www.archive-org-2014.com » ORG » A » AAALAC

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".

    Archived pages: 155 . Archive date: 2014-06.

  • Title: AAALAC International, Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, animal research, accreditation, AAALAC, laboratory animals, animal welfare, biomedical research, animals in science, animal care and use
    Descriptive info: .. What is AAALAC?.. FAQs.. History.. Mission.. Council on Accreditation.. Council Emeriti.. Board of Trustees.. Member Organizations.. Apply to become a Member Organization.. Ad hoc Consultants.. Apply to become an ad hoc Consultant.. Staff.. AAALAC Fellowship Award.. AAALAC Fellows.. Steps to Earning Accreditation.. Apply for Accreditation.. Fees and Deadlines.. The Program Description.. AAALAC's Three Primary Standards.. Reference Resources.. Rules of Accreditation.. Download the new.. Guide.. Benefits of Accreditation.. Categories of Accreditation.. Position Statements.. Bylaws.. Policies.. The PSE Program.. Apply for a PSE.. Store.. Presentations by AAALAC.. U.. S.. Regulations.. International Regulations & Resources.. IACUC/Oversight Body Information.. Student Information.. Information for Investigators.. Other Links.. News from AAALAC.. Calendar & Community Connection.. AAALAC i-brief..  ...   the.. AAALAC Podcast on Cage Washer Safety.. 2014 AAALAC International.. Main Office: 5283 Corporate Drive, Suite 203, Frederick, MD 21703-2879 USA, t:301.. 696.. 9626, f:301.. 9627,.. accredit@aaalac.. org.. European Office: Apartado de Correos 266, 31080 Pamplona (Spain), t:+34 948 100026, f:+34 948 100034,.. europe@aaalac.. Pacific Rim Office: 5283 Corporate Drive, Suite 203, Frederick, MD 21703-2879 USA, t:301.. pacificrim@aaalac.. Southeast Asia: 250/830 Moo 3, Teparak Road, Bangpla, Bangplee, Samutprakarn, Thailand 10540, t:+662 175 5918,.. f:+668 855 2543,.. seasia@aaalac.. *AAALAC International is not responsible for institutions that claim they are accredited when they are not.. Please refer to our.. official directory.. or.. contact us.. if you have any questions.. regarding an institution's accreditation status..

    Original link path: /
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Chinese
    Descriptive info: (click here for instructions on.. installing East Asian fonts.. ).. AAALAC International.. AAALAC International AAALAC International (Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International).. AAALAC International AAALAC International (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals) (National Research Council 2011.. AAALAC International.. www.. aaalac..  ...   AAALAC International.. (Program Status Evaluation.. ).. ( Program Status Evaluation , PSE) PSE AAALAC International.. PSE.. AAALAC International AAALAC.. AAALAC International AAALAC International (Board of Trustees).. AAALAC.. org.. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. Southeast Asia: 250/830 Moo 3, Teparak Road, Bangpla, Bangplee, Samutprakarn, Thailand 10540, t:+662 175 5918, f:+662.. 175.. 5917,..

    Original link path: /chinese/index.ch.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: French
    Descriptive info: Qu est-ce qu AAALAC International ?.. AAALAC International est une organisation privée dédiée à la protection des animaux utilisés pour la science, qui réalise des évaluations volontaires et met au point des programmes d accréditation.. AAALAC International est l abréviation de.. Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International.. (association internationale pour l évaluation et l accréditation du traitement des animaux de laboratoire).. Des centaines de laboratoires pharmaceutiques et biotechnologiques, d universités, d hôpitaux et autres institutions de recherche du monde entier ont obtenu l accréditation AAALAC, montrant ainsi leur engagement à traiter et à utiliser les animaux de manière responsable.. Ces institutions cherchent volontairement à obtenir et à conserver l accréditation AAALAC International, respectant ainsi non seulement les lois locales, nationales et supranationales en matière de recherche sur les animaux mais également les normes mondialement reconnues du.. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.. (guide pour le traitement et l utilisation des animaux de laboratoire, publié par le.. National Research Council.. en 1996).. La liste des institutions ayant obtenu l accréditation AAALAC International peut être consultée sur le site.. http://www.. cfm.. (en anglais).. AFSTAL Journal Article,.. AAALAC INTERNATIONAL EN FRANCE.. ,.. (2012.. afstal.. com.. Avantages de l accréditation AAALAC International.. Cliquez ici pour de plus amples informations concernant les avantages de l.. accréditation AAALAC International.. Questions fréquentes.. Cliquez ici pour accéder aux.. questions fréquentes.. concernant AAALAC International.. Demande d accréditation AAALAC International.. Cliquez ici pour de plus amples informations sur.. la demande.. d accréditation AAALAC International.. Règles d accréditation.. Avant de demander l accréditation AAALAC, prenez le temps de vérifier que votre institution  ...   soins vétérinaires, les réglementations institutionnelles et les installations dans lesquelles les animaux sont hébergés et utilisés.. Le PSE peut servir de première étape vers l accréditation AAALAC International.. Cliquez ici pour de plus amples informations sur le.. Programme PSE.. Le Conseil d accréditation.. Les membres du Conseil d accréditation d AAALAC International effectuent les visites d évaluation qui déterminent quelles institutions recevront l accréditation AAALAC.. Le Conseil est composé de professionnels de soin et d utilisation des animaux et de chercheurs du monde entier.. Cliquez ici pour accéder à une liste des membres du.. Conseil d accréditation.. Organisations membres d AAALAC International.. Les organisations membres d AAALAC International sont des groupes scientifiques, professionnels et d enseignement prestigieux ayant pour objet le progrès de la recherche biomédicale et le bien-être des animaux utilisés pour la science.. Chaque organisation membre nomme un représentant au poste d administrateur du Conseil d administration d AAALAC International.. Cliquez ici pour consulter la liste actuelle des.. Organisations membres.. Conseillers ad hoc.. Les conseillers AAALAC ad hoc ou spécialistes assistent les membres du Conseil dans leurs visites d évaluation.. Parmi ces conseillers, nombreux sont ceux qui possèdent une expérience dépassant le domaine des espèces animales de laboratoire traditionnelles.. D autres ont des compétences disciplinaires uniques telles que la neuroscience appliquée, la science comportementale, la toxicologie, la pharmacologie ou la physiologie.. Ces spécialistes apportent à l équipe de visite sur les sites leurs compétences spécialisées et ils comprennent la complexité de la combinaison de missions de recherche avec le bien-être des animaux.. conseillers ad hoc.. Pour plus d informations, prenez contact avec AAALAC International à :..

