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  • Title: - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology
    Descriptive info: .. Blog.. Books of the Center.. Conferences.. Contacts.. Feature Article.. How to Contribute.. Personnel.. Pro Ecclesia.. Welcome.. In One Body Through the Cross.. Registration Form for the 2014 conference.. Welcome.. The Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology is an ecumenical organization that seeks to cultivate faithfulness to the gospel of Jesus Christ throughout the churches.. The Center nurtures theology that is catholic and evangelical, obedient to Holy Scripture and committed to  ...   churches to claim their identity as members of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.. It affirms the Great Tradition and seeks to stimulate fresh thinking and passion for mission.. To achieve this goal the Center sponsors projects, conferences and publications.. Links to other pages:.. Information on How to Contribute.. - The Princeton Proposal for Christian Unity.. Copyright 2014.. Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology.. Powered by.. WordPress.. Design by.. Sekimori..

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  • Title: Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology - Ecumenical theology in the tradition of the Church
    Descriptive info: Welcome!.. on.. March 20th, 2012.. by.. admin.. Welcome to the blog of the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology! We are exploring just what we want to do with this blog.. I hope it will be a place to note important theological and ecclesial events, to comment on the passing scene, and to  ...   be noting contributors as plans develop.. You can expect to see some of the regular participants in CCET events and publications.. Check back and see how this develops.. Michael Root.. Posted in.. Uncategorized.. |.. No Comments.. Search.. Recent Posts.. Welcome!.. Recent Comments.. Archives.. March 2012.. Categories.. Meta.. Log in.. Entries.. RSS.. Comments.. org..

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  • Title: Books of the Center - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology
    Descriptive info: Books of the Center.. The first book in our new.. Pro Ecclesia.. series with Cascade Books Wipf Stock has appeared.. THE MORALLY DIVIDED BODY: Ethical Disagreement and the Disunity of the Church.. James J.. Buckley and Michael Root, eds.. At the same time as Catholic and Protestant Christians have increasingly come to agree on issues that divided them during the sixteenth-century reformations, they seem increasingly to disagree on issues of contemporary morality and ethics.. Do such arguments doom the prospects for realistic full communion among the churches? Or are such disagreements a new opportunity to convert together to the triune God s word and work on the communion of saints for the world? Or should our hope be different than simple pessimism or optimism? In this volume, eight authors address different aspects of these questions, hoping to move Christians a small step further toward the visible unity of the church.. Contributors:.. Frederick Bauerschmidt, Robert Jenson, Beth Barton Schweiger, Joseph Small, Susan Wood, David Yeago, James Buckley, Michael Root.. 156 pages.. 978-1-61097-764-7.. Order.. here.. =========================================================.. Books from our former series with Eerdmans:.. SHARPER THAN A TWO-EDGED SWORD.. Preaching Teaching, and Living the Bible.. Keen insight for preaching and teaching Scripture are to be found in these pages.. Several respected scholars here discuss how to read and live the Bible theologically in our contemporary context.. How to read the Bible theologically for the sake both of faithful mission and the Christian life stands at the center of the authors’ concerns.. Thomas E.. Breidenthal, James J.. Buckley, Ellen F.. Davis, Richard B.. Hays, Robert W.. Jenson, Amy Plantinga Pauw, R.. R.. Reno, Michael Root.. 111 pages / 6 x 9.. 978-0-8028-6271-6.. THE ECUMENICAL FUTURE.. Carl E.. Braaten Robert W.. Jenson, eds.. Early in 2003 a group of sixteen theologians from various church traditions published The Princeton Proposal, a current and critical statement on the present state and future possibilities of modern ecumenism.. The Ecumenical Future, then, illuminates the scholarly studies behind the development of The Princeton Proposal in the form of fourteen essays that provide a focused examination of the issues that still divide the church and of the common ground that is still mutually to be discovered.. Contributors: William J.. Abraham, P.. Mark Achtemeier, Brian E.. Daley, S.. J.. , John H.. Erickson, Vigen Guroian, Lois Malcolm, R.. Reno, Michael Root, William G.. Rusch, Geoffrey Wainwright, Susan K.. Wood, Telford Work, David S.. Yeago.. 237 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-2671-7.. JEWS AND CHRISTIANS.. People of God.. While Christians and Jews have always been aware of their religious connections historical continuity, overlapping theology, shared Scriptures that awareness has traditionally been infected by centuries of mutual suspicion and hostility.. As this important volume shows, however, theologians and scholars of Judaism and Christianity alike are now radically rethinking the relation between their two covenant communities.. Contributors: Carl E.. Braaten, David B.. Burrell, Barry Cytron, Reidar Dittmann, David Bentley Hart, Robert W.. Jenson, Jon D.. Levenson, George Lindbeck, Richard John Neuhaus, David Novak, Peter Ochs, Wolfhart Pannenberg, R.. Kendall Soulen, Marvin R.. Wilson.. 198 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-0507-8.. THE LAST THINGS.. Biblical and Theological Perspectives on Eschatology.. In modern theology the last things of traditional Christian doctrine have largely been ignored or replaced with various metaphysical, psychological, or ethical reinterpretations of Christianity.. This volume takes the biblical vision of the future seriously once again, explaining the significance of Christian eschatology for the faith and theology of the contemporary church.. Braaten, Paul D.. Hanson, Arland J.. Hultgren, Robert W.. Jenson, Philip D.. W.. Krey, John A.. McGuckin, George L.. Murphy, David Novak, Wolfhart Pannenberg.. 169 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-4878-8.. $16.. 00.. THE STRANGE NEW WORD OF THE GOSPEL.. Re-Evangelizing in the Postmodern World.. This volume provides serious theological reflection on Christian missions within postmodern, post-Christian culture.. In today s postmodern culture many people are turning to religion, but they are not necessarily finding their way back to  ...   interpretation of the theology of Martin Luther, initiated by the writings of Tuomo Mannermaa of Helsinki University.. At the heart of this Finnish breakthrough in Luther research lies the theme of salvation.. Four noted scholars of Mannermaa s circle contribute supporting chapters in related areas and four American theologians provide critically appreciative responses to the Finnish theologians work.. Contributors: Tuomo Mannermaa, Simo Peura, Antti Raunio, Sammeli Juntunen, Risto Saarinen, Robert W.. Jenson, Carl E.. Braaten, William H.. Lazareth, Dennis Bielfeldt.. Read Michael Plekon s review of Union with Christ 192 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-4442-1.. $21.. MARKS OF THE BODY OF CHRIST.. Martin Luther once listed seven marks of the church, defining ecclesial features whose presence show where the true church is to be found, and without which a community s claim to be the church must be called into question.. Luther s list reflects Reformation concerns, but it is also ecumenically acceptable and a matter of importance to Christendom at large.. This volume brings together essays by Catholic, Episcopal, Lutheran, Methodist, and Orthodox theologians, each analyzing one of the seven traditional marks of the church.. Contributors: Martin Luther, Gerhard O.. Forde, Richard Lischer, Susan K.. Wood, John H.. Erikson, K.. Paul Wesche, Richard A.. Norris, Jr.. , David S.. Yeago, Robert W.. Braaten, William J.. Abraham.. 0-8028-4617-3.. $17.. THE TWO CITIES OF GOD.. The Church s Responsibility for the Earthly City.. The chapters of this book offer informed perspectives on a theology of the world, exploring the question: How does/should the church relate to the secular world? The standard dogma of the 1960s was Let the world set the agenda! Such a perspective has often caused the American church merely to reflect, rather than to inform and lead, the society in which it lives.. Surely, say the authors of this volume, it must be the other way around.. Contributors: Robert Benne, Robert W.. Braaten, Gilbert Meilaender, Christopher R.. Seitz, Anthony Ugolnik, George Weigel, Robert L.. Wilken.. 141 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-4304-2.. $18.. THE CATHOLICITY OF THE REFORMATION.. As the title of this engaging book suggests, catholicity was the true intent of the Reformation.. The Reformers did not set out to create what later came to be known as Protestant Christianity.. Theirs was a quest for reformation and renewal in continuity with the one holy catholic and apostolic church of ancient times.. The authors of the essays collected here demonstrate this catholicity of the Reformers and stress the importance of recovering the church s catholic tradition today.. Contributors: Robert W.. Jenson, David S.. Yeago, Frank C.. Senn, Carl E.. Braaten, James R.. Crumley, Robert L.. Wilken, Günther Gassmann.. 117 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-4220-8.. $12.. EITHER / OR.. The Gospel or Neopaganism.. The contributors to this volume argue forthrightly that neopaganism is not merely an objective threat from outside the walls of the church; in fact, gnostic forms of thought and spirituality permeate the church s inner life under such guises as pluralism, multiculturalism, feminism, and hospitality.. Their essays are a direct attack on once-Bible-centered doctrine that is now being mingled with alternatives that are inherently hostile to the Christian faith.. Braaten, Joseph-Augustine DiNoia, James R.. Wilken, K.. Paul Wesche, L.. Gregory Jones.. 131 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-0840-9.. $10.. RECLAIMING THE BIBLE FOR THE CHURCH.. These essays address the crisis of biblical authority and interpretation in the church, focusing in particular on the inadequacy of the historical-critical method of hermeneutics, addressing from various perspectives the notorious gap between the historical-critical approach to the study of the Bible and the church s liturgical and dogmatic transmission of biblical faith.. The authors, following Childs canonical method of biblical interpretation, argue that the historical-critical method should not of itself set the agenda for biblical reading.. Braaten, Elizabeth Achtemeier, Brevard S.. Childs, Karl P.. Donfried, Roy A.. Harrisville, Thomas Hopko, Aidan J.. Kavanaugh, Alister E.. McGrath.. 149 pages / 6 x 9.. 0-8028-0898-0.. $13..

