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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science(AJTS): Free full text articles from Asian J Transfus Sci
    Descriptive info: .. Home.. About Journal.. Search.. Current Issue.. Ahead of print.. Back Issues.. Instructions.. Subscribe.. Login.. Users: 5.. Current Issue:.. July-December 2014| Vol 8| Issue 2.. Editorial.. Red cell alloimmunization in transfused patients: A silent epidemic revisited.. Hemchandra Pandey, Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra Chaudhary.. Alloimmunization consists of the induction of immunity in response to foreign antigen(s) encountered through exposure to cells or tissues from a genetically different member of the same species.. [1] I.. [Abstract].. |.. [HTML Full text].. [PDF].. [Mobile HTML Full text].. [EPub].. Illustration.. Turbid plasma donations: Need for quantification.. Naveen Agnihotri, Lokesh Kumar.. Illustration No objective guidelines exist regarding handling of turbid blood units in developing countries.. Therefore, use or  ...   is publication of Indian Society of Blood Transfusion and Immunohemtology (ISBTI).. It is the extension of 'Transfusion Bulletin' of ISBTI which was published in the year 1980 and it disseminated the knowledge of transfusion science to all members of ISBTI for 26 years.. The bulletin was circulated quarterly on regular basis among more than two thousand members of ISBTI, all medical college libraries and all blood banks (about 2200 in number) in India.. It is a special window.. More.. Search Articles.. List of advertisers.. Contact us.. Sitemap.. Advertise.. What's New.. Feedback.. Copyright and Disclaimer.. © 2006 - 2014 Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Published by.. Medknow.. Online since 10.. th.. November, 2006..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): About us
    Descriptive info: Users: 9.. About Us.. The bulletin was circulated Semiannual on regular basis among more than two thousand members of ISBTI, all medical college libraries and all blood banks (about 2200 in number) in India.. It is a special window particularly for the Asian scientists to put forward their scientific materials to the world community.. This journal will try to become a mouth-piece of the scientific community from the developing world.. Abstracting and Indexing Information.. The journal is indexed with Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases , CAB Abstracts, Caspur, CINAHL, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), DOAJ, EBSCO Publishing s Electronic Databases, EMCARE, Expanded Academic ASAP, Genamics JournalSeek, Global Health, Google Scholar, Health Wellness Research Center, Health Reference Center Academic, Hinari, Index Copernicus, Indian Science Abstracts, IndMed, National  ...   in the country working for promotion of Voluntary Blood Donation and supply safe blood in the country.. Society was established in 1972 at PGI, Chandigarh.. The Society has done admirable job by banning the professional blood donor through judgment of Honorable Supreme Court in 1996, established National and State Blood Transfusion Council and assisted the Govt.. of India for Implementing National Blood Policy.. This is a national organization for Blood Banking, Transfusion Medicine and Donor Recruitment activities in India.. Established on 28th December 1973 in Chandigarh, the society has risen to a national level with about 2000 members on its rolls.. The society is registered under the Society Registration Act as a Voluntary Organization.. Audit report.. Medknow Publications.. The Journal.. Online Submission.. Addresses.. Most Popular Articles.. My Preferences..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Search
    Descriptive info: Login.. Your search words will be searched in article title, abstract and full text of all the articles.. To search for articles by type, specialty or year of publication, please use Advanced Search features.. Keyword.. separated by space.. Author Name.. separated by comma (e.. g.. Smith R, Jacob B).. Search across.. multiple journals.. In this journal.. © 2006 -.. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science |Published by..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Table of Contents
    Descriptive info: Coming soon.. ORIGINAL.. 1.. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods.. 2.. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of Red Cell units and salvaging un-transfused Red Cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting.. 3.. Optimising cord blood collections: Assessing the role of maternal and neonatal factors.. 4.. Detection of rare blood group, Bombay (Oh) phenotype patients and management by acute normovolaemic hemodilution (ANH).. 5.. Serial changes in morphology and biochemical markers in platelet preparations with storage.. 6.. Automated Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) in blood banks- an additional layer of blood safety.. 7.. Comparative analysis of activity of coagulation factors V and VIII and level of Fibrinogen in Fresh Frozen Plasma and Frozen Plasma.. 