    Original link path: /french/index.fr.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: German
    Descriptive info: Was ist AAALAC International?.. AAALAC International ist eine private nichtstaatliche Organisation, die mithilfe freiwilliger Bewertungs- und Akkreditierungsprogramme die humane Behandlung von Tieren in der Wissenschaft fördert.. AAALAC International steht für Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International.. Hunderte von Pharma- und Biotechnologieunternehmen, Universitäten, Krankenhäusern und anderen Forschungsinstituten in der ganzen Welt haben bereits die AAALAC-Akkreditierung erlangt, was von ihrem Engagement für die verantwortungsbewusste Haltung und Verwendung von Tieren zeugt.. Diese Institutionen streben freiwillig an, die Akkreditierung von AAALAC International zu erlangen und aufrechtzuerhalten, wodurch sie nicht nur die lokalen, nationalen und supranationalen Gesetze zu Tierversuchen, sondern auch die international anerkannten Standards der Richtlinien zur Haltung und Verwendung von Labortieren (1996 vom National Research Council herausgegeben) einhalten.. Ein Verzeichnis der von AAALAC International akkreditierten Institutionen steht unter.. (in Englisch) zur Verfügung.. Die Vorteile einer Akkreditierung durch AAALAC International.. Klicken Sie hier, um mehr über die Vorteile einer.. Akkreditierung durch AAALAC International.. zu erfahren.. Häufig gestellte Fragen.. Klicken Sie hier, um Antworten auf.. häufig gestellte Fragen.. zu AAALAC International zu erhalten.. Akkreditierung durch AAALAC International beantragen.. Klicken Sie hier, um zu erfahren, wie Sie die Akkreditierung durch AAALAC International.. beantragen.. Die Akkreditierungsregeln.. Bevor Sie die Akkreditierung durch AAALAC beantragen, sollten Sie sich einen Moment Zeit nehmen, um sicherzustellen, dass Ihre Institution antragsberechtigt ist.. Klicken Sie hier, um die..  ...   Tiere untergebracht und benutzt werden.. Die Programmstatusbewertung kann als erster Schritt zur Erlangung einer Akkreditierung durch AAALAC International dienen.. Klicken Sie hier, um mehr über die.. Programmstatusbewertung.. Der Akkreditierungsrat.. Mitglieder des Akkreditierungsrats von AAALAC International führen die Bewertung der Ortsbesichtigung durch, die festlegt, welche Institutionen die Akkreditierung erlangen.. Der Rat setzt sich aus einigen der besten Experten und Forschern in Sachen Tierhaltung und -verwendung aus der ganzen Welt zusammen.. Klicken Sie hier, um eine aktuelle Liste der Mitglieder des.. Akkreditierungsrats.. (in Englisch) zu erhalten.. Mitgliedsorganisationen.. Zu den Mitgliedsorganisationen von AAALAC International gehört eine ausgewählte Gruppe von angesehenen wissenschaftlichen Organisationen, Berufsverbänden und Bildungseinrichtungen, die sich für den Fortschritt in der biomedizinischen Forschung und das Wohlergehen der Tiere in der Wissenschaft einsetzen.. Jede Mitgliedsorganisation ernennt einen Vertreter, um im Treuhandausschuss von AAALAC International zu sitzen.. Klicken Sie hier, um eine aktuelle Liste der.. Ad-hoc-Berater.. Die Ad-hoc-Berater/Spezialisten von AAALAC unterstützen die Ratsmitglieder bei der Bewertung der Ortsbesichtigungen.. Viele dieser Ad-hoc-Berater besitzen Fachkenntnisse, die über den Bereich der herkömmlichen Labortierarten hinausgehen.. Andere besitzen einzigartige fachspezifische Kompetenzen, wie beispielsweise in angewandten Neurowissenschaften, Verhaltenswissenschaften, Toxikologie, Pharmakologie oder Physiologie.. Diese Spezialisten geben dem Besichtigungsteam einen größeren Erfahrungsbereich und sind sich darüber bewusst, wie kompliziert es ist, die Forschungsziele mit dem Wohlergehen der Tiere zu vereinbaren.. Um weitere Informationen zu erhalten, kontaktieren Sie AAALAC International bitte unter:..

    Original link path: /german/index.de.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Japanese
    Descriptive info: AAALAC.. ?.. Download handouts and presentations:.. About AAALAC International.. Applying for Accreditation.. The Benefits of AAALAC International Accreditation.. The Program Status Evaluation.. AAALAC International presentation at JALAS 2014.. AAALAC AAALAC Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International.. AAALAC AAALAC Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 1996 NRC.. AAALAC AAALAC International accreditation).. frequently asked questions.. how to apply.. AAALAC AAALAC.. AAALAC Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals NRC 1996 AAALAC AAALAC.. Reference Resources.. Program Status Evaluation PSE PSE AAALAC.. PSE PSE Program.. Council on Accreditation.. Member Organization.. Member Organizations.. ad hoc Consultants..

    Original link path: /japanese/index.jp.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Korean
    Descriptive info: (.. PDF.. AAALAC International Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International ( ).. , , ,.. AAALAC International , , , (1996 ).. ( ).. ( , 1996).. (PSE) , , , , , ,.. AAALAC International 1.. AAALAC International AAALAC International.. AAALAC International ,..

    Original link path: /korean/index.ko.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Spanish
    Descriptive info: Qué es AAALAC International?.. AAALAC International es una organización privada, no gubernamental, que promueve el trato humanitario de los animales en las actividades científicas mediante programas voluntarios de evaluación y acreditación.. AAALAC International significa Asociación Internacional para la Evaluación y Acreditación del Cuidado de Animales de Laboratorio (Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International).. Cientos de compañías farmacéuticas y biotecnológicas, universidades, hospitales y otras instituciones de investigación de todo el mundo han obtenido la acreditación de AAALAC, lo que prueba su compromiso con el cuidado y uso responsable de animales.. Estas instituciones buscan alcanzar y mantener la acreditación de AAALAC International, y cumplir de este modo no solo con las normas locales, nacionales e internacionales que regulan las investigaciones con animales, sino también con los estándares aceptados a nivel internacional de la Guía para el cuidado y uso de animales de laboratorio (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals) (publicada por el Consejo Nacional de Investigación [National Reserach Council] en 1996).. Se encuentra disponible una lista de las instituciones acreditadas por AAALAC International en:.. (en inglés).. Los beneficios de obtener la acreditación de AAALAC International.. Haga clic aquí para obtener más información sobre los beneficios de obtener.. la acreditación de AAALAC International.. Preguntas frecuentes.. Haga clic aquí para encontrar las respuestas a las.. preguntas frecuentes.. sobre AAALAC International.. Solicitud de acreditación de AAALAC International.. Haga clic aquí para obtener información sobre.. cómo solicitar.. Las Reglas de Acreditación.. Antes de solicitar la acreditación de AAALAC, asegúrese de que su institución reúna los requisitos.. Haga clic aquí para consultar las.. Reglas de Acreditación.. de AAALAC International.. Recursos de referencia de AAALAC  ...   instalaciones donde se alojan y se utilizan los animales.. La PSE puede constituir el primer paso hacia la obtención de la acreditación de AAALAC International.. Haga clic aquí para aprender más sobre el.. Programa PSE.. El Consejo de Acreditación.. Los integrantes del Consejo de Acreditación de AAALAC International realizan las evaluaciones mediante la visita del establecimiento para determinar a qué instituciones se otorga la acreditación de AAALAC.. El Consejo está compuesto por algunos de los mejores profesionales e investigadores de todas partes del mundo en el cuidado y uso de animales.. Haga clic aquí para consultar una lista actualizada de los integrantes del.. Consejo de Acreditación.. Organizaciones Miembro.. Las Organizaciones Miembro de AAALAC International están integradas por un grupo selecto de organizaciones científicas, profesionales y educativas prestigiosas que tienen interés en el progreso de la investigación biomédica y el bienestar de los animales en las actividades científicas.. Cada Organización Miembro designa un representante que actúa en el Consejo de Administración de AAALAC International.. Haga clic aquí para consultar una lista actualizada de.. Consultores ad hoc.. Los Consultores/Especialistas ad hoc de la AAALAC ayudan a los integrantes del Consejo en las valuaciones mediante la visita al establecimiento.. Muchos de estos Consultores tienen experiencia más allá del ámbito de las especies de animales de laboratorio tradicionales.. Otros tienen competencia en disciplinas excepcionales tales como neurociencia aplicada, ciencia del comportamiento, toxicología, farmacología o fisiología.. Estos especialistas añaden peso al equipo que realiza la visita al establecimiento y comprenden las dificultades de combinar las misiones de investigación con el bienestar de los animales.. Para obtener más información, comuníquense con AAALAC International enviando un mensaje de correo electrónico a:..

    Original link path: /spanish/index.sp.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Publications
    Descriptive info: Download AAALAC materials in Thai.. Thai.. Thai readers may request a free hard copy from TALAS Secretariat, Dr.. Wantanee Ratanasak, email:.. Wantanee.. rat@mahidol.. ac.. th.. The Benefits of AAALAC International Accreditation - THAI.. download now.. Applying for Accreditation - THAI.. About AAALAC International - THAI.. The Program Status Evaluation - THAI.. Chinese.. French.. German.. Japanese.. Korean.. Spanish..

    Original link path: /publications/thai.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Contact Us
    Descriptive info: If you would like more information on.. AAALAC,.. complete the form below and submit it directly to.. AAALAC's.. Executive Office.. at.. North American Office.. European Office.. Southeast Asia Office.. 5283 Corporate Drive.. Suite 203.. Frederick, Maryland 21703.. USA.. tel: 301-696-9626.. fax: 301-696-9627.. email:.. Apartado de Correos 266.. 31080 Pamplona.. Spain.. tel: +34 948 100026..  ...   Bangplee.. Samutprakarn, Thailand 10540.. tel: +662 175 5918.. fax: +662 175 5917.. Contact Name (required):.. Your E-mail (required):.. Title:.. Company:.. Street Address:.. City:.. State:.. Zip Code:.. Telephone:.. Fax:.. Questions or Comments:.. Enter the text above:.. Thank you for visiting the.. Web Site and requesting additional information.. We will be in touch with you shortly!..