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  • Title: Conferences - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology
    Descriptive info: Conferences.. Life Amid the Principalities.. The 2014 Pro Ecclesia Annual Conference for Clergy and Laity.. Sponsored by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology.. Founded by Carl E.. Jenson.. To be held at Loyola University, Baltimore, Maryland.. June 9, 2014.. , 7 pm through.. June 11, 2014.. , noon.. “We are not contending against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness.. ” So Paul warns his Ephesian readers to put on the “whole armor of God” and be ready for struggle with the world.. And yet Paul also says that these principalities and powers were created in and for Christ (Col.. 1:16), have now been disarmed ((Col 2:15), and cannot separate us from the love of God (Rom 8:38).. What are the principalities and powers of our time in politics, technology, culture, economy, and religion? How do we understand them as created, fallen, and disarmed? How does the Christian today engage these powers? The 2014 conference of the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology will  ...   Speaker,.. James Buckley.. , Loyola University.. Regular updates are available on our Facebook page.. Conference cost (including banquet): $250;.. Early bird registration (until March 31): $210.. Retired clergy: $210.. Students: $115.. Rooms are available on the Loyola campus.. Each room is part of a four-room suite,.. sharing two bathrooms, a common area, and kitchenette.. Continental breakfast is included with the room.. Prices are be per person: Single room, $145 for two nights; Double room, $130 for two nights.. Register online.. or fill out and mail in.. this form.. Travel to Loyola University in Maryland.. TRAVELING BY CAR.. Directions to Loyola University can be found on the University website at http://www.. loyola.. edu/about/drivingdirections.. html.. For alternate routes, the conference organizers suggest http://www.. mapquest.. com.. TRAVELING BY TRAIN.. Participants traveling by train should schedule their arrivals at Penn Station, Baltimore.. TRAVELING BY AIR.. Participants traveling by air should fly into Baltimore Washington International Airport (BWI).. TAXIS.. Taxis from the airport will cost approximately $45-50.. Taxis from Penn Station will cost approximately $10-12.. For more information, contact:.. ccet@comcast.. net..

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  • Title: Contacts - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology
    Descriptive info: Contacts.. Executive Director.. Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology.. PO Box 11694.. Washington, DC 20008.. 202-680-9979.. Associate Directors.. Buckley.. Dept.. of Theology.. Loyola University Maryland.. 4501 N.. Charles Street.. Baltimore, MD 21210.. JBuckley@loyola.. edu.. Stephen Verkouw.. Grace Lutheran Church.. 517 N.. Queen St.. Lancaster, PA 17603.. Pastor@GraceLutheranChurch.. Quinn Fox.. National Presbyterian Church.. 4101 Nebraska Avenue, Northwest.. Washington, D.. C.. 20016.. Editor, Pro Ecclesia.. Joseph Mangina.. Wycliffe College.. 5 Hoskin Avenue.. Toronto, Ontario M5S  ...   Phone: 623/214-5977.. cbraat@cox.. Robert W.. 26 Mercer Street.. Princeton, NJ 08540.. Phone: 609/430-9321.. BAJenson@earthlink.. Book Review Editor.. School of Theology and Religious Studies.. Catholic University of America.. 620 Michigan Ave.. , N.. E.. Washington, DC 20064.. pecknold@cua.. Publisher/Subscriptions.. Rowman Littlefield Journal Subscription Department.. 15200 NBN Way.. Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214.. Phone: 800/273-2223.. Fax: 800/338-4550.. journals@rowman.. www.. rowmanlittlefield.. com.. Advertising.. Religion Journals Advertising Manager.. 4501 Forbes Boulevard.. Lanham, MD 20706.. Phone: 301/731-9548.. Fax: 301/429-5740..