8.. A multivariate analysis to assess the effect of Packed Red Cell transfusion and the unit age of transfused red cells on post operative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries.. 9.. Prevalence  ...   two cases of anti-M antibody in antenatal patients.. Case Report: A Case Of Hepatitis E In A Blood Donor.. Approach to a case of multiple irregular red cell antibodies in a liver transplant recipient – need for developing competence.. Maternal Anti M Induced Haemolytic Disease of Newborn Followed by Prolonged Anaemia in Newborn Twins.. In-house preparation of lectin panel and detection of Tn polyagglutination.. Anti – N antibody reacting at 37 C: an unusual occurence interfering with routine testing: Two interesting cases.. OTHERS.. Study of Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization in Multitransfused Thalassemic Children of Jammu Region.. LETTER TO THE EDITOR.. Further Evidence for Naturally Occurring Anti Jka Antibodies.. Undetermined blood loss due to accidental injury and its management in a male patient of classical Bombay (Oh) phenotype in a hospital in remote part of east India.. Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test: High False Positivity or Important Marker of High Risk Behaviour.. Clinical Efficacy and Application of Therapeutic plasma Exchange: A tertiary care centre experience from Jammu..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Table of Contents
    Descriptive info: Table of Contents.. Author Institution Mapping.. Reviewer Institution Mapping.. Citations.. Access Statistics.. View as eBook.. Total articles.. : 291,.. Full text.. : 291.. Figures next to 'Accessed' indicate the number of times the articles in that issue have been viewed on this site.. Most popular articles.. Most cited articles.. Vol.. 8.. 2014.. Suppl 1 (Apr).. Page Nos.. s1-s87.. Accessed - 973.. Issue 2 (Jul-Dec).. 75-146..  ...   - 18550.. 1-95.. Accessed - 27405.. 6.. 2012.. 137-194.. Accessed - 34553.. 1-129.. Accessed - 34128.. 5.. 2011.. 117-191.. Accessed - 56049.. 1-109.. Accessed - 58235.. 4.. 2010.. 71-141.. Accessed - 52020.. 1-69.. Accessed - 45967.. 3.. 2009.. 57-112.. Accessed - 53955.. 1-56.. Accessed - 34441.. 2.. 2008.. 45-90.. Accessed - 38189.. 1-23.. Accessed - 44398.. 1.. 2007.. 45-105.. Accessed - 98964.. 3-38.. Accessed - 81544..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Instructions for authors
    Descriptive info: Users: 7.. Instructions to Authors.. Types of Manuscript.. Authorship Criteria.. Contribution Details.. Submission Of The Manuscript.. Preparation of Manu.. Protection of Patients.. Submitting a revised.. Reprints.. Copyrights.. Checklist.. Contributors form.. Download Instructions.. The manuscripts will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that they are being submitted to one journal at a time and have not been published, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere.. The Editors review all submitted manuscripts initially.. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific flaws, or absence of importance of message are rejected.. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged.. Other manuscripts are sent to two or more expert reviewers without revealing the identity of the contributors to the reviewers.. Each manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team, who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript.. Within a period of 10 to 12 weeks, the contributors will be informed about the reviewers comments and acceptance/rejection of manuscript.. Articles accepted would be copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format.. Page proofs will be sent to the first contributor, which has to be returned within three days.. Correction(s) received after that period may not be included.. The contributor may provide names of two or three qualified reviewers who have had experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but who are not affiliated with the same institutes as the contributor/s.. Types of Manuscripts and Limits.. Original articles:.. Randomised controlled trials, interventional studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rate.. Up to 3000 words excluding references and abstract.. Review articles:.. Systematic critical assessments of literature and data sources.. Up to 4000 words excluding references and abstract.. Case reports:.. New/interesting/very rare cases can be reported.. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority, whereas, mere reporting of a rare case may not be considered.. Up to 1000 words excluding references and abstract and up to 10 references.. Letter to the Editor:.. Should be short, decisive observation.. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation.. Up to 400 words and 4 references.. Announcements.. of conferences, meetings, courses, awards, and other items likely to be of interest to the readers should be submitted with the name and address of the person from whom additional information can be obtained.. Up to 100 words.. Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions.. to conception and design or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data;.. drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and.. final approval of the version to be published.. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met.. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship.. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship.. Each contributor should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.. The order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor towards the study and writing the manuscript.. Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors.. For a study from a single institute the number of contributors should not exceed six.. For a case-report, images, Letter to the Editor and review article the number of contributors should not exceed four.. A justification should be included, if the number of contributors exceed these limits.. Only those who have done substantial work in a particular field can write a review article.. A short summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.. The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review.. The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of article and should be sent as letter to editor, as and when major developments occur in the field.. Contributors should provide a description of what each of them contributed towards the manuscript.. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concepts, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing, and manuscript review.. Authors contributions will be printed on the first page of the article.. One or more author should take responsibility of the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to published article and should be designated as guarantor.. Submission of the Manuscripts.. Articles must be submitted online from http://www.. journalonweb.. com.. New authors will have to register as author, which is a simple two step procedure.. For online submission articles should be prepared in two files (first page file and article file).. Images should be submitted separately.. First Page File:.. Prepare the title page, covering letter, acknowledgement, etc.. using a word processor program.. All information which can reveal your identity should be here.. Use text/ rtf/doc/pdf files.. Do not zip the files.. Article file:.. The main text of the article, beginning from Abstract till References (including tables) should be in this file.. Do not include any information (such as acknowledgement, your names in page headers, etc.. ) in this file.. Use text/rtf/doc/pdf files.. Limit the file size to 400 kb.. Do not incorporate images in the file.. If file size is large, graphs can be submitted as images separately without incorporating them in the article file to reduce the size of the file.. Images:.. Submit good quality color images.. Each image should be less than 400 kb in size.. Size of the image can be reduced by decreasing the actual height and width of the images (keep up to 1024x760 pixels or 5 inches).. All image formats (jpeg, tiff, gif, bmp, png, eps, etc.. ) are acceptable; jpeg is most suitable.. Legends:.. Legends for the figures/images should be included at the end of the article file.. The copyright form duly signed by all the authors is to be uploaded directly on website within two weeks from the date of submission of new manuscript.. Preparation of the Manuscript.. The text of observational and experimental articles should be divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables, Figures, Figure legends, and Acknowledgment.. Do not make subheadings in these sections.. Send laser printout, on white thick paper, of A4 size (212 297 mm), with margins of 25 mm (1 inch) from all the four sides.. Type or print on only one side of the paper.. Use double spacing throughout.. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page.. The language should be American English.. Title Page.. The title page should carry.. Type of manuscript (e.. Original article, Case Report).. The title of the article, should be concise, but informative;.. Running title or short title not more than 50 characters;.. The name by which each contributor is known (Last name, First name and initials of middle name), with his or her highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation;.. The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed;.. The name, address, phone numbers, facsimile numbers and e-mail address of the contributor responsible for correspondence about the manuscript;.. The total number of pages, total number of photographs and word counts separately for abstract and for the text (excluding the references and abstract);.. Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;.. Acknowledgement, if any; and.. If the manuscript was presented as part at a meeting, the organisation, place, and exact date on which it was read.. Conflict of Interest of any of the authors.. If there is no conflict please state that fact.. Abstract Page.. The second page should carry the full title of the manuscript and an abstract (of no more than 150 words for case reports, brief reports and 250 words for original articles).. The abstract should be structured and state the Context (Background), Aims, Settings and Design, Materials and Methods, Statistical analysis used, Results and Conclusions.. Below the abstract should provide 3 to 10 key word.. Introduction.. State the purpose of the article and summarise the rationale for the study or observation.. Methods.. The Methods section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written; all information obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section.. Selection and Description of Participants:.. Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.. Because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explain their use when they are included in a study report; for example, authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded.. The guiding principle should have clarity about how  ...   should not duplicate textual material.. Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.. Type or print out each table with double spacing on a separate sheet of paper.. If the table must be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet followed by (contd.. ).. Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.. Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.. For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, , , , ||, **, ,.. Illustrations (Figures).. Submit three sets of figures.. Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, colour photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches.. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.. Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid use of liquid gum for pasting) on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure.. Do not write the contributor/s name/s.. Do not write on the back of figures, scratch, or mark them by using paper clips.. Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size.. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.. When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.. The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.. If photographs of people are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.. If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material.. A credit line should appear in the legend for figures for such figures.. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable.. For digital images send TIFF files of minimum 1200 x 1600 pixel size.. The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.. Legends for Illustrations.. Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the Instructions for Authors 100 Asian Journal of Transfusion Science - Vol 7, Issue 1, January - June 2013 credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations.. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend.. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.. Protection of Patients Rights to Privacy.. Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc.. , and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication.. Informed consent for this purpose requires that the patient be shown the manuscript to be published.. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the article and copy of the consent should be attached with the covering letter.. Submitting a revised manuscript.. All revised manuscripts should be submitted online.. A photocopy of the first page of all the cited references (articles and books) can be asked by the journal to verify the references.. Journal provides no free printed reprints.. It is mandatory to purchase minimum reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.. The whole of the literary matter in the journal is copyright and cannot be reproduced without the written permission of the Editorial Board.. (to be tick marked as applicable and one copy attached with the manuscript).. Manuscript Title.. Covering letter.. Previous publication / presentations mentioned.. Source of funding mentioned.. Conflicts of interest disclosed.. Authors.. Middle name initials provided.. Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided.. Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions.. Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as our study , names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.. ).. Presentation and format.. Double spacing.. Margins 2.. 5 cm from all four sides.. Title page contains all the desired information.. Running title provided (not more than 50 characters).. Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript.. Abstract provided (about 150 words for case reports and 250 words for original articles).. Structured abstract provided for an original article.. Key words provided (three or more).. Introduction of 75-100 words.. Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS).. References cited in square brackets.. References according to the journal s instructions, punctuation marks checked.. Language and grammar.. Uniformly American English.. Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time.. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out.. Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out.. Tables and figures.. No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text.. Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided.. Figures necessary and of good quality (colour).. Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman).. Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written).. Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words).. Patients privacy maintained (if not permission taken).. Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided.. (to be modified as applicable and one signed copy attached with the manuscript).. Manuscript Title: ______________________________________________________________.. I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor.. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work.. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter.. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately.. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/ information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees.. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter.. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter.. I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, in the event that such work is published by the Asian Journal of Transfusion Science.. The Asian Journal of Transfusion Science shall own the work, including 1) copyright; 2) the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3) the right to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4) the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format.. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf.. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named.. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.. Name Signature Date signed.. 1 __________________________________________.. 2 __________________________________________.. 3 __________________________________________.. 4 __________________________________________ (up to 4 contributors for case report/images/review).. 5 __________________________________________.. 6 __________________________________________ (up to 6 contributors for original studies).. These ready to use templates are made to help the contributors write as per the requirements of the Journal.. Save the templates on your computer and use them with a word processor program.. Click open the file and save as the manuscript file.. In the program keep Document Map and Comments on from View menu to navigate through the file.. Download.. Template for Original Articles/ABSTRACT Reports.. (.. DOT file).. Template for Case Reports.. Template for Review Articles.. Template for Letter to the Editor.. Reference style (PPS)..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Subscription Information
    Descriptive info: Subscriptions.. Subscription rates.. Subscription rates for the year 2014.. *.. Click here to subscribe online.. India (INR).. Overseas (USD $).. Individual.. Institute.. Base Amount.. Taxes.. Print.. 1200.. 0.. 00.. 120.. 250.. Online.. 900.. 111.. 24.. 100.. 12.. 36.. 200.. 24.. 72.. Print+Online.. 1500.. 37.. 08.. 150.. 71.. 325.. 27.. Single Issue.. 750.. 75.. 156.. PDF & Epub Policy:.. Full text access is free in HTML pages; however the Journal allows PDF and EPub access only to paid subscribers..  ...   Media Pvt.. Ltd.. B-9, Kanara Business Centre, Off Link Road, Ghatkopar (E), Mumbai - 400075, INDIA.. Cheque should favour "Medknow Publications And Media Pvt.. ".. Please allow at least six to eight weeks for commencement of new subscription.. Claims for missing issues can be made only within one month of publication.. Agent's discount: 5% (Should include the form giving details of end user).. **.. Prices not including taxes.. Additional taxes applicable.. Click to.. Print / Download form.. Download Form..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS): Login
    Descriptive info: To access some of the advanced features (e.. adding comments on articles, adding a meeting, viewing a PDF or making your favorite list) you need to login.. Registration is free of any charge.. New Registration.. Benefits of registering online.. If you are a subscriber,.. click here.. to login.. OR.. If you have already registered with any of the journals by.. , please enter your username and password to continue.. User Name.. Password.. Forgot Password ?..

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  • Title: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science (AJTS):Email page
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  • Title: Red cell alloimmunization in transfused patients: A silent epidemic revisited Pandey H, Das SS, Chaudhary R - Asian J Transfus Sci
    Descriptive info: EDITORIAL.. Year.. : 2014 |.. Volume.. : 8 |.. Issue.. : 2 |.. Page.. : 75-77.. Hemchandra Pandey.. Sudipta Sekhar Das.. Rajendra Chaudhary.. Department of Transfusion Medicine, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.. Department of Transfusion Medicine, Apollo Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.. Correspondence Address.. :.. Department of Transfusion Medicine, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, Uttar  ...   ] [.. PDF.. ]*.. Next article.. Previous article.. Similar in PUBMED.. Search Pubmed for.. Pandey H.. Das SS.. Chaudhary R.. Search in Google Scholar for.. Citation Manager.. Reader Comments.. Email Alert.. Add to My List.. * Requires registration (Free).. Article Access Statistics.. Viewed.. 190.. Printed.. 5.. Emailed.. 0.. PDF Downloaded.. Comments.. [Add]..

