the past are now extinct.. Most of the species of organisms that lived in the past are still alive today (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM019.. All species began at the same time and still exist today (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 8%.. Environmental conditions have changed in the past and continue to change today.. Students are expected to know:.. Environmental conditions on earth (such as temperature and amount of rainfall) fluctuate over time, and have changed throughout the history of the earth.. Environmental changes can occur abruptly (such as changes caused by volcanic eruptions, asteroids striking the earth, or a new organism entering an ecosystem), or gradually (such as changes caused by the movement of continents, erosion, or sedimentation).. Over long periods of time, small changes in environmental conditions can add up, resulting in large overall changes in environmental conditions.. Examples of this include changes in temperature, precipitation, and concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.. This can lead to significant changes in the environment such as a rise in sea level, a decrease in the size of glaciers, and expansion of deserts.. In writing test items, changes in environmental conditions may include changes in the physical environment (climate, geography), or conditions in the living community (which species are present and how many of each species are present), but students will not be tested on whether they know that the term “environmental conditions” includes both living and non-living factors.. EN018002.. The environmental conditions on earth changed in the past, and they are changing now.. 66%.. 77%.. EN019002.. Changes to the physical environment of earth can happen suddenly or gradually.. 65%.. 69%.. EN017002.. Conditions have changed in significant ways everywhere on earth, with some of these changes happening suddenly and others more gradually.. EN020002.. Many changes to the physical environment have happened from the time that earth was formed until the present day.. ENM027.. Except for a few major changes due to large volcanoes that have erupted or meteorites that have struck the earth, environmental conditions have stayed the same throughout the history of the earth (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 12%.. ENM026.. Except for minor fluctuations from year to year, environmental conditions have stayed the same throughout the history of the earth (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM044.. Since the time life began, conditions have remained the same in the oceans but have changed on land (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM050.. Environmental conditions did not change in the past, but they are changing now (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM043.. Environmental conditions have changed in the past, but are no longer changing (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM025.. There have been no changes to the physical environment of the earth since life began (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 3%.. When inherited traits are favorable to individual organisms, the proportion of individuals in a population that have  ...   can differ from its ancestors because an environmental change can affect which inherited traits are most helpful and, therefore, which individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.. EN038003.. EN030002.. Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics when a few individual resistant bacteria survive and reproduce, passing their resistance on to the next generation.. EN032002.. Species can change over generations because individuals with traits that are helpful in the current environment are more likely to survive and pass those traits on to their offspring.. ENM031.. Individual organisms can deliberately develop new heritable traits because they need them for survival (Bishop Anderson 1990; Passmore et al.. , 2002; Stern Roseman, 2004).. ENM046.. Sudden environmental change is required for evolution to occur (Nehm Reilly, 2007).. ENM037.. Changes in a population occur through a gradual change in all members of a population, not from the survival of a few individuals that preferentially reproduce (Brumby, 1979; Bishop Anderson, 1990; Anderson et al.. ENM047.. Evolution happens when individual organisms acclimate or get used to new conditions gradually (Bishop Anderson, 1990).. ENM034.. Change occurs in the inherited characteristics of a population of organisms over time because of the use or disuse of a particular characteristic (Bishop Anderson, 1990).. ENM033.. Change to the characteristics of populations (i.. the proportion of individuals in the population having certain traits) of organisms is always random, and is not influenced by the favorability of that change in a given environment (AAAS Project 2061, n.. ENM029.. Except for differences between males and females, and between young and old, all organisms of the same species look and act the same (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 17%.. ENM028.. All individuals within a population of organisms are the same.. Differences among them are trivial and unimportant.. All members of a population are nearly identical (Greene, 1990; Passmore Stewart 2004; Anderson et al.. 2002; Shtulman, 2006).. ENM030.. The internal chemistry, appearance, and behavior of a species do not change, even over long periods of time (AAAS Project 2061, n.. 10%.. ENM052.. Changes to the environment cannot lead to changes in the traits of species living in that environment.. ENM035.. Change occurs in the inherited characteristics of populations of organisms over time because organisms observe other more successful organisms and model their appearance or habits (AAAS Project 2061, n.. Similarities and differences in inherited characteristics of organisms alive today or in the past can be used to infer the relatedness of any two species, changes in species over time, and lines of evolutionary descent.. The fact that organisms retain some of the inherited characteristics of their ancestors from many generations ago makes it possible for scientists to identify both recent and past ancestors of those organisms.. Inherited characteristics (both internal and external) of species alive today can be compared to determine how similar the species are.. Organisms with more similarities are usually more closely related to each other than organisms with fewer similarities, i.. , organisms that have more similarities tend to have a more recent common ancestor than those with fewer similarities.. Inherited characteristics (both internal and external) of species alive today can be compared to the characteristics of species that lived in the past to determine how similar they are.. Some structures which do not seem similar in gross structure and function (e.. the hand of a human and the front flipper of a whale) may after closer analysis of the detailed anatomy be shown to have the same origin.. The relative ages of fossils can be used to help infer lines of evolutionary descent.. Relative ages of fossils are determined by their relative positions in the earth's rock layers.. Evidence for common ancestry across a wide variety of species provides support for the idea that all multi-cellular organisms (including humans) share a common ancestor.. Evidence also indicates that life began as single-celled organisms and that complex multi-cellular organisms evolved from them.. Students are not expected to know about convergent evolution.. Students are not expected to know about analogy and homology.. Students are not expected to know about Archae bacteria and the possible multiple origins of life.. Students are not expected to know methods of dating.. Students are not expected to know the approximate date of the origin of life or when any particular species or type of organism originated.. EN047005.. Living species can share ancestors with other living species, and they can share ancestors with extinct species.. EN047003.. A species living today and an extinct species could share a common ancestor that lived a very long time ago, even if the two species have few similarities.. EN050002.. All plants and all animals have a common ancestor with each other.. EN049002.. All dogs and cats share a common ancestor.. EN048003.. All plants and animals -- including humans -- came from a common ancestor.. EN046003.. Cats, dogs, fish, and birds all share an ancient common ancestor.. EN046004.. Chimpanzees, humans, zebras, and worms all share an ancient common ancestor.. EN046007.. Chimpanzees, humans, chickens, and oak trees all share an ancient common ancestor.. ENM041.. Species that are similar can share a common ancestor, but species that have no apparent, obvious, or superficial similarities cannot share a common ancestor (Poling Evans, 2004; Stern Hagay, 2005).. ENM039.. Plants and animals cannot share a common ancestor (Bizzo, 1994; Ha Cha, 2008).. ENM038.. Humans do not share a common ancestor with other living organisms (Ha Cha, 2008; Stern Hagay, 2005).. ENM054.. Members of different species do not share a common ancestor (Poling Evans, 2004; Shtulman, 2006)..

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