    Original link path: /contact.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: About AAALAC
    Descriptive info: AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs.. AAALAC stands for the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care.. More than 900 companies, universities, hospitals, government agencies and other research institutions in 37 countries have earned AAALAC accreditation, demonstrating their commitment to responsible animal care and use.. These institutions.. volunteer.. to participate in AAALAC's program, in addition to complying with the local, state and federal laws that regulate animal research.. Some of the institutions that have earned AAALAC accreditation include the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, St.. Jude Children's Research Hospital, The  ...   But like others in the animal welfare arena, AAALAC endorses the use of animals to advance medicine and science when there are no non-animal alternatives, and when it is done in an ethical and humane way.. When animals are used, AAALAC works with institutions and researchers to serve as a bridge between progress and animal well-being.. This is done through AAALAC's voluntary accreditation process in which research programs demonstrate that they meet the minimum standards required by law, and are.. also.. going the extra step to achieve excellence in animal care and use.. In this way,.. AAALAC International is where science and responsible animal care connect..

    Original link path: /about/index.cfm
    Open archive

  • Title: AAALAC: Accreditation
    Descriptive info: Frequently Asked Questions.. (updated November 2013).. Please note that this newly restructured FAQ page includes new and revised questions related to the 8th edition of the.. (NRC 2011).. If you have a question not addressed in our FAQs, please email.. For further guidance, please refer to AAALAC International's.. On this page:.. AAALAC International's Assessment Process.. Animals Included in the AAALAC International Accredited Unit.. Institutional Responsibilities.. Animal Environment, Housing and Management.. Veterinary Medical Care.. Physical Plant.. Administration.. The Accreditation Process.. Maintaining Accreditation.. AAALAC INTERNATIONAL'S ASSESSMENT PROCESS.. AAALAC International's.. Three Primary Standards.. Application of Performance Standards.. ANIMALS INCLUDED IN THE AAALAC INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITED UNIT.. Animal ownership.. Invertebrate animals.. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES.. Allergy prevention.. Frequency of program review and facility inspection.. Harm-benefit analysis.. Nonaffiliated member of the IACUC.. Post-approval monitoring.. Program-wide IACUC/OB exceptions.. Reporting animal welfare concerns.. Surgery in investigator laboratories.. Non-Pharmaceutical-Grade Compounds.. Client-owned animals in veterinary colleges.. ANIMAL ENVIRONMENT, HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT.. Trio Breeding.. Cage sanitation frequency.. Chick and piglet environmental temperature.. Environmental enrichment.. Multiple animal species in a housing room.. Use of wood pallets for feed/bedding storage.. Social Housing and Social Experience.. Frequency of Monitoring Rodent Traps.. VETERINARY MEDICAL CARE.. Calibrating anesthetic equipment.. Aseptic surgery and alcohol as a disinfectant.. Intraoperative monitoring.. Rodent surgery record keeping.. PHYSICAL PLANT.. Designing a new facility or renovation.. Emergency power supply.. Exposed pipes and ductwork in the animal facility.. Hospital stops.. Humidity control.. Recycled air.. Vibration detection and suppression.. Windows in animal rooms.. MR Scanners and Cryogen Gas Storage.. Instructional Signage for Cage/Rack Washers and Bulk Autoclaves.. ADMINISTRATION.. How is AAALAC governed?.. What is the Council on Accreditation?.. How does someone become a Council member?.. What are ad hoc Consultants?.. How does someone become an ad hoc Consultant?.. How many animal care and use programs are accredited?.. Does AAALAC make its own regulations and policies?.. How extensive is an AAALAC evaluation?.. Are small programs eligible?.. Are agricultural animal programs eligible?.. How much does accreditation cost?.. THE ACCREDITATION PROCESS.. Program Descriptions.. Accreditation Fees.. Confidentiality.. Drop-In Visits.. Should vs.. Must.. MAINTAINING ACCREDITATION.. Annual Reports.. Reporting Requirements.. Members Only Section of the Website.. AAALAC International's Three Primary Standards.. I just read in an AAALAC announcement that accreditation assessments will be based on.. three primary standards.. , the 8th Edition of the.. , NRC 2011; the.. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching.. Ag Guide.. ), FASS 2010; and the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes, Council of Europe (ETS 123).. Our animal care and use program is located in the United States.. Does this mean that we now have to follow ETS 123 for our program to be accredited?.. The Council on Accreditation has used all three documents for several years and their adoption by AAALAC International's Board of Trustees as primary standards signifies the importance of these performance-based guidelines in the accreditation process.. AAALAC s Rules of Accreditation state The accreditable unit shall observe any and all statutes and governmental regulations which bear upon animal care and use including, but not limited to, the prevailing standards of sanitation, health, labor and safety of the jurisdiction(s) in which it is located.. The scope of applicability of ETS 123 is limited to the member countries of the Council of Europe that have voluntarily ratified the Convention, and thus it is not a prevailing standard in the United States.. There may be value, however, in reviewing AAALAC's collation of performance standards pertaining to cage/pen space excerpted from the.. and.. Appendix A.. of ETS 123 as each guidance document provides sound recommendations regarding housing environments for a variety of species.. For example, while the.. is silent on appropriate housing for ferrets, ETS 123 provides excellent guidance which would be useful for institutions around the globe.. ETS 123 may also be used for assessments of programs located outside of Europe that have established an institutional policy to follow this standard in addition to local regulations and guidelines.. AAALAC encourages institutions to make animal care and use determinations based on regulatory and funding requirements, overlaid with a performance approach that enhances animal welfare and quality science.. AAALAC International's Application of Performance Standards.. I know that AAALAC says that it uses a performance based approach in its accreditation assessments, but what does that really mean when you come to visit my institution?.. The use of performance criteria as a method to design and manage an animal care and use program was first described in the 7th edition of the.. (NRC 1996), but was expanded on in the 8th edition of the.. Even earlier editions of the.. (NRC 1985) state that professional judgment is essential in the application of these guidelines.. As AAALAC International uses the.. as a standard for its assessments, the accreditation program benchmarks whether institutions are achieving specified program outcomes (e.. g.. , adequate sanitation), without being prescriptive regarding the exact manner in which to achieve the outcome or goal.. While engineering standards specify in detail a method or technique for achieving a desired outcome, they do not provide for interpretation or modification of the technique should an alternative be equally acceptable.. Alternatively, performance standards define the outcome in detail and provide measurable criteria for assessing whether the outcome is achieved.. As noted in the 2011.. , the performance approach requires professional input, sound judgment, and a team approach to achieve specific goals.. Research in laboratory animal management and science provides new information which should be used to update the performance standards used at an institution.. AAALAC International recognizes that engineering standards can serve as a useful baseline for some program elements, but considers the application of sound professional judgment to be critical to a successful and contemporary animal care and use program.. For example, the 2011.. states that the recommended minimum cage height for rabbits is 16 (40.. 5 cm), while the U.. Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Regulations require a minimum of 14 (35.. 6 cm).. AAALAC recognizes that the acceptability of a cage height of 14 (40.. 5 cm) versus 16 (36.. 5 cm) is better judged based on a performance approach.. Using the performance language in the.. that animals must have enough space to express their natural postures and postural adjustments without touching enclosure walls or ceiling, AAALAC would observe whether the rabbits' ears could be held in an upright position (if this was natural for the breed) and were not folded over by contact with the cage ceiling.. AAALAC site visitors would give more consideration to the health, welfare and species-typical behavior of the animal than small differences in cage height or size.. In this manner, the performance approach fosters animal welfare and quality science.. return to top.. If animals.. owned by our institution.. are housed at another institution for production of antibodies, breeding transgenic colonies or quarantine, are these activities considered part of our AAALAC accredited program? Will the activities, facilities and program at the contract site be evaluated during our site visit?.. AAALAC follows animal ownership in terms of defining who is responsible for animals at an offsite program.. In the examples described, your institution has confirmed ownership of the animals; therefore, if the contractor's program is not AAALAC accredited, a description of the animal care and use activities and facilities provided by the contract facility must be included in your AAALAC Program Description.. The contract facility would also be visited during your triennial site visit and contractual agreements must provide for the review of the contracted facility by AAALAC site visitors.. Specifically, you would need to include a detailed description of the relevant portions of the contractor's program (e.. , facilities, husbandry, veterinary care, IACUC or comparable oversight body review, etc.. ) for those elements of their program that pertain to or impact the care and use of your animals.. The site visit team would also evaluate the portions of the contractor's facility(ies) that are relevant to your animals.. If the contract facility is a significant distance from your main facility, this may have bearing on the site visit logistics, and you should