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  • Title: Red cell alloimmunization in transfused patients: A silent epidemic revisited Pandey H, Das SS, Chaudhary R - Asian J Transfus Sci
    Descriptive info: Click.. here.. for correspondence address and email.. Date of Web Publication.. 24-Jul-2014.. How to cite this article:.. Pandey H, Das SS, Chaudhary R.. Asian J Transfus Sci 2014;8:75-7.. How to cite this URL:.. Asian J Transfus Sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2014 Aug 24];8:75-7.. Available from:.. ajts.. org/text.. asp?2014/8/2/75/137433.. [1].. It is one of the major complications of regular blood transfusions, particularly in patients who are chronically transfused.. Blood group antigens can be immunogenic in individuals who lack the corresponding antigen on their red blood cells (RBCs).. This mismatch can occur during transfusion of antigen positive blood into someone who is antigen-negative, or during pregnancy when the mother lacks a blood group antigen that is contained on the fetal RBCs.. In the former case, this can result in immunization of the transfusion recipient and the production of alloantibody that may cause a hemolytic transfusion reaction.. [2].. Observational studies in random patients, who most often receive incidental transfusions, and pregnant women estimated the antibody prevalence between 1-3%.. This incidence increases in multiply transfused patients and transfusion-dependent patients which include patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), severe thalassemia syndromes, severe aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and other congenital or acquired chronic anemias.. The incidence in these patient groups has been reported to vary from 8% to 76% among different countries.. [3].. The reported prevalence of alloimmunization in multi-transfused patients in India is comparatively low varying from approximately 3% to 10%.. [4].. ,.. [5].. [6].. In the study by Dhawan et al.. [7].. in this journal, the incidence of red cell alloimmunization is relatively low (5.. 64%), which is in accordance with studies from India.. This low rate of alloimmunization may be explained by the presumed high phenotypic compatibility between blood donors and the patients.. The genetic disparity between patient and donor RBC phenotypes is considered to be the main reason for the high immunization risk in patients with SCD in USA.. Especially, C, Fya, Fyb, Jkb and S RBC antigens are significantly less frequent (P 0.. 001) in the predominantly black sickle cell patients than in the predominantly white donors.. [8].. and antibodies against these antigens are more frequently found than in most other patients.. Studies in sickle cell patients performed in Jamaica.. [9].. with a closer racial matching of donor and recipients, showed a 3 times lower immunization risk compared with European and American studies (9% vs.. 27%).. This led to the policy to prophylactically match donor RBCs for RH and K antigens in patients with hemoglobinopathies.. Other factors implicated in RBC alloantibody formation include recipient sex and age, history of pregnancy, number and timing of blood transfusions, recipient clinical diagnosis and treatment, genetic factors related to the antigenic response, and racial differences between donors and recipients.. [10].. The formation of red cell antibodies may be influenced by the patients' age at which the transfusions are given or when chronic transfusion therapy is started.. Four studies on RBC alloimmunization performed in (preterm) neonates who received multiple transfusions during the first 3-4 months of life did not encounter any RBC antibodies.. [11].. Furthermore, in hemoglobinopathy patients it has been shown that alloimmunization risk was significantly lower in patients who started transfusion therapy at a very young age ( 3 years) compared with those who started later in life.. [12].. Dhawan et al.. in this issue also observed the same.. Age at first transfusion was significantly higher in alloimmunized (23.. 28 months) than nonimmunized patients (14.. 43 months) (P = 0.. 042).. An immature immune system and some form of acquired immune tolerance to allogeneic RBC antigens are held responsible for the reduced alloimmunization risk.. Other than ABO antibodies most other clinically significant antibodies to red cell surface antigens are immunoglobulin G (IgG) and produced in response to immunization by antigen-positive red cells: Either donor red cells following transfusion or cells of fetal origin, following fetomaternal hemorrhage during pregnancy or at parturition.. The antigens most frequently involved in alloimmunization belong to the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, Lewis and MNS blood group systems.. in this issue also reported that out of total 23 alloantibodies detected in 319 transfused thalassemic patients, 87.. 17% belonged to Rh and Kell blood group  ...   