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  • Title: Feature Article - Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology
    Descriptive info: Feature Article.. From Volume 21, no.. 1 (Winter, 2012).. Markus Bockmuehl (Keble College, Oxford).. Hope and Optmism in Straitened Times.. In a late modern world that has grown disillusioned and cynical about utopias, let alone about humanity’s ability to solve its own and the planet’s problems peacefully, societies and churches no longer share the assumption that hope is clearly a Good Thing.. 1 The great twentieth-century utopian ideologies all collapsed in a pile of ruins.. And the current crisis of North Atlantic capitalism signals global future which, whatever it holds, no longer self-evidently promises the triumph of the West.. Life in reduced circumstances, indeed in old-fashioned poverty, is on the rise on both sides of the Atlantic.. Europe’s public social spending teeters on the brink, while one in six Americans struggles to secure enough food.. And after the Pyrrhic War on Terror, what scope remains in the politically and economically straitened electronic surveillance society for aspirations to life or liberty or justice? Certainly all of these now lie much less obviously in the gift of markets, of technology, of government, or of the individual pursuit of happiness.. Read the entire essay here.. Markus Bockmuehl, Hope and Optimism in Straitened Times.. ===========================================================.. From an earlier volume.. From Volume XIX, Number 2.. Spring, 2010.. TRADITION, PRIESTHOOD AND PERSONHOOD.. in the Trinitarian Theology of Elisabeth Behr-Sigel.. Sarah Hinlicky Wilson.. In the 1950s, when the French Orthodox lay theologian Paul Evdokimov suggested that “woman” could not become a priest without betraying her ontological alignment with the Holy Spirit, no one in the Orthodox church was actually entertaining the possibility of female priests.. [1].. He answered the question in passing, a small part of his larger project to illuminate the spiritual dimension of femininity against the tradition’s tendency to demean women.. Likewise, Orthodox theologians Nicolae Chitescu and George Khodre could answer a simple “no” to the hypothetical question of women in the priesthood at a Faith and Order conference in 1963; the idea was not worth a second thought.. [2].. At the first-ever international gathering of Orthodox women at the Agapia convent in Romania in 1976, the ordination of women was not on the agenda for discussion.. Only one woman brought it up at all, in her keynote address.. Even her answer was a provisional no—but also a charge to engage in better and deeper reflection on the issue.. She called upon the Orthodox church to “internalize” the question.. [3].. Since the 1970s, Orthodox churches have indeed internalized it, at least the Orthodox churches in Western countries.. There is a growing body of literature on the subject, nowhere near the amount in Protestant and Roman Catholic circles, but enough to prove that it has become a live issue, live and contested enough to have strangled all recommendations to reinstate the female diaconate.. There is still no consensus on whether deaconesses should be ordained to their office, and given the interrelationship among the ordained offices, the diaconate appears to be a “slippery slope” toward the ordination of women to the priesthood as well.. So far, no one from within has outright petitioned the Orthodox church to ordain women to the priesthood, though many have suggested the possibility in their scholarship.. It is not surprising that Orthodox women are at the front of the debate.. Among them are Leonie Liveris, editor of the journal.. MaryMartha.. in the 1990s; a number of American Orthodox connected to.. St.. Nina’s Quarterly.. , including Teva Regule, Maria McDowell, and Valerie Karras; and scholars such as Eva Catafygiotu Topping, Susan Ashbrook Harvey, and Kalliope Bourdara.. The most prominent Orthodox woman to speak on the subject, however, was Elisabeth Behr-Sigel (1907-2005), a French Orthodox theologian who, after many years of studying Russian theology and spirituality as well as promoting ecumenism, turned at the age of sixty-nine to the question of women in the Orthodox church.. She was the keynote speaker at Agapia, where she endorsed the views of Paul Evdokimov, who had proposed that the division of the one humanity into male and female mirrored the self-revelation of the Father in the Son (=masculine) and the Spirit (=feminine).. But no more than five years later, she parted company with Evdokimov and shifted from opposition to support of the ordination of women in the Orthodox church.. Her work remains the standard in the discussion.. It is not a little surprising that several male Orthodox theologians have gradually moved toward Behr-Sigel’s position.. Metropolitan Anthony Bloom’s public support of Behr-Sigel left little doubt as to his opinion.. [4].. Kallistos Ware has admitted that the proffered reasons against women in the priesthood do not persuade him anymore,.. [5].. and Olivier Clément could see no compelling reason not to ordain women.. [6].. Metropolitan John of Pergamum confessed that he had seen no good theological arguments about the ordination of women, either for.. or.. against!.. [7].. There are still plenty of Orthodox opponents of the ordination of women, likely the majority within the churches and certainly a vocal contingent in publication.. The articles range from popular diatribes to serious theological scholarship.. What is chiefly striking about them, though, is how much the substance of the opposition has changed.. In the 1960s, it was still possible in Western countries to talk about women’s spiritual and physical weakness, menstrual cycles, incompetence, lack of intelligence, or general inferiority, without a qualm.. [8].. That is no longer the case.. Among the opponents of women’s ordination there is a nearly unanimous desire to disprove charges of misogyny and to affirm the goodness of women as created in God’s image.. The Inter-Orthodox Rhodes Consultation of 1988, convoked especially to discuss the ordination of women, stated as much, identifying sexism as a sin.. [9].. There is no suggestion anymore that women are.. functionally.. incompetent to perform such tasks as preaching, teaching, and pastoral care.. In reality, the discussion is no longer about women’s capacities at all.. Not actions but.. natures.. are under dispute.. Thus the current arguments about the ordination of women in the Orthodox church revolve around three interconnected points: the nature of tradition, the nature of the priesthood, and the nature of gender and personhood.. In what follows, I will consider each point in turn, the current state of the discussion within the Orthodox church, and Behr-Sigel’s contribution.. TRADITION.. For many Orthodox, the ordination of women is a non-issue, plain and simple, because it diverges from past practice.. The near-complete lack of discussion on the issue within the two thousand years of tradition makes no difference and suggests no need to consider the possibility now.. [10].. If it.. ever.. was right to ordain women, the reasoning goes, the church would have done so.. This is not fear of the new per se, at least not on the theological level.. (Certainly fear of the new is a common enough psychological phenomenon in church bodies, and not only in Orthodox ones.. ) The tradition question turns out to be a.. theodicy.. question.. The point is simply this: could the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic church really have failed so dreadfully? If God calls women to the priesthood, then, it seems, one must infer that the church has uniformly blocked and rejected God’s calls to women for two straight millennia.. The church then appears to be an eminently untrustworthy body—not a fellowship of faith and love, but a hierarchical, patriarchal, Spirit-less institution.. If it is wrong on this point, how many other points is it wrong on too? How faithlessly has it proclaimed the gospel? The implications are staggering.. This concern appears repeatedly in articles rejecting women’s ordination.. George Morelli, for instance, argues that the tradition of the church is as unchanging as its doctrine.. Proposals for ecclesial change now are simply the inroads of secularism.. [11].. Hopko wonders the same thing: could the church have been so dramatically in error all along? Surely not.. Perhaps the tradition did not know exactly why it was impermissible to ordain women, but that only means the Orthodox today are called to articulate the deeply-seated reasons for their wisely unchanging practice.. [12].. Michael Azkoul reasons that if a “male-dominated Church has presumed deliberately to deny competent and pious women a place in the sacerdotal ministry in contradiction to the express command of the Lord and the Apostles, then nothing her Fathers, Councils, and hierarchy [say] in general is worthy of trust.. ”.. [13].. It isn’t only men arguing this way, either.. Katerina Karkala-Zorba, who cites Behr-Sigel in her article, argues that the tradition has not failed the faithful and thus the refusal to ordain women can be trusted.. [14].. “Ultimately,” writes Andrew Philips, “we would even be led to the thought that God must hate women, that therefore He is not the God of Love, since He allowed His Church to err for 2,000 years.. [15].. Another feature of the perception of tradition among opponents of women’s ordination is the great number of arguments from silence.. It is suggested that if Jesus wanted women priests, he would have chosen women disciples; if any woman were to be a priest, it should have been Mary, and yet she was not; and the tradition itself would have spoken up sooner if ordaining women were a good thing.. The silence of the tradition is not taken at face value, as silence.. While the tradition is silent about women priests, it is not silent about women.. And yet the actual.. content.. of the tradition—particularly the patristic tradition—is disputed.. Some scholars claim that all the fathers agree that gender is secondary to the first creation of.. anthropos.. [16].. Others claim there is a difference of opinion among the fathers, or that some of them changed their mind on the issue one way or another.. [17].. Still others simply reject any such patristic notion wherever it may appear, crying foul against the supposed Hellenism that made the fathers denigrate sexuality and alienated them from the Christian truth.. [18].. The point here is not to adjudicate between the competing claims, only to demonstrate that what the fathers say about gender within the realm of theological anthropology and the divine intention remains disputed.. And if the content of the tradition is not clear, the implications of patristic anthropology are even less so.. Yet often patristic anthropology is perceived to be both uniform and decisive.. Evdokimov grounds his alliance of women with the Spirit in the use of the feminine pronoun for the Holy Spirit in Syriac liturgies and other apparent similarities between femininity and the action of the Spirit.. [19].. Yet Verna Harrison argues from the same fathers that the apophatic principle prohibits any imaging of the divine in sexual terms.. [20].. Kenneth Paul Wesche argues that Scripture and fathers alike plainly witness to the ontological primacy of the male.. [21].. But Valerie Karras demonstrates how many.. homo.. - words were used or invented by the fathers to describe the parity between men and women:.. homogenis.. (same race),.. homotimos.. (same honor), and even.. homoousios.. [22].. Constantine Yokarinis suggests that patristic anthropology assumes fundamental equality between men and women such that any gender differentiation within the service of the church is an error, and yet the same fathers did not see fit to ordain women to the priesthood.. What emerges here is how much the opponents and proponents of the ordination of women have in common.. methodologically.. Both assume that the tradition has been correct from the start; both attempt to read the tradition’s silence in their own favor; both invoke the church fathers in an attempt to settle the dispute.. In short, both assume that an answer is already to be found conclusively in the tradition of the church.. Neither seriously entertains the idea that the silence of the church is, in fact,.. silence.. More to the point, both share a static understanding of the tradition.. Neither imagines a tradition that develops and changes in continuity with what has come before, or the genuine possibility of something new that was not always required.. [23].. The concept of the development of doctrine remains a disputed point within Orthodoxy.. Some Orthodox theologians repudiate the very idea.. [24].. It is a common judgment now that Orthodoxy has spent most of the modern era in “captivity” to “manual theology,” namely Western theology of the scholastic stripe, imposed from the outside on the Orthodox faith, resulting in a “pseudomorphosis” of Eastern theology.. [25].. The project of the so-called neopatristic school following Georges Florovsky has been to shake off the outsiders and teach Orthodoxy to speak in its own voice.. Consequently the notion of a developing and changing tradition is unattractive to those who are struggling for the very existence of their own tradition against outside forces imposing alien development and change.. Perhaps the closest Orthodoxy has come to the concept of development is in the little-known now, but notorious at its time, essay on “Dogma and Dogmatic Theology” by Sergius Bulgakov.. [26].. But Bulgakov and especially his sophiology were suppressed by the neopatristic contingent and have never subsequently gained a wide hearing in the East.. [27].. The developing tradition remains largely a foreign idea.. Here is precisely where Behr-Sigel made her first insightful contribution.. It was perhaps her Protestant past—she was baptized and confirmed in the Lutheran church of Alsace, active in the Protestant youth movement, and educated with the first class of women students at the University of Strasbourg’s theology faculty—that ingrained in her the idea of doctrinal development; her friendship with Sergius Bulgakov undoubtedly impacted her as well.. Throughout her career she insisted on the role of Scripture in judging tradition(s), though she didn’t posit a fundamental opposition between Scripture and tradition, which is more common in Protestant thought.. Her proposal to this conversation within Orthodoxy is the idea that the gospel itself takes time to do its work.. Even while she described herself as “patiently impatient,” she did not assume that the gospel would have fully transformed society within a century of Christ’s resurrection, setting the parameters of possibility forever after.. Again and again she used the metaphor of the gospel “leaven,” slowly raising and enlightening ancient pagan societies.. In her judgment, it has taken twenty centuries for the gospel’s leaven to permeate relationships between men and women.. The secular women’s movement is the long-time-in-process outcome of Galatians 3:28.. Therefore, one need not infer either that the church has faithlessly suppressed women’s calls, or that God has neglected the cries of women all along.. The gospel works in and through history.. It takes time.. It does not (and perhaps cannot) change everything all at once.. This approach to the church is more historical and less platonic—a change in understanding that Behr-Sigel called for—as well as more ecclesial and less individualistic.. In short, God may indeed not have called women to the priesthood before; yet God may indeed be doing so now, for the good of the whole body of the church, and through the slow and steady transformations of the gospel leaven.. Of course, this perspective assumes a disturbing truth: that it is possible for there to be a genuine difference of opinion, or at least a lack of resolution, within the Scriptures, the tradition, and the church fathers.. Chiefly the opponents but occasionally also the proponents of women’s ordination seek and find universal consensus, however implicit the consensus might be.. Behr-Sigel disagrees.. There.. is.. a difference of opinion, she asserts, and therefore there.. a lack of resolution on the issue.. Behr-Sigel posits that there are in fact two streams of thought about women that have flowed through the whole life of the church.. One anthropology has happily baptized and chrismated women, recognized them as saints, martyrs, evangelists, and even apostles, proclaimed their soteriological unity with men, and anticipated a heavenly kingdom where sexuality will be outmoded.. At the same time, another anthropology has excluded women from roles of leadership, denigrated their abilities and bodies, and subordinated them to men.. There is an inability to reach a consensus today rooted solely in the tradition and church fathers because no such consensus exists.. “The tension between these two anthropologies runs through the Bible and the whole of the Church’s history,” Behr-Sigel writes.. [28].. Where before, the conflict between the two was unnoticed or perhaps just endured, now the “signs of the times” require of the church a decision, a discernment, a separation of the one from the other that was not required before.. To refuse to decide and act is finally to decide and act anyway.. An analogy can be drawn to previous matters of grave dispute in the church.. In the first three centuries, there were ways of talking about Jesus Christ in relation to God that were permissible, if not strictly accurate in later perspective; but once the conciliar decision was made, there was no turning back.. For Behr-Sigel, the burning questions today about men and women require the same kind of decision—in continuity with the past but discerning of the past and perhaps