contact the AAALAC International office to discuss the situation.. During the scheduling of the dates of your site visit, the Council member leading the visit must be made aware that contract services are provided off-site by a non-accredited program.. If you initiate a contract with a program that is not accredited between accreditation site visits, this change should be reflected in your Annual Report to AAALAC.. If the contractor's program is separately accredited by AAALAC, it will not be necessary to visit that facility during the site visit to your institution.. Also, if your institution does not own the animals, but just owns the data (or intellectual property) that result from studies or procedures conducted using those animals, AAALAC will not visit the non-accredited site.. The Spring 2003 issue of the Connection Newsletter contains an in-depth article on this particular subject (page 6) and is available for downloading from the AAALAC International Web site (.. org/publications/newsletter.. As the scope of animal ownership and responsibility may vary depending on a country's regulations, policy and/or agency guidance, AAALAC International strongly encourages institutions be familiar with local prevailing standards as well as AAALAC's approach.. We use a variety of invertebrates in our research program and I heard somewhere that they have to be included as part of our accredited program.. Can you clarify this for me?.. The following statement is from the Rules of Accreditation as found on the AAALAC website:.. All animals used or to be used in research, teaching or testing at accreditable units are to be included and evaluated in accordance with the standards set forth in Section 2 of these Rules.. This includes traditional laboratory animals, farm animals, wildlife, and aquatic animals.. Nontraditional animals, inclusive of invertebrate species, are also included where they are relevant to the unit's mission.. Of particular concern to Council, vis-a-vis invertebrate colonies, is the inclusion of their review when such inclusion would benefit the program as a whole, or their exclusion would potentially jeopardize the overall program mission.. Also, Council acknowledges the need to evaluate management of invertebrate colonies when those colonies are within a core animal facility and therefore subject to creating, or being subject to, potential adverse influences from activities in adjacent spaces.. Possible areas of evaluation could include:.. Training of personnel caring for and handling the animals.. Husbandry practices, including sanitation, diet, and adequate space (especially if contiguous with vertebrate holding areas).. Health monitoring and record keeping.. Species interactions for those held in the same room or area.. Physical plant provisions (e.. , emergency power availability for species whose environment would be negatively impacted by a power outage).. Occupational health and safety risks (e.. , GFI circuitry, zoonotic diseases, containment of mosquitoes used in malaria research, etc.. While AAALAC does require that invertebrates used as a part of the research mission of the institution be included as part of the animal care and use program, there are many ways in which that can be accomplished.. Many institutions do not have a formal protocol for invertebrate work, but notify the Institutional Animal Care and Use or Ethics Committee or comparable oversight body (IACUC/OB) via letter about the work they will be doing with these species.. Or the oversight may be a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), policy statement, guideline, etc.. , that is reviewed by the IACUC/OB and delineates the committee's responsibility over the use of invertebrates and provides guidance to investigators using invertebrates.. Some of the issues the document may want to include are listed above.. The intensity of oversight by the IACUC/OB may depend on such things as the species of invertebrate being used and the type of procedures being performed.. Site visit teams will generally not review research activities involving lower level invertebrates such as zooplankton, sea slugs, nematodes, or mosquitoes, but will most likely review research with higher level invertebrates such as lobsters, squid or octopi.. For example, if invasive procedures are being conducted on a higher level invertebrate, an IACUC/OB approved protocol may be an appropriate requirement.. The guidance from AAALAC is, of necessity, flexible because it is likely that a site visit team would be very interested in the IACUC/OB oversight of invasive octopus research, as compared to oversight of work with zooplankton or nematodes.. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES.. The occupational health and safety department at our institution has recently required the use of additional equipment in the animal facility to minimize exposure of personnel to animal allergens (biosafety cabinets, cage changing stations and bedding dump stations).. They cite language in the 2011.. that prioritizes engineering controls for allergy prevention over personal protective equipment (PPE).. What is the AAALAC position regarding engineering controls for allergy prevention?.. The.. (NRC 2011) does emphasize the use of engineering or process controls for allergy prevention.. It also states that PPE should be used to supplement, not replace, engineering or process controls.. This guidance is made in the context of allergy prevention and early identification of personnel with emerging allergic symptoms.. also cites the extensive literature indicating that laboratory animal allergy has become a significant issue for those in contact with laboratory animals.. AAALAC International considers allergy prevention to be an important topic and a key component of the occupational health and safety program.. The use of engineering controls to prevent exposure to allergens is preferred as the primary means to minimize personnel exposure.. PPE should be used as an adjunct to engineering controls, rather than the foremost means of protection.. Keeping in mind that the activities most associated with allergen exposure are handling animals and cages with bedding, cage changing and dumping soiled bedding in the cage wash area, appropriate engineering controls may include: proper animal facility design and function with separation of functional spaces; a well designed and functional HVAC system with appropriate airflow patterns; consideration of newer cage designs which minimize personnel exposure; and the use of containment equipment such as biosafety cabinets, cage changing stations and bedding dump stations.. AAALAC International site visitors will continue to evaluate occupational health and safety programs and the methods used to prevent laboratory animal allergy through evaluation of personnel training, risk assessment by qualified occupational health and safety personnel, preventive medicine, periodic health evaluations, engineering controls, and the appropriate use of PPE.. Frequency of program review and facility inspection.. The 2011 ILAR.. (page 26) states that Program review and facilities inspections should occur at least annually or more often as required (e.. , Animal Welfare Act and PHS Policy).. Does this mean that if our institution is not subject to the Animal Welfare Act or PHS Policy that we can automatically reduce the frequency of our IACUC program reviews and facility inspections to an annual periodicity?.. AAALAC International expects program reviews and facility inspections by the IACUC (or comparable oversight body) be conducted at a frequency and intensity that ensure prompt identification of program issues, with rapid correction of identified deficiencies.. While national or regional regulations, policies and guidelines, as well as conditions of funding, may set a minimum frequency for such reviews, of greater importance to AAALAC is evidence of a highly engaged Committee that conducts thorough evaluations of the program and facilities, ensures corrective measures are taken in a timely manner, and that the program and facilities are adequately supporting the research, testing and teaching objectives of the institution.. Because the conduct of timely program reviews and facilities inspections can be an effective component of overall monitoring and oversight, AAALAC International encourages Committees to carefully consider the frequency of their evaluations in order to ensure quality animal care and science.. In certain programs and circumstances, self-assessments at frequencies greater than minimally required may be prudent.. On page 27, the.. (NRC 2011) indicates that for studies that have the potential for unrelieved pain or distress, there are special considerations for IACUC review.. Specifically, the.. indicates that the IACUC is obliged to weigh the objectives of the study against potential animal welfare concerns.. This seems to indicate that for studies involving the potential for pain and distress, the IACUC should conduct a harm/benefit analysis.. What does AAALAC expect with regard to Committee evaluation of these kinds of studies?.. The 2011.. specifies that the Committee is obliged to weigh study objectives against animal welfare concerns in accordance with the tenets of the Three R s.. This analysis is typically already performed by IACUCs in their reviews of proposed animal studies.. AAALAC International expects that IACUC s (or comparable oversight body), as part of the protocol review process, will weigh the potential adverse effects of the study against the potential benefits that are likely to accrue as a result of the research.. This analysis should be performed prior to the final approval of the protocol, and should be a primary consideration in the review process.. For studies potentially involving unrelieved pain and distress, the AAALAC International site visitors will assess whether the Committee has conducted this analysis.. We are considering using a former employee as our nonaffiliated member.. They are no longer affiliated with our program and they are familiar with the type of research we perform.. Are there any concerns with this approach?.. ), NRC 2011, does offer some guidance on the issue of what should be some of the traits of the nonaffiliated (public) member.. states this person should represent the general community interests in the proper care and use of animals, should not be laboratory-animal users, and not be affiliated with the institution or be members of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the institution.. The OLAW/ARENA Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook (which is an AAALAC International reference resource) expands on this by stating that the nonaffiliated member can bring significant value to the committee by bringing a non-institutional perspective to the research endeavor.. For