clinical hemolysis called AIHA, and in difficulty in cross-matching blood.. Patients with autoantibodies may have a higher transfusion rate and often require immunosuppressive drugs or alternative treatments including intravenous IgG and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody).. Philip and Jain 2014.. [17].. in this issue reported a case of thalassemia patient who developed autoantibodies with severe hemolysis and difficulty in finding suitable unit of blood.. The case was successfully managed by Rituximab along with extended phenotype matched blood.. However, one should be careful in interpretation of positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in a multi-transfused patient as delayed hemolytic reactions can also give rise to positive DAT, mixed field reaction and clinical hemolysis.. This should be ruled out by elution and serial monitoring of DAT in such patients.. Approaches for prevention or treatment of alloimmunization range from provision of RBCs matched for all the major antigens associated with clinically significant antibodies to blood matched only for antibodies that have already been made.. In the first approach an extended RBC phenotype (ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, Lewis, MNS) of the patient is done before commencing transfusion therapy and antigen-matching for C, E and K antigens is performed for patients without prior alloantibody formation.. However, the expense and the feasibility of antigen-matched blood may not permit such a transfusion approach in some medical centers.. For economic reasons, such centers can match the blood for antibodies common in their populations.. The second approach involves transfusing matched blood only for patients who first proved to be "antibody producers" as this may reduce expenses and increase the availability of matched blood.. Zimring JC, Welniak L, Semple JW, Ness PM, Slichter SJ, Spitalnik SL,.. et al.. Current problems and future directions of transfusion-induced alloimmunization: Summary of an NHLBI working group.. Transfusion 2011;51:435-41.. Daniels G, Poole J, de Silva M, Callaghan T, MacLennan S, Smith N.. The clinical significance of blood group antibodies.. Transfus Med 2002;12:287-95.. Poole J, Daniels G.. Blood group antibodies and their significance in transfusion medicine.. Transfus Med Rev 2007;21:58-71.. Lamba DS, Kaur R, Basu S.. Clinically Significant Minor Blood Group Antigens amongst North Indian Donor Population.. Adv Hematol 2013;2013:215454.. PUBMED.. ].. Shukla JS, Chaudhary RK.. Red cell alloimmunization in multi-transfused chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis.. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1999;42:299-302.. Sood R, Makroo RN, Riana V, Rosamma NL.. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice.. Asian J Transfus Sci 2013;7:135-9.. Dhawan HK, Kumawat V, Marwaha N, Sharma RR, Sachde S, Bansal D,.. Alloimmunization and autoimmunization in transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients.. Study on 319 patients.. Asian J Transfus Sci 2014;8:84-8.. Singer ST, Wu V, Mignacca R, Kuypers FA, Morel P, Vichinsky EP.. Alloimmunization and erythrocyte autoimmunization in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients of predominantly asian descent.. Blood 2000;96:3369-73.. Olujohungbe A, Hambleton I, Stephens L, Serjeant B, Serjeant G.. Red cell antibodies in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease: A comparison of patients in Jamaica and the United Kingdom.. Br J Haematol 2001;113:661-5.. Natukunda B.. Red blood cell alloimmunization and antigen matching in sickle cell disease - The African perspective.. ISBT Sci Ser 2012;7:129-33.. Strauss RG, Johnson K, Cress G, Cordle DG.. Alloimmunization in preterm infants after repeated transfusions of WBC-reduced RBCs from the same donor.. Transfusion 2000;40:1463-8.. Spanos T, Karageorga M, Ladis V, Peristeri J, Hatziliami A, Kattamis C.. Red cell alloantibodies in patients with thalassemia.. Vox Sang 1990;58:50-5.. 13.. Pahuja S, Pujani M, Gupta SK, Chandra J, Jain M.. Alloimmunization and red cell autoimmunization in multitransfused thalassemics of Indian origin.. Hematology 2010;15:174-7.. 14.. Noor Haslina MN, Ariffin N, Illuni Hayati I, Rosline H.. Red cell autoantibodies among thalassaemia patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.. Singapore Med J 2007;48:922-5.. 15.. Advani R, Sorenson S, Shinar E, Lande W, Rachmilewitz E, Schrier SL.. Characterization and comparison of the red blood cell membrane damage in severe human alpha- and beta-thalassemia.. Blood 1992;79:1058-63.. 16.. Castellino SM, Combs MR, Zimmerman SA, Issitt PD, Ware RE.. Erythrocyte autoantibodies in paediatric patients with sickle cell disease receiving transfusion therapy: Frequency, characteristics and significance.. Br J Haematol 1999;104:189-94.. 17.. Philip J, Jain N.. Resolution of alloimmunization and refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a multi-transfused beta thalassemia major patient.. Asian J Transfus Sci 2014;8:128-30.. * Registration required (free).. 191..

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