stepping forward into new territory.. PRIESTHOOD.. Just because a new thing is proposed, though, doesn’t mean that the new thing is good.. It can in fact be very bad; for proof one need only think of the various ideologies to which the churches latched themselves during the twentieth century.. Acknowledging the fact of developing tradition permits one to talk about the possibility of women priests, but it does not decide automatically in their favor.. The problem is that the very question of women in the priesthood alters the results of any study of the clerical office.. As the assumption of the functional inability of women to perform clerical tasks withered away, new arguments had to come forward if the practice of ordaining men alone was to be maintained.. The central criterion for priesthood became “iconic resemblance” (or “natural resemblance” in Roman Catholic parlance).. This criterion, however, is entirely new, not a longstanding component of the tradition at all.. Four brief examples suffice to illustrate the point.. The patristic classic on the office of ministry is John Chrysostom’s.. Six Books on the Priesthood.. It is, if anything, a heartfelt warning against becoming a priest, given the vast number of gifts required and oppressive number of duties involved.. But there is not the slightest mention of the priest’s resemblance to Christ or standing in Christ’s place.. Eva Topping explains:.. The priest as the “iconic image” of Christ does not appear in patristic discussions of the priesthood… Chrysostom, to be sure, categorically excludes women from the priesthood.. He does so not because women cannot physically image Christ.. He excluded all women because he believed, as did all the Fathers, in the innately inferior and flawed sinful nature of the female sex.. [29].. The “Orthodox-Roman Catholic Consultation on Bishops and Presbyters” in 1976 serves as another example.. [30].. This brief statement of the North American dialogue—the longest-running between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches—only once mentions any iconic or natural resemblance of the priest to Christ.. Instead, the chief concern is the Roman Catholic “weakness” in its historical practice of “absolute ordination” (ordaining to the priesthood without the priest being assigned to an actual congregation), because it denies the.. pastoral.. character of the priesthood (§I).. “Pastoral character” is indeed the focus of the statement overall.. Presidency at the eucharist is a supremely pastoral act (§II.. 2).. Further, “[b]ishops and presbyters can only represent Christ as bishops and presbyters when they exercise the pastoral office of the church.. Therefore, the church can recognize only an ordination which involves a bishop with a pastoral office and a candidate with a concrete title of service” (§II.. 7).. It is striking here how the representation of Christ is linked to the.. work of the priest.. Further, the chief similarity is found not between Christ and priests but between the apostles and priests.. An ordination in apostolic succession “proclaims that pastoral office is founded on Christ and the Spirit who give the grace to accomplish the task of exercising the ministry of the apostles” (§II.. 5).. The document also notes that some Roman Catholic theologians are “challenging the traditional presentation of the pastoral office as the direct representation of Christ,” suggesting instead it should be one of “directly representing the faith of the church and, consequently, Christ who is the living source of the faith” (§III.. 1).. This, notably, is.. not.. linked to the challenge of women priests.. In other words, there is a substantial theological objection to depicting priests as uniquely bearing Christ’s image when the matter is considered in and of itself.. However, when the subject of women in the priesthood does come up, toward the end of the document, the “iconic representation” of Christ (on the basis of sex) is offered as grounds for refusal, especially by the Orthodox.. But “iconic representation” is by no means the substance of the rest of the document’s theological proposal about the meaning of the priesthood (§III.. Two years later, another joint statement was released: “Orthodox-Roman Catholic Reflections on Ministries.. ” Here again, while the bishop (in particular) is called upon to be an image of Christ, he is also linked closely to the ministry of the apostles through his ordination in apostolic succession.. No mention of  ...   gender added to human nature.. Lossky died before gender questions were raised.. en masse.. in the church.. Is this an oversight that needs correcting?.. Not at all.. In Lossky’s way of thinking, it would not matter a bit if gender were inserted as another level of human “nature.. ” A male person and a female person will always exceed and transcend his nature and her nature, however distinct those natures are from one another.. What makes him and her the same, in the end, is their common ability to transcend themselves.. The ramifications of such personalism match with Behr-Sigel’s mature position on the place of women in the church.. The nature of any given woman is not a limiting factor in her capacity to serve the church.. It is not alien to who she is, but it does not contain her, either.. She is like to God (the Trinity as a whole or the Holy Spirit in particular).. in any particular set of feminine qualities resulting from her nature.. She is like to God, she is God’s image, in her self-transcendence, as a person.. Therefore, Behr-Sigel’s growing intuition that “women’s charisms” represent a false trail recognizes that the very attempt to elevate women in their distinctive femininity is precisely to deny them their common personal humanity.. Women are not a set of charisms.. They are persons with a variety of charisms who, again, transcend the nature of which they are an instance.. In this light, then, we can say that the anthropologies of Evdokimov, Hopko, and even Wesche make the error of identifying the hypostasis of humanity not with the person but with the gender.. “Woman”—always rendered in the singular—occupies the category of the individual, not, for example, “Elisabeth.. ” The same error appears in treating “Eve” as equivalent to “woman” and “Adam” as equivalent to “man.. ” They are no longer persons, but genders.. The hypostatic status of gender permits the identification of the Son with men (or “man”) and the Spirit with women (or “woman”).. In both cases, the trinitarian hypostasis is aligned with an entire gender.. But every individual male person is lost this way, subsumed in his gender in hypostatic analogy to the Son; and the same for women with the Spirit.. While Evdokimov and Hopko correctly avoided aligning gender with the ousia—which would indisputably have called into question the soteriological unity of men and women—they failed to recognize the.. identity.. of ousia and hypostasis in the trinitarian analogy; that the hypostasis is not other than the ousia.. Ironically, Evdokimov and Hopko committed a classically.. Western.. trinitarian error, subsuming the person under the nature!.. A hypostasis is nothing more nor less than an instance of an ousia.. Gender does not exist as such, but gendered humans do; they are hypostases of shared human ousia, whether they are male or female.. Inserting gender into the ontological scheme (whether in the place of ousia.. hypostasis) obscures actual persons, concealing them within their gender.. In short, the hypostasis must be the person, not the person’s gender.. That is the proper trinitarian analogy.. The person is not accordingly alienated from his or her own gender.. But neither is he or she contained by it.. It matters little whether the attempt is to introduce “feminine” language for God and defend “feminine” ways of being in the church, or to preserve “masculine” names for God on the assumption that God has distinctly “masculine” traits.. Each attempt comes to a different conclusion, but they are.. indistinguishable.. Both start “from below” with assumptions about what qualifies as masculine or feminine.. Both emphasize gender to such an extent that personhood is lost.. The whole sweep of Behr-Sigel’s thought moves to the conclusion that this approach is a dead-end, for traditionalists and revisionists alike.. Any attempt to invoke the “feminine” (or the “masculine”) always ends up reducing women (and men) to mere instances of their natures, rather than self-transcending persons in God’s own image.. In truth, men are persons and women are persons, because the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are persons, too.. NOTES.. Paul Evdokimov,.. Woman and the Salvation of the World: A Christian Anthropology on the Charisms of Woman.. , trans.. Anthony P.. Gythiel (Crestwood: St.. Vladimir’s, 1994), 216.. The French version,.. Le Femme et le Salut de Monde.. , was originally published in 1958.. Concerning the Ordination of Women.. (Geneva: WCC, 1964).. Behr-Sigel, “Keynote: The Meaning of the Participation of Women in the Life of the Church,” in.. Orthodox Women: Their Role and Participation in the Orthodox Church.. , Report on the Consultation of Orthodox Women, September 11-17, 1976, Agapia, Roumania, eds.. Constance J.. Tarasar and Irina Kirillova (Geneva: WCC, 1977), 17-29.. Bloom gave an address at the London School of Economics in 1989 in which he hoped that women would someday be permitted to become not only priests but even bishops in the Orthodox church.. See also his introduction to Behr-Sigel’s.. Ministry of Women in the Church.. (Redondo Beach, CA: Oakwood, 1991), which he hails as the “first swallow that announces the coming of spring,” xiii.. “I am far from convinced by many of the current arguments advanced in favour of women priests; but at the same time a number of the arguments urged on the other side now appear to me a great deal less conclusive than they did twenty years ago.. ” Ware, “Man, Woman and the Priesthood of Christ,” in.. The Ordination of Women in the Orthodox Church.. , with Elisabeth Behr-Sigel (Geneva: WCC, 2000), 50.. “My opinion—I know that very few Orthodox theologians share it—is that there are no strictly theological reasons to bar women from the priesthood.. ” See “Orthodoxy, Olivier Clément and the Ordination of Women,”.. Mary Martha.. 