programs with an NIH Assurance, OLAW provides some additional guidance in their frequently asked questions section of their website (.. http://grants.. nih.. gov/grants/olaw/faqs.. htm#IACUC_1.. ) by stating that the unaffiliated member should have no discernable ties or ongoing affiliation with the institution, and may not be a member of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with the institution.. Immediate family includes parent, spouse, child and sibling.. Appointment of an individual who is unambiguously nonaffiliated is the best way to fulfill the letter and spirit of this provision.. Using a former employee as the nonaffiliated member is certainly a gray area that might come into question during a site visit based on the above guidance, especially in context of the comments about the value of that member bringing a non-institutional perspective to the research endeavor and not having any discernable ties or ongoing affiliation with the institution.. While not specifically prohibited, the Institutional Official should give special consideration to the use of a former employee as a nonaffiliated member to ensure that both the intent and the spirit of the.. are being met.. Post-approval monitoring.. We are an accredited institution located outside the United States.. (NRC 2011) states that continuing IACUC oversight of animal activities is required by federal laws, regulations and policies.. We don t have any specific laws or regulations requiring an IACUC, though we have other equally effective methods of program oversight (e.. , government inspections, animal welfare officer, etc.. Will AAALAC require us to hire compliance staff to perform post-approval monitoring to maintain our accreditation?.. notes the value of having a mechanism in place to help ensure that animal study procedures are conducted in accordance with the approved protocol.. Post-approval monitoring (PAM) programs vary from reliance on existing activities performed by the IACUC (or comparable oversight body) to very extensive supplemental audits of protocols and the entire program conducted by compliance staff.. Although AAALAC agrees that ensuring compliance with approved protocols is critical, AAALAC International interprets the.. recommendation for a PAM program in the broadest sense for the international community, namely that there will be a system for ensuring animal procedures conform with the approved protocol or study plan.. At some recent meetings I have heard the terms program-wide exception and global exception used when talking about an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or comparable oversight body (IACUC/OB) approving exceptions to the.. Can you clarify these terms for me?.. ), NRC 2011 supports the use of performance standards in the event that acceptable alternative methods to engineering standards are available or unusual circumstances arise.. With the advent of new scientific information and new technology, there are situations where new methods or procedures not described in the.. may be available and result in equal or greater welfare for the animals involved.. In most cases, these exceptions involve a specific project or are limited in scope within an animal care and use program.. Occasionally, exceptions are wider in scope and may involve the entire animal care and use program or even apply globally in the case of organizations with facilities in multiple countries; these are often referred to as program wide and global exceptions, respectively.. In all cases where practices deviate from.. standards, AAALAC expects each IACUC/OB to establish an ongoing, documentable, site specific, data driven approach that allows for approval and monitoring of exceptions to the.. These criteria are essential to ensure that performance standards are properly developed and implemented in accordance with the intent of the.. My institution is located outside the United States and there is no government requirement for our institution to develop a mechanism for reporting animal welfare concerns, though we have good lines of communication within our institution so that we are certain that any concerns would be discussed with management.. (NRC 2011) describes a number of specific elements of a reporting system.. Are all of these required?.. AAALAC International recognizes that the regulatory requirement for a defined method for reporting animal welfare concerns is primarily limited to the United States.. However, as noted in the.. , it is the responsibility of everyone associated with the animal care and use program to ensure animal welfare.. In some instances, this may involve having to make a formal report regarding a welfare concern.. Providing a method by which such reports can be made anonymously and without fear of reprisal, and enhancing staff awareness of the importance and means of reporting animal welfare concerns through training, the posting of signage, and other communication modalities are critical elements of the reporting program.. It is AAALAC's expectation that such reports will be investigated by the appropriate oversight body (e.. , the IACUC or comparable oversight body) and that any necessary corrective actions will be taken.. In addition, AAALAC International should be informed of the results of the investigation and any subsequent corrective measures.. Surgery in investigator laboratories.. An investigator at my institution regularly performs survival surgical procedures on rodents in her laboratory.. Our IACUC has reviewed and approved these activities.. The recently updated.. states that the laboratory should be dedicated only to surgical activities during the time that surgery is performed.. Does this mean that all other activities in the laboratory must stop while surgery is being performed? What is AAALAC s opinion?.. (NRC 2011) states, For most survival surgery performed on rodents and other small species such as aquatics and birds, an animal procedure laboratory, dedicated to surgery and related activities when used for this purpose and managed to minimize contamination from other activities conducted within the room at other times, is recommended.. AAALAC International acknowledges that limiting nonsurgical activities in the laboratory may help to minimize contamination of the surgical area.. However, AAALAC recognizes that minimizing contamination during surgery may be achieved by considering several factors.. The specific location of the surgical area within the laboratory should promote the proper conduct of sterile technique, and to the extent possible, it should be isolated from other activities in the laboratory.. The surgical area should be dedicated for that purpose while surgery is performed.. Other factors that may impact the risk of contamination include the invasiveness and complexity of the surgical procedure, duration of surgery, and the nature of other non-surgical activities conducted in the laboratory (i.. e.. their likelihood of increasing the risks of surgical contamination).. For complex or long procedures, or if the layout of the laboratory does not permit a suitable dedicated surgical space, it may be advisable to temporarily stop other laboratory activities, thereby dedicating the laboratory to surgery in order to maximize the potential for a good surgical outcome.. For minor surgeries of short duration, conducted in a suitable area within the laboratory, it may be acceptable to allow other laboratory activities to continue if they do not jeopardize aseptic technique.. The investigator, IACUC (or comparable oversight body) and veterinarian should evaluate surgical areas to ensure they are appropriate.. Our IACUC receives protocols that require use of drugs or other chemicals not formulated for clinical use, which we understand to be characterized as non-pharmaceutical-grade compounds.. We would appreciate AAALAC's guidance on the distinction between pharmaceutical- and non-pharmaceutical- grade compounds and how to evaluate this aspect of these protocols.. A pharmaceutical-grade compound is defined as any active or inactive drug, biologic or reagent, for which a chemical purity standard has been established by a recognized national or regional pharmacopeia (e.. , the U.. Pharmacopeia (USP), British Pharmacopeia (BP), National Formulary (NF), European Pharmacopoeia (EP), Japanese Pharmacopeia (JP), etc.. ).. These standards are used by manufacturers to help ensure the products are of the appropriate chemical purity and quality, in the appropriate solution or compound, to ensure stability, safety, and efficacy.. AAALAC International acknowledges that in an animal care and use program non-pharmaceutical-grade compounds often are necessary for scientific research.. Where the use of non-pharmaceutical-grade substances may be essential for the conduct of science, the goal of the IACUC (or comparable oversight body) should be to consider the health and well-being of the animals while aiding the researcher in minimizing potentially confounding experimental variables and maximizing reproducibility of the research.. The Council on Accreditation will apply a performance approach to its assessment of the use of non-pharmaceutical-grade compounds, and will expect that the IACUC (or comparable oversight body) has established acceptable criteria for use of such compounds within the institution and for review and approval of their use.. AAALAC distinguishes between two scenarios when considering the use of non-pharmaceutical-grade compounds:.. Clinical Use -.. compounds used for the clinical treatment of animals and to prevent or reduce/eliminate animal pain or distress.. Whenever possible, pharmaceutical-grade compounds must be used.. Research Use -.. compounds used to accomplish the scientific aims of the study.. If available, and suitable, pharmaceutical-grade compounds are preferred; but when non-pharmaceutical-grade preparations are used, AAALAC International will expect investigators and the IACUC (or comparable oversight body) to consider the following factors:.. - Use must be compliant with applicable national or regional regulatory guidelines and requirements and the requirements of relevant funding agencies;.. - A scientific justification is provided;.. - The pharmaceutical-grade compound is not available in the appropriate concentration or formulation or the appropriate vehicle control is unavailable.. - The compound is required to generate data that are part of an ongoing study or that are comparable to previous work;.. - The chemical properties of the compound are appropriate for the study and the route of administration (e.. , the purity, grade, stability in and out of solution, solution vehicle properties, pH, osmolality, and compatibility of the solvent and other components of final preparation).. In some cases the reagent-grade of the compound may be as or more pure than the pharmaceutical-grade; and.. - The method of preparation, labeling (i.. , preparation and use-by dates), administration and storage of formulations should be appropriately considered with the aim of maintaining their stability and quality (i.. , to prevent inadvertent co-administration of infectious agents or contaminants).. Our AAALAC accredited Veterinary College is struggling over whether or not there is a requirement for client-owned animals to be covered under a protocol since they are used for teaching purposes for veterinary students during their clinical rotations, or when they become part of a research study.. AAALAC International has had a long standing policy of following animal ownership as a mechanism for determining inclusion in the accredited animal care and use program.. This was highlighted in the.. Spring 2003 Connection Newsletter.. that described the AAALAC International Rules of Accreditation regarding contract facilities and how ownership determines responsibility.. The concept of ownership also applies to Colleges of Veterinary Medicine where client-owned animals are brought in for care.. Even though there are some teaching and research activities involved with this scenario, the animals are not owned by the  ...   samples), history of power failures, and facility design issues that could impact personnel safety during a power failure.. Exposed pipes and ductwork in the animal facility.. Can we have exposed pipes and ductwork in our animal facility?.. ), NRC 2011 states on page 139 that exposed plumbing, ductwork, and light fixtures are undesirable unless the surfaces can be readily cleaned.. Construction materials that can not be readily cleaned, such as insulation, or materials such as exposed electrical wiring in an environment that will be constantly wet or with a high humidity level would not be acceptable.. While not optimal, exposed ductwork or plumbing can be acceptable in animal rooms or support areas if they can be readily cleaned and there is a good program in place for routine sanitizing of these components.. Having many horizontal surfaces in an animal facility makes sanitizing more difficult, but it can be accomplished through good practices, as long as all of the surfaces are sealed or fabricated of impervious materials that are capable of being sanitized.. For animal containment facilities, the report,.. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.. (CDC/NIH 2009), states that Internal facility appurtenances, such as light fixtures, air ducts, and utility pipes, are arranged to minimize horizontal surface areas, to facilitate cleaning and minimize the accumulation of debris or fomites.. When designing new animal facilities, you should also consider the cost of future personnel time in keeping all the ductwork and pipes clean versus the cost of placing them in the interstitial space or using a suspended ceiling.. While suspended ceilings may be an alternative, they are not the most desirable type of ceiling in animal or animal support areas.. But, they can be used if they are fabricated of impervious materials and free of imperfect junctions (page 138-139 of the.. We are in the midst of designing a new animal facility and the architect recommended the use of hospital stops in the door frames because they aid in cleaning.. Does AAALAC have an opinion about the use of these types of door frames?.. (NRC 2011) states that, Hospital or terminated stops are useful to aid in cleaning.. AAALAC international acknowledges that these types of door frames do aid cleaning and can be helpful for that reason.. There may be some draw backs to these kinds of door frames in certain circumstances because there can be gaps between the door and the frame which may permit the passage of vermin or feral and escaped rodents.. also states that, Doors should fit tightly within their frames, and both doors and frames should be appropriately sealed to prevent vermin entry or harborage.. For areas of the animal facility in which biosecurity is paramount (barriers, holding areas for breeding genetically modified animals, etc.. ), careful consideration of the type of doors and frames is important to ensure proper biocontainment or bioexclusion.. Humidity control.. Our institution is located in a geographic area with wide seasonal swings in relative humidity.. Our animal facility is able to maintain humidity in the.. (NRC 2011) recommended range of 30-70%, but often does not meet the ± 10% variation around the set point.. Will this jeopardize our accreditation status?.. does, in fact, recommend humidity be controllable within a range of 30-70% throughout the year.. However, AAALAC International would assess the variation around the set point from a performance approach.. Therefore, if no issues were identified by the institution or the AAALAC site visit team that would compromise the health and well-being of the animals or jeopardize the integrity of animal studies, then it is not likely that the Council on Accreditation would consider this variation a problem.. If, however, animal welfare or study issues had been reported that could be linked to variation in relative humidity, then AAALAC would expect the institution to aggressively address the lack of control of humidity to ensure animal welfare and reliable data.. Recycled air.. The 8th edition of the.. (NRC 2011) has changed the guidance offered to institutions regarding the use of recycled air to ventilate animal rooms as compared to the recommendations in the 1996.. Can we now relax our previously rigidly held standard that no more than 50% of the air delivered to an animal room can be recycled?.. AAALAC International has determined that the discussion in the 2011.. regarding recycling air should be augmented with several points noted in the 1996.. In general, the use of non-recycled air is preferred for ventilation of most animal use and holding areas.. If recycled air is used, the exhaust air should be HEPA-filtered (high efficiency particulate air-filtered) to remove airborne particles before it is recycled; the extent and efficiency of filtration should be proportional to the estimated risk.. Gaseous filtration, such as with activated charcoal filters, should also be considered when recycling air.. The supply air should not exceed 50% recycled air and recycled air should be returned only to the room or area from which it was generated, except if it comes from other than animal housing areas and the source of the air poses no concerns for animal health.. An exception to this recommendation would be mass air displacement clean-rooms, which generally use a minimum of 75% recirculated air due to their extremely high air exchange rates, which can be up to 700 air changes per hour for some clean-room classes.. In all cases, the recycled air should be appropriately conditioned and mixed with sufficient fresh air to address air quality, thermal and humidity requirements of animals in the space.. As noted in both the 1996 and 2011 editions of the.. , the risk in some situations may be too great to consider recycling air.. Vibration detection and supression.. We are planning the design and construction of a new animal facility and intend for the new facility to be part of our AAALAC accredited program.. states that.. all.. vibration should be minimized with vibration suppression systems.. What does this mean and how will AAALAC International address this issue once the new facility is operational?.. (NRC 2011) mentions the issue of vibration in several sections.. Page 50 states that, Attempts should be made to minimize the generation of vibration, including from humans, and excessive vibration should be avoided.. This statement refers to the management of laboratory animal facilities and employing practices that minimize vibration associated with animal care and research activities.. On page 153 it states,.. attempts should be made to identify all vibration sources and isolate or dampen them with vibration suppression systems (ASHRAE 2007b).. This statement refers to consideration of sources of vibration that may affect the building, and especially the animal facility and animals.. While it may be impractical to identify and dampen all sources of vibration that may affect the animal facility, it is recommended that major sources of vibration be considered during the planning, design and construction phases of the project.. Sources such as nearby roadways, trains or even seismic activities in some geographic areas may need to be considered and, to the extent possible, dampened.. Sources of vibration within the facility such as cage wash areas, elevators and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems should also be considered so that vibration from mechanical equipment is minimized.. The AAALAC International Program Description outline elicits this kind of information so that AAALAC site visitors understand the measures taken to identify and mitigate the major sources of vibration.. Our institution is preparing to initiate the design phase of a new animal facility and we see from the new.. that we should not consider including windows in our animal rooms.. We had been considering putting windows in our primate rooms because our sister company in Europe does this.. What is AAALAC s opinion on having windows in animal housing rooms?.. (NRC 2011) states that The presence of windows in an animal facility, particularly in animal rooms, creates a potential security risk and should generally be avoided.. AAALAC International recognizes that the inclusion of windows in animal rooms warrants consideration of potential security issues, as well as possible variation in the circadian rhythm of animals exposed to varying periods of daylight and room temperature fluctuations.. However, AAALAC also acknowledges that windows are required for certain species (e.. , nonhuman primates, dogs, cats, pigs) in some countries and can, in fact, be beneficial for several laboratory animal species.. Indeed, AAALAC currently accredits many institutions where animals are housed in rooms with windows.. The institution should evaluate the use of windows in animal rooms in the context of the species housed in the room, the type of research being conducted on those animals relative to the potential impact varying light and temperature levels may have on the experimental data, and the physical security of the area when making the determination regarding the inclusion of windows.. The IACUC (or comparable oversight body) and other relevant staff should be involved in this decision-making process.. Our animal care and use program has two MR preclinical imaging suites located in separate buildings on campus and several small areas containing liquid nitrogen storage tanks that off-gas as part of routine operations.. One MR scanner is a new model (4.. 7 tesla) with modern safety equipment in the room including a quench pipe that vents cryogen boil off gases to the outside, standard animal room ventilation rates (18 to 20 exchanges/hour), and an oxygen sensor.. The other MR scanner is an older model (4.. 7 tesla) without a quench pipe or oxygen sensor in the scanner room.. Additionally, cryogen gases are stored in the MR space to refill the magnet.. According to the 8th Edition of the.. , rooms with MR scanners or in which cryogen gases are stored must be equipped with oxygen sensors and a method for increasing room ventilation to exhaust inert gases during cryogen filling.. Does this imply that we have to install oxygen sensors and ensure increased ventilation rates in all areas in which cryogen is stored or used in MR magnets?.. states "rooms with MR scanners or in which cryogen gases are stored.. must.. be equipped with oxygen sensors and a method for increasing room ventilation to exhaust inert gases during cryogen filling.. " AAALAC International recognizes that institutions may apply a variety of alternative methods to maintain personnel safety in areas where cryogen gases are used, including the presence of quench pipes that exhaust to the outside, increased ventilation rates in rooms where gases are used or stored, separation of the operator from the MR instrument, or combinations of these measures.. AAALAC International uses a performance approach to assess the adequacy of the institution's own risk assessment that involves appropriate safety personnel and takes into account these various measures to ensure personnel safety.. AAALAC acknowledges that situations may exist in which the application of alternate safety measures may obviate the need for installation of oxygen sensors or specialized ventilation.. Hazard identification and risk assessment are ongoing processes and institutions should identify relevant hazards and implement commensurate safeguards for those hazards.. Cryogen storage areas and MR scanner rooms have numerous hazards including oxygen depletion, metallic projectiles, and interference with pacemakers.. AAALAC International expects that all institutions, through their occupational health and safety program, will conduct a critical risk assessment of hazards identified in the animal care and use program.. The AAALAC International Position Statement on safety requirements for walk-in cage/rack washers and bulk sterilizers states that equipment operators must receive appropriate training as to minimize their risk and.. proper instructional signage should be posted.. Can you provide any guidance as to the content and location of the instructional signage referenced in the Position Statement?.. For cage/rack washers and bulk autoclaves that present a risk for entrapment, it is very important that safety features be clearly identified at their location and posted with instructions for use.. While the location and use of safety features such as de-energizing pull-cords, explosion release door latches and emergency shut-down buttons or switches may seem obvious during training, it is easy to become confused and disoriented during an emergency situation when seconds can make a difference.. All safety features should be clearly identified and have legible instructional signage located adjacent to or on the safety feature, readily visible and easy to read and comprehend in an emergency situation.. Examples of signage that accomplish this include, but are not limited to the following: signs on or next to the de-energizing cables in a rack washer which read "in an emergency, pull safety cable"; signs on the designated push-points on the inside of explosion release doors which read "push here to open door"; and a sign next to the emergency stop button on a bulk autoclave which reads "in an emergency, push to stop cycle.. ".. AAALAC International (the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International) is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through a voluntary accreditation program, a Program Status Evaluation service, and educational programs.. More than 870 animal care and use programs around the world have earned AAALAC International accreditation, demonstrating their commitment to responsible animal care and use.. These programs include academic institutions, commercial organizations, hospitals and government agencies.. AAALAC has been working to promote animal well-being and enhance life sciences research and education since 1965.. AAALAC is governed by a.. The Board consists of more than 60 prestigious scientific, educational and professional organizations they are referred to as AAALAC's Member Organizations.. Each of these Member Organizations appoints a representative to serve a three-year term on the AAALAC Board.. By actively involving major organizations, AAALAC International remains responsive to the issues that members face, while making sure that members of the scientific community understand and support the AAALAC International accreditation program.. is at the heart of AAALAC's mission and work.. The Council is comprised of highly accomplished animal care and use professionals from around the globe who conduct the program assessments that determine which institutions are awarded AAALAC accreditation.. Their responsibilities include conducting site visits, reviewing site visit reports, evaluating information, reviewing yearly reports from accredited institutions, and conferring the accreditation status of institutions.. The Council is divided into North American, European, and Pacific Rim Sections.. Council members are appointed by the Board and are typically selected from AAALAC's pool of ad hoc Consultants/Specialists (see next question).. Potential new members are nominated by current Council members, Board members, or colleagues from AAALAC Member Organizations.. Council members are highly qualified and knowledgeable about diverse animal program and management issues.. Many are veterinarians or animal care and use professionals.. AAALAC maintains a worldwide pool of more than 300.. ad hoc Consultants/Specialists.. who have expertise beyond the realm of traditional laboratory animal species as well as specific expertise (for example, in aquatics, or agricultural science).. Many also have unique discipline competencies, such as applied neuroscience, behavioral science, toxicology, pharmacology or physiology.. Ad hoc Consultants/Specialists accompany Council members on site visits and make recommendations to the Council.. These specialists add depth to the site visit team.. They understand the intricacies of combining research, testing and educational missions with animal well-being.. Individuals who want to become an ad hoc Consultant/Specialist submit an.. application to become a Consultant.. Once a year, a committee of the Council reviews all applications and selects candidates based on established guidelines.. Ad hoc Consultants/Specialists must have a minimum of four years training or experience in the care or use of laboratory animals.. Their experience must show that they have acquired knowledge of performance standards and regulations, and have demonstrated an interest in, and commitment to, laboratory animal science.. Ad hoc Consultants/Specialists serve a three-year term.. Currently, more than 850 animal care and use programs in 34countries have earned AAALAC International accreditation.. These programs include academic institutions, commercial organizations, agricultural research programs, government agencies, hospitals, nonprofit organizations, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies.. No, AAALAC is not a regulatory body and does not make or enforce regulations.. Instead, AAALAC relies on widely accepted guidelines, such as the.. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.. (NRC 2011), and other resources.. AAALAC does, however, publish.. position statements.. that can be used as supplemental guidelines in dealing with certain issues, such as the use of farm animals, occupational health and safety, or adequate veterinary care.. AAALAC also publishes its.. Rules of Accreditation,.. a document that lists the minimum criteria institutions must meet.. before.. they can apply for accreditation.. AAALAC evaluates all aspects of an animal care and use program.. An animal program (as defined by AAALAC) includes an organization's procedures and overall performance in animal care and use.. The basic components that are evaluated include (but are not limited to) institutional policies, animal husbandry, veterinary care and the physical plant.. Yes.. AAALAC encourages every animal program, large or small, to achieve the highest standards for responsible animal care and use.. The standards used to evaluate programs are universal, and can be implemented in programs of any size.. Likewise, programs using nontraditional research animals, such as fish or birds, are also encouraged to seek accreditation.. Programs that use agricultural animals in research or for teaching are embracing the AAALAC accreditation program.. The G.. uide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching.. (FASS), along with the.. (NRC 2011), is used to provide general parameters for the use of agricultural animals.. For animals in an agricultural setting, AAALAC International takes the position that, in accredited facilities, the housing and care for farm animals should meet the standards that prevail on a high-quality, well-managed farm.. For further guidance please see our.. Position Statement.. on this subject.. How much does accreditation cost?.. Organizations seeking and maintaining accreditation are asked to pay a one-time application fee and subsequent annual fees.. Both of these fees are based on a sliding scale that generally correlates with the size of an institution s animal facility.. An institution that has very few animals will pay much smaller fees than one that maintains a large vivarium and extensive support areas.. The fees cover the cost of periodic site visits and administrative expenses.. AAALAC International determines the group classification during the review of the application.. This classification, based primarily on the size of the facility and the time necessary to conduct a site visit, establishes a fair fee schedule.. The established fee schedule may be amended as necessary to reflect the costs of operating the accreditation program.. Revocation of accreditation shall be automatic if a unit is twelve (12) months in arrears for payment of fees.. Please see.. org/accreditation/fees.. for the fee schedule.. Payment may be made by check, credit card, wire transfer (contact the AAALAC International office for bank details), or purchase order.. Program Description.. What are the deadlines for submitting a Program Description to AAALAC International? When would the site visit occur?.. Trimester.. Due Date.. Site Visit Occurs.. Site Visit Report Preparation.. Council