3/1 (1993): 27-29.. See Archimandrite Ephrem, review of.. Le ministère de la Femme dans l’Eglise.. by Elisabeth Behr-Sigel,.. Sorouzh.. 57 (1994): 48.. Chitescu: “Then there is the period when women are ‘impure’…” in.. Concerning the Ordination of Women,.. 57.. Khodre: “[I]s the feminist movement well-founded? Does it not express the dissatisfaction of those women who suffer from the Diana-complex? …the biological rhythms fluctuate more in women than in men and their moods are affected by these rhythms,” ibid.. , 61.. Though it should be noted that the recent book of Michael Azkoul seems to support the maintenance of purity taboos; see.. Order of Creation, Order of Redemption: The Ordination of Women in the Orthodox Church.. (Rollinsford, NH: Orthodox Research Institute, 2007).. The conclusions and all the papers presented are collected in.. The Place of the Woman in the Orthodox Church and the Question of the Ordination of Women.. , Interorthodox Symposium, Rhodos, Greece, 30 October-7 November 1988, ed.. Gennadios Limouris (Katerini, Greece: Tertios Publications, 1992).. See “Conclusions of the Consultation,” B.. VI.. 22.. As Hopko acknowledges: “There are no specific sources dealing with it in church tradition, where the question is not treated even in the most rudimentary form.. ” In “On the Male Character of the Christian Priesthood,” in.. Women and the Priesthood.. , 1.. st.. ed.. , ed.. Thomas Hopko (Crestwood: St.. Vladimir’s, 1983), 97.. George Morelli, “Whose Church Do I Belong To: My Church or the Orthodox Church of Christ?” at http://www.. orthodoxytoday.. org/ articles6/MorelliSecularism.. php, accessed November 28, 2007.. Hopko, “Presbyter/Bishop,” in.. , new and revised ed.. Vladmir’s, 1999), 140.. Azkoul, 40.. Katerina Karkala-Zorba, “The Role of Women in the Orthodox Church Today,”.. 5/1 (1996): 3-8.. Andrew Philips, “Some Reasons Why the Orthodox Church Does Not Admit Women to the Priesthood,”.. Orthodox Life.. 43/2 (1993): 46.. “Beyond physical sex, gender itself is seen by all of the Fathers as an element added to humanity only because of God’s foreknowledge of man’s fall.. Several modern theologians mistakenly believe this view to be limited to two of the most speculative Greek Fathers—Gregory of Nyssa and Maximos the Confessor.. ” Valerie Karras, “Patristic Views on the Ontology of Gender,” in.. Personhood: Orthodox Christianity and the Connection between Body, Mind, and Soul.. , ed.. John T.. Chirban (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 1996), 116.. “[W]e can identify a difference of opinion among the patristic writers.. John of Damascus, when he speaks of the creation of humanity, claims that the first human being was male.. But later he moves to another line of thought.. ” Constantine Yokarinis, “A Patristic Basis for a Theological Anthropology of Women in Their Distinctive Humanity,”.. Anglican Theological Review.. 84/3 (2002): 590.. Deborah Belonick admits that “patristic exegetes had varied opinions even when interpreting Genesis” in “Women in the Church,” in.. Orthodox Perspectives on Pastoral Praxis.. Theodore Stylianopoulos (Brookline, MA: Holy Cross, 1988), 84.. But she eventually takes sides: “If God willed gender distinction for the sole purpose of procreation, then differences in women and men are reduced to bodily function,” which is unacceptable to her, 85.. For example, Hopko says, “Is there a.. consensus patrem.. on the subject [of gender in the life to come], or are these views, clearly influenced by hellenistic sources and teachings, upheld by only some strands of patristic teaching…?” “The Debate Continues—1998,” in.. , new and rev.. , 254.. See also Kenneth Paul Wesche: when Gregory of Nyssa “turns to the mystery of gender, he forgets and, falling back into the androgyny of Greek philosophy, attributes gender to the Fall.. ” “Man and Woman in the Orthodox Tradition: The Mystery of Gender,”.. 37/2-3 (1993): 242.. In addition to.. Woman and the Salvation of the World,.. see Evdokimov’s book.. The Sacrament of Love: The Nuptial Mystery in the Light of the Orthodox Tradition.. Gythiel and Victoria Steadman (Crestwood, NY: St.. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1985), first printed in French in 1944; and also the essays “The Charisms of Woman” and “Panagion and Panagia: the Holy Spirit and the Mother of God,” in.. In the World, Of the Church: A Paul Evdokimov Reader.. , eds.. Michael Plekon and Alexis Vinogradov (Crestwood, NY: St.. Vladimir’s, 2001).. Susan Ashbrook Harvey also discusses the usage, though she draws different conclusions from it, in her study, “Feminine Imagery for the Divine: The Holy Spirit, the Odes of Solomon, and Early Syriac Tradition,”.. 37/2-3 (1993): 111-139.. Verna Harrison, “The Fatherhood of God in Orthodox Theology,”.. 37/2-3 (1993): 185-212.. Such is the thrust of his article, “Man and Woman in Orthodox Tradition.. Karras, “Flesh of My Flesh—Greek Patristic Exegeses of the Creation of Eve,”.. Nina Quarterly.. 2/1 (1998): n.. p.. A curious corroborating example comes from post-Christian feminist Daphne Hampson.. She, too, raises the theodicy question: “How can God be seen to be good when one considers what history has been, and what it has meant for women that God has been conceived in primarily male terms? …why, if God be good, has any harm come to women?”.. Theology and Feminism.. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990), 11.. She similarly rejects any notion of developing tradition permitting the ordination of women at a later point in Christian history—the “kairos” position, as she calls it.. Such a position only absolves the church of its sexism and whitewashes the past.. Ibid.. , 22-24.. In Hampson we see the same underlying assumption of a static, ahistorical tradition as is defended by the various Orthodox thinkers discussed above.. Thomas Hopko writes, “The Orthodox Church does not have a teaching of ‘dogmatic development.. ’ Orthodox believe that expressions of Christian faith and life can change and indeed must change as the Church moves through history.. But the Orthodox interpret these changes as being merely formal and not in any sense substantial.. They would never agree that there can be anything in the Church of Christ today that was not essentially present at any moment of the Church’s life and history.. ” “Women and the Priesthood: Reflections on the Debate,” in.. , 177.. Likewise Azkoul, quoting Kallistos Ware’s statement that “Holy Tradition, rightly understood, is dynamic, not static and inert,” concludes: “With just these few words, the entire ecclesial and social legacy of the Orthodox faith is thrown into doubt,” x.. The chief point of Azkoul’s book is that any change or criticism of the tradition where women are concerned renders the entire Christian faith void.. This judgment stems from Georges Florovsky’s monumental work.. Ways of Russian Theology,.. trans.. Robert L.. Nichols (Vaduz, Liechtenstein: Büchervertriebsanstalt, 1987).. See also the discussion in Dorothea Wendebourg, “‘Pseudomorphosis’: A Theological Judgement as an Axiom for Research in the History of Church and Theology,”.. Greek Orthodox Theological Review.. 42/3-4 (1997): 321-342.. Bulgakov’s essay has been translated into English in.. Tradition Alive: On the Church and the Christian Life in our Time: Readings from the Eastern Church.. Michael Plekon (Lanham, MD: Sheed Ward, 2003), 67-80.. Westerners, however, have tended to be very appreciative: for instance, Hans Urs von Balthasar, Rowan Williams, and John Millbank.. Behr-Sigel, “The Bible, Tradition, the Sacraments: Sources of Authority in the Church,” in.. Discerning the Signs of the Times: The Vision of Elisabeth Behr-Sigel.. Michael Plekon and Sarah E.. Hinlicky (Crestwood: St.. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2001), 89.. Eva Catafygiotu Topping, “Orthodox Women and the Iconic Image of Christ,” in.. Holy Mothers of Orthodoxy: Women and the Church.. (Minneapolis: Light and Life, 1987), 125.. The statement was published in.. Diakonia.. 11/3 (1976): 293-295.. “Orthodox-Roman Catholic Reflections on Ministries,”.. Origins.. 7/44 (1978): 702-704.. “Appendix 2: The Athens Report 1978,” in.. Anglican-Orthodox Dialogue: The Dublin Agreed Statement 1984.. (Crestwood, NY: St.. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1985), 58-63.. For example: “The ordination of women to the priesthood is an innovation, lacking any basis whatever in Holy Tradition… In this constant and unvarying practice [of ordaining only men] we see revealed the will of God and the testimony of the Holy Spirit, and we know that the Holy Spirit does not contradict himself… Holy Tradition is not static, but living and creative”! §III.. 3 and §III.. 4.. Ware, “Man, Woman and the Priesthood of Christ,” in.. , 78.. Alexander Schmemann, “Concerning Women’s Ordination: A Letter to an Episcopal Friend,”.. 17/3 (1973): 239.. , 242.. As far as I can tell, no one among the Orthodox has yet called into question the other implications of taking the nuptial imagery as a literal requirement for the sexuality of the clergy and laity.. To raise just one question among many, what of lay.. men.. ? Do they culpably fail to develop their “christic” virtues in not becoming priests, yet because they are not women, either, do they lack “pneumatic” virtues as well? Or do they themselves become “female” or “feminine” as part of the body of the church? If they do not become female, are they in a homosexual relationship to the priest and to Christ? One must assume that all of these implications are offensive to Orthodox tradition as well.. These issues have been explored by Western theologians, however, in particular Sara Coakley and Tina Beattie in response to the work of Hans Urs von Balthasar.. See Hopko’s essays “On the Male Character of the Christian Priesthood,” in the first edition of.. , and “Presbyter/Bishop: A Masculine Ministry,” in the new and revised edition.. See the section entitled “‘An icon of Christ’: but in what sense?” in Ware’s “Man, Woman, and the Priesthood of Christ” in.. , 78-90.. “We have reached the common conclusion that there are no compelling dogmatic-theological reasons for not ordaining women to the priesthood.. ” See Urs von Arx and Anastasios Kallis, “Common Considerations,”.. 84/3 (2002): 505.. See also Anastasios Kallis, “Presidency at the Eucharist in the Context of the Theology of Icons: Questions about the Ecclesial Representation of Christ by the Priesthood,”.. 84/3 (2002): 713-29.. John H.. Erickson, “The Priesthood in Patristic Teaching,” in.. The Place of the Woman in the Orthodox Church and the Question of the Ordination of Women,.. 103-115.. Some Orthodox studies that have analyzed patristic views on the maleness of Christ are as follows.. Valerie A.. Karras, “The Incarnational and Hypostatic Significance of the Maleness of Jesus Christ according to Theodore of Stoudios,”.. Studia.. Patristica.. , vol.. XXXII, ed.. Elizabeth A.. Livingstone (Louvain: Peeters, 1997): 320-24.. Verna Harrison, “The Maleness of Christ,”.. Vladimir’s.. Theological Quarterly.. 42 (1998): 111-51, discussing a number of patristic writers.. Yokarinis, in “Patristic Basis,” quotes John of Damascus: “[T]he Son of God became ‘son of man’ in order that his individuality might endure.. For since he was the Son of God, he became ‘son of man,’ being made flesh of the holy virgin and not losing the individuality of his sonship,” 604, fn.. 66.. Yokarinis also points out that if we think of gender in complementary terms, the one completing the other, then the Son’s humanity was imperfect since he only took on one of the two complementary genders; this, however, is at odds with Chalcedonian christology which insists on the perfection and completeness of Christ’s humanity.. Some attempts have been made by the Orthodox already.. Verna Harrison argues that we cannot really know, for God only reveals what He has done, not what He.. could.. have done.. One possibility, though, is that being born of a woman in the flesh of a male sanctifies both sexes.. See “The Fatherhood of God in Orthodox Theology,” 209-210.. According to Wesche, it is the ontological headship of Adam the male over Eve the female that requires a male Jesus to include all of humanity in salvation.. “Man and Woman,” 242.. Perhaps the most famous attempt to answer this question in the West is Rosemary Radford Ruether’s essay, “Can a Male Savior Save Women?” in.. Sexism and God-Talk: Toward a Feminist Theology.. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983), 116-138.. Wesche, 214.. Belonick, “Women in the Church,” 84.. “For myself, I believe most strongly that maleness and femaleness, as gifts from God, have dimensions that are not only biological but spiritual.. , 77.. An excellent review of Ware’s essay (and Behr-Sigel’s too) is to be found in.. 83 (2001): 49-55 by Ian Graham.. Hopko, “The Masculine Character of the Priesthood,” in.. , 103.. To cite a number of examples: Valerie Saiving, in “The Human Situation: A Feminine View,” argues that men and women sin in essentially different ways, so the church’s teaching about sin has missed the mark with women and in fact reinforced their sin rather than quenching it.. In.. Womanspirit Rising: A Feminist Reader in Religion.. Carol P.. Christ and Judith Plaskow, 25-42 (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1979).. Judith Plaskow picked up this theme and further essentialized men and women in.. Sex, Sin, and Grace: Women’s Experience and the Theologies of Reinhold Niebuhr and Paul Tillich.. (Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1980).. Mary Daly is now perhaps the best known of essentializing feminists; see in particular her.. Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women’s Liberation.. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1973).. Essentialism remains a disputed point across the various kinds of feminist theology.. Any supposed common quality shared by all women is the very axis of misogyny, but it is also the engine of communal feminist efforts at social and theological reform.. The salient point here is that positing something in common among all women can equally serve the causes of conservative Orthodox Christians and radical feminist Christians and post-Christians.. Wesche, 216.. Belonick, “The Spirit of the Female Priesthood,” in.. , 165.. For instance, Alwyn Marriage,.. Life-Giving Spirit: Responding to the Feminine in God.. (London: SPCK, 1989).. Rachel Conrad Wahlburg, “The Women’s Creed,” in.. Jesus and the Freed Woman.. (New York: Paulist Press, 1978), 155-57.. Alla Bozarth-Campbell,.. Womanpriest: A Personal Odyssey.. (New York: Paulist Press, 1978).. Karras, “Patristic Views,” 117.. , 118.. Harrison, “The Fatherhood of God,” 189-190.. Verna Harrison, “Male and Female in Cappadocian Theology,”.. Journal of Theological Studies.. 41/2 (1990): 41.. Behr-Sigel refers to the essays collected in the volume (later translated into English).. In the Image and Likeness of God.. (Crestwood: St.. Vladimir’s, 1974).. The three relevant essays on theological anthropology are “The Theological Notion of the Human Person,” “The Theology of the Image,” and “Catholic Consciousness: Anthropological Implications of the Dogma of the Church.. For example, in Behr-Sigel, “L’ordination des femmes, un problème oecuménique,”.. 42/2 (1990): 122.. Lossky, “The Theological Notion,” 112.. Lossky, “Catholic Consciousness,” 185.. “Theological anthropology must be constructed from the top down, beginning from Trinitarian and Christological dogma, in order to discover in human reality the unity of nature and the multiplicity of created hypostases, the will which is a function of the common nature, the possession of divine grace by created persons,.. etc.. ” Ibid.. Lossky, “The Theological Notion,” 113.. , 115.. , 120.. A very similar description of the image of God—and therefore one very likely drawn right from Lossky—can be found in Behr-Sigel’s essay “Woman is Also Made in the Image of God” in.. The Ministry of Women in the Church.. , 84: “The image of God is not a.. thing.. or a part of man.. It relates to the dynamic and global orientation of an existing being who is endlessly called upon to go beyond himself and to transcend his nature.. As such, the image of God is both a gift and a task: the task of.. becoming.. ‘the likeness of God.. Lossky, “The Theological Notion,” 122.. Lossky, “The Theology of the Image,” 138-139.. , 137-138.. , 139.. Lossky, “Catholic Consciousness,” 186.. , 184.. Sarah Hinlicky Wilson is Assistant Research Professor at the Institute for Ecumenical Research in Strasbourg, France; and editor of.. Lutheran Forum..