Meeting.. Summer.. April 1.. May-July.. August.. September.. Fall.. August 1.. September - November.. December.. January.. Winter.. December 1.. January - March.. April.. May.. Organizations seeking accreditation are required to submit a non refundable fee with the application materials.. This fee covers the cost of the initial site visit.. All applicants granted Provisional or Full Accreditation status pay an annual fee.. Annual fees cover the cost of subsequent regularly scheduled triennial site revisits.. The cost for interim site revisits conducted before the three-year interval, whether initiated by AAALAC International or the institution, will be borne by the institution.. How does AAALAC ensure confidentiality?.. Unlike many government regulatory systems, the entire accreditation process is confidential.. The accreditation evaluation and its results are kept between the organization seeking accreditation and AAALAC International even if deficiencies are found.. AAALAC's purpose is to provide a peer-evaluation that results in valuable information organizations can use to improve their programs and achieve new levels of excellence.. Board and Council members, ad hoc Consultants and AAALAC staff are all required to sign confidentiality agreements.. Conflict-of-interest statements are also signed by each site visitor.. AAALAC representatives agree to treat all materials as privileged, and safeguard the materials in their possession.. Of course, accredited organizations are free to share their AAALAC reports if they choose to do so.. Drop-In Visits.. Our institution just received notice that AAALAC International will be conducting a drop-in visit.. How does this differ from our routinely scheduled site visit and what are its implications?.. Since 1989, and with endorsement of AAALAC s Board of Trustees, AAALAC has conducted drop-in visits both for cause and not-for-cause.. While very rare, drop-in visits of either type may occur between the routinely scheduled triennial visits.. In both cases, relatively short notice (one day to a few days) of the pending drop-in visit is provided.. The scope of the drop-in visit is typically very focused; more rarely, the entire animal care and use program may be reviewed during a drop-in visit.. Costs for the drop-in visit are absorbed by AAALAC.. Occasionally, a site visit team will conduct a drop-in visit to an institution in an area where a routinely scheduled visit is occurring at another organization.. These visits may be prompted by significant programmatic changes that have occurred at the institution subsequent to the routine site visit, such as critical organizational changes, an about-face in a commitment made to Council (e.. , re-opening an animal housing area that had been closed in response to a site visit observation), etc.. Such not-for-cause visits provide the Council on Accreditation an update as to the status/functioning of the institution.. Drop-in visits for cause may be conducted following a meeting of the Council on Accreditation, during which the Council has determined that an issue identified during the regularly scheduled site visit was of sufficient seriousness that immediate follow-up by the Council, in the form of an additional on-site assessment, was necessary.. Occasionally, a drop-in visit for cause may be initiated by the Executive Office following receipt of a verifiable allegation related to the animal care and use program at an accredited institution.. Reports of observations made during either type of drop-in visit are taken to the Council on Accreditation.. The observations made during a not-for-cause drop-in often result in no action being taken by the Council regarding the institution s accreditation status.. Alternatively, the report may prompt the Council to require the institution to provide additional documentation regarding the matter, or the Council may determine that a full site visit needs to be scheduled earlier than the typical three-year interval.. The observations made during a drop-in for cause visit may result in no change to the accreditation status of the institution or the institution may be placed on less than Full Accreditation pending correction of the issue.. "Should" vs.. "Must".. , like its 1996 predecessor, distinguishes between and provides definitions for the terms "should" and "must" to provide the.. Committee's interpretation of the relative importance of the recommendations made.. It is not clear to me how these "shoulds" and "musts" translate into the mandatory items for correction and suggestions for improvement used by AAALAC International.. Would you please clarify this?.. states that, ".. Must.. indicates actions that the Committee for the Update of the.. considers imperative and mandatory duty or requirement for providing humane animal care and use.. Should.. indicates a strong recommendation for achieving a goal; however, the Committee recognizes that individual circumstances might justify an alternative strategy.. " Given the fundamental importance of the recommendations in the.. that are prefaced with a "must," AAALAC's Council on Accreditation typically categorizes site visit findings that do not conform with a "must" statement in the.. as a Mandatory item for correction.. In AAALAC's nomenclature, a Mandatory item is a serious deviation from the recommendations of the.. , and/or other AAALAC International standards, which has to be corrected to achieve or continue Full Accreditation.. This judgment is based on the Council's assessment of the potential for the program deficiency to adversely affect the health, well-being or safety of animals or humans.. The second category of findings identified by AAALAC during the on-site assessments of animal care and use programs is comprised of Suggestions for Improvement (SFIs).. These are recommendations that the Council on Accreditation feels are desirable to upgrade an already acceptable or even commendable program.. SFIs are used to draw attention to recommendations that are typically denoted as "should" statements in the.. AAALAC considers the offering of SFIs to be an element of the peer review process that is designed to assist accredited programs by sharing the cumulative knowledge and experience of the Council.. It should be noted that there is no obligation for institutions to make program changes based on suggestions for improvement; implementation of suggestions is, however, one means of promoting a high quality animal care and use program.. Also, an SFI does not automatically become a Mandatory item for correction during the next site visit cycle if the same situation (e.. , procure, practice, etc.. ) is observed.. However, if an issue is identified that is a "should" statement in the.. , but is one of numerous issues noted within the same program area that collectively signal a broader problem, then it may be wrapped into a Mandatory item for correction.. It is also worthwhile to note that several requirements in the.. are not prefaced with the word "must.. " Other terminology is occasionally used to convey the same level of imperative for complying with the statement.. Examples include:.. -.. the IACUC.. is obliged.. to weigh the objectives of the study against potential animal welfare concerns.. ".. - "Information that.. is critical.. to the IACUC's assessment of appropriate endpoint consideration in a protocol includes precise definition of the humane endpoint (including assessment criteria), the frequency of animal observation, training of personnel responsible for assessment and recognition of the humane endpoint, and the response required upon reaching the humane endpoint.. - "The committee.. is responsible.. for oversight and evaluation of the entire Program and its components.. - "An.. integral component.. of veterinary medical care is prevention or alleviation of pain associated with procedural and surgical protocols.. " In summary, while the words "should" and "must" are generally associated with SFIs and Mandatory items for correction, respectively, the site visit finding is ultimately judged by the Council on Accreditation in the context of AAALAC's Three Primary Standards as well as the scope and impact of the issue.. Are there specific due dates for the Annual Reports?.. Each year in mid-December, the AAALAC International office makes available the online Annual Report form.. There are no specific due dates for submitting an Annual Report.. However, AAALAC International s Rules of Accreditation require that you submit an Annual Report in order to maintain your accreditation.. An institution may choose from a variety of reporting periods (e.. , University fiscal year, calendar year, federal government fiscal year, government oversight body reporting period, etc.. ) as the AAALAC International reporting period.. Please be sure that the period covered is continuous with previous reports (i.. , there are no gaps and all periods are covered by a report).. What type of information is provided in the Annual Report?.. Annual Reports should provide notification of any:.. Protocol violations.. Animal use not approved by IACUC.. Protocol suspensions.. Changes in facility size, location, name.. Changes in IACUC composition or members.. Other changes in the animal care and use program.. Can we use the same animal numbers reported to USDA for the AAALAC International Annual Report?.. Yes, but remember we also need animal numbers for species not regulated by the USDA.. Reporting requirements.. What information should be reported to AAALAC International?.. Adverse events to be reported promptly:.. Unexpected animal deaths.. Natural disasters.. Significant animal rights activities.. Inappropriate euthanasia techniques and/or failure to confirm euthanasia.. Allegations/complaints/reports regarding animal welfare concerns.. Lack of veterinary care.. OLAW/USDA investigations.. Other information to be reported promptly:.. Changes in unit contact (please include degree, title, address, phone and fax numbers, and email).. if.. site visit is pending before Annual Report is to be submitted.. Can we submit copies of incident reports sent to the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW or the USDA) to the AAALAC International Executive Office?.. Yes, you can submit copies of correspondence addressed to OLAW or USDA regarding reportable incidences.. Please note that not all issues that are reportable to OLAW or USDA require immediate reporting to AAALAC.. See Question What information should be reported to AAALAC International?.. I cannot access the Member s Only section.. How do I get the username and password?.. The username and password is provided only to the designated Unit Contact at your institution.. This individual may share this information with other members of the institution..

    Original link path: /accreditation/faq_landing.cfm
    Open archive





  • Archived pages: 155