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    Descriptive info: A Journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology.. Mangina, Editor.. Pro Ecclesia is a journal of theology published by the Center for Catholic and Evangelical Theology.. It seeks to give contemporary expression to the one apostolic faith and its classic traditions, working for and manifesting the church’s unity by research, theological construction, and free exchange of opinion.. Members of its advisory council represent communities committed to the authority of Holy Scripture, ecumenical dogmatic teaching and the structural continuity of the church, and are themselves dedicated to maintaining and invigorating these commitments.. The journal publishes biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal articles that promote or illumine its purposes.. To subscribe to Pro Ecclesia, contact:.. 4501 Forbes Blvd Ste.. 200.. Fax: 717-794-3820.. https://rowman.. com/page/ProEcclesia.. Annual Subscription Rates:.. Individual: $45.. Student: $25.. AAR/SBL Member: $35.. 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Volume XX, Number 2.. ARTICLES.. THE CATHOLIC CALVIN.. Todd Billings.. 120.. CALVIN S CRITIQUE OF MERIT AND.. WHY AQUINAS (MOSTLY) AGREES.. Charles Raith II.. 135.. FROM THE HIDDEN GOD TO THE GOD OF GLORY:.. BARTH, BALTHASAR, AND NOMINALISM.. D.. Stephen Long.. 167.. RECONSIDERING CHARLES TAYLOR S AUGUSTINE.. Thomas Harmon.. 185.. REVIEWS.. John Webster, Kathryn Tanner, and Iain Torrance, eds.. The Oxford Handbook of Systematic Theology.. Reviewed by James R.. A.. Merrick.. 210.. James K.. Smith.. Desiring the Kingdom:.. Worship, Worldview, and Cultural Formation.. Reviewed by Braden P.. Anderson.. 214.. Marco Hofheinz, Franco Mathwig, and Matthias Zeindler, eds.. Ethik und Erzählung:.. Theologische und philosophische Beitrage zur narrativen Ethik.. Reviewed by Brian Brock.. 218.. Back to top.. Volume XX, Number 1.. CARDINAL WILLEBRAND S CONTRIBUTIONS.. TO CATHOLIC ECUMENICAL THEOLOGY.. Jared Wicks, S.. 6.. BUT WHO LAID HANDS ON HIM?.. APOSTOLICITY AND METHODIST ECCLESIOLOGY.. Douglas M.. Koskela.. 28.. A LUTHER WESLEY COULD APPRECIATE?.. TOWARD CONVERGENCE ON SANCTIFICATION.. William P.. McDonald.. 43.. SALVATION AND THE CERTITUDE OF FAITH:.. LUTHER ON ASSURANCE.. Sven Grosse.. 64.. DOCTORES ECCLESIAE.. GREGORY NAZIANZEN S READING.. OF HABBAKUK 3:2 AND ITS RECEPTION:.. A Lesson from Byzantine Scripture Exegesis.. Bogdan C.. Bucur and Elijah N.. Mueller.. 86.. Christopher A.. Beeley.. Gregory of Nazianzus on the Trinity and the Knowledge of God:.. In Your Light We Shall See Light.. Reviewed by J.. Warren Smith.. 104.. Rowan Williams.. Dostoevsky: Language, Faith and Fiction.. Reviewed by Bruce Ward.. 108.. Volume XIX (2010).. Volume XIX, Number 4.. COMMENTARY.. CHALLENGING THE MODALISM OF THE WEST:.. Jenson on the Trinity.. Timo Tavast.. 355.. RESPONSE TO TIMO TAVAST.. 369.. CREEDAL FORMATION AS HERMENEUTICAL DEVELOPMENT:.. A Re-examination of Nicaea.. Craig A.. Blaising.. 371.. BEAUTY, JUSTICE, AND DAMNATION IN THOMAS AQUINAS.. Francis J.. Caponi, O.. S.. A.. 389.. PRIESTHOOD NATURAL, UNIVERSAL, AND ORDAINED:.. Dumitru Staniloae s Communion Ecclesiology.. Radu Bordeianu.. 405.. THE SAPIENTIAL STRUCTURE OF AUGUSTINE s.. De Trinitate.. Nathan Crawford.. 434.. REVIEW ESSAY.. NEW ATHEISM: Are We Amused?.. Francesca Aran Murphy.. 453.. James F.. Keating and Thomas Joseph White, O.. P.. , eds.. Divine Impassibility and the Mystery of Human Suffering.. Reviewed by Michael J.. Dodds, O.. 460.. William C.. Mattison III.. Introducing the Moral Theology:.. True Happiness and the Virtues.. Reviewed by Craig Hovey.. 464.. GENERAL INDEX TO PRO ECCLESIA, VOLUME XIX (2010).. 467.. Volume XIX, Number 3.. A BOOK SYMPOSIUM ON GEORGE HUNSINGER s.. The Eucharist and Ecumenism: Let Us Keep the Feast.. The Thing of It: An Orthodox Response to.. Hunsinger s Not-So-High Sacramental Theology.. Will Cohen.. 247.. Christ the Word Who Makes Us:.. Eucharist and Creation.. Mark A.. McIntosh.. 255.. Toward the Day When We Will Keep the Feast Together.. Margaret O Gara.. 260.. Fire, Iron, and the Eucharist:.. Some Questions for George Hunsinger.. 267.. Widening the Circle of Acceptable Diversity:.. A Reply to my Ecumenical Friends.. George Hunsinger.. 273.. THE BIBLE IN CAPTIVITY:.. Hobbes, Spinoza, and the Politics of Defining Religion.. Jeffrey L.. Morrow.. 285.. THEOLOGICAL EXEGESIS:.. Hans Urs von Balthasar and the Figure of Moses.. Todd Walatka.. 300.. CHRIST, THE SPIRIT, AND VOCATION:.. Initial Reflections on a Pentecostal Ecclesiology.. Dale M.. Coulter.. 318.. Nicolas Wolterstorff.. Justice: Rights and Wrongs.. Reviewed by Daniel M.. Bell, Jr.. 340.. Charles Mathewes.. A Theology of Public Life.. Reviewed by Paul J.. 344.. Volume XIX, Number 2.. TRADITION, PRIESTHOOD, AND PERSONHOOD.. IN THE TRINITARIAN THEOLOGY.. OF ELISABETH BEHR-SIGEL.. 121.. TRINITY AND EXEGESIS.. C.. Clifton Black.. 151.. THE METAPHYSICS OF DIVINE SELF-DONATION.. John R.. Meyer.. 181.. SOME EARLY AND LATER FATHERS.. ON THE VISITATION OF THE SICK.. Philip H.. Pfatteicher.. 207.. Montague Brown.. Restoration of Reason:.. The Eclipse and Recovery of Truth, Goodness, and Beauty.. Reviewed by Stephen M.. Garrett.. 223.. Oswald Bayer and Benjamin Gleede, eds.. Creator est Creatura.. Luthers Christologie als Lehre von der Idiomenkommunikation.. Reviewed by Jared Wicks, S.. 227.. Erasmus of Rotterdam.. Collected Works of Erasmus.. 84,.. Controversy with Alberto Pio.. Reviewed by Hilmar M.. Pabel.. 231.. T.. Wright.. Evil and the Justice of God.. Reviewed by Marilyn McCord Adams.. 234.. Brian Brock.. Singing the Ethos of God:.. On the Place of Christian Ethics in Scripture.. Reviewed by Jana Bennett.. 237.. Volume XIX, Number 1.. BLESSING:.. A SCRIPTURAL AND THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION.. 7.. ECUMENICAL APPROACHES TO MARIOLOGY.. A SWORD WILL PIERCE THROUGH.. YOUR OWN SOUL ALSO :.. The Sanctification, Conversion, and.. Exemplary Witness of the Blessed Mary.. Gary Culpepper.. WHAT IS LITTLE MARY HERE FOR?.. Barth, Mary, and Election.. Tim Perry.. 46.. OUR LADY OF SACRAMENTAL COMMUNION:.. Marian Possibilities Emerging from.. Catholic-Methodist Dialogue.. Maura Heardon.. 69.. SOME RECENT BOOKS ON MARY.. Lawrence S.. Cunningham.. 93.. Nicholas Afanasiev.. The Church of the Holy Spirit.. Reviewed by Will Cohen.. 102.. Daniel A.. Keating.. Deification and Grace.. Reviewed by Fr.. Edward Rommen.. 106.. The Mystery of Christ:.. Life in Death.. Reviewed by Sean A.. Levine.. 109.. Beverly Roberts Gaventa and Richard B.. Hays, eds.. Seeking the Identity of Jesus:.. A Pilgrimage.. Reviewed by Robert Knetsch.. 112.. Beth Felker Jones.. Mark of His Wounds:.. Gender Politics and Bodily Resurrection.. Reviewed by Patrick Fletcher.. 114.. F.. Thomas Luongo.. The Saintly Politics of Catherine of Siena.. Reviewed by Andrea Hollingsworth.. 117.. Tim Perry, ed.. The Legacy of John Paul II:.. An Evangelical Assessment.. Reviewed by Christopher R.. Holmes.. 119.. Volume XVIII (2009).. Volume XVIII, Number 4.. A BOOK SYMPOSIUM ON STEVEN R HARMON,.. TOWARDS BAPTIST CATHOLICITY:.. ESSAYS ON TRADITION AND THE BAPTIST VISION.. EXPLOSIVE DEVICES AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES:.. Appreciation for Steven R.. Harmon s.. Towards Baptist Catholicity.. Richard Crane.. 367.. TRADITIONS, AUTHORITIES, AND THE INDIVIDUAL CHRISTIAN.. Nicholas M.. Healy.. REMEMBERING HOW TO REMEMBER:.. Harmon s Subversive Orthodoxy.. Elizabeth Newman.. 375.. TOWARDS A BAPTIST (AND ROMAN CATHOLIC) CATHOLICITY.. Maureen H.. O Connell.. 381.. WHY BAPTIST CATHOLICITY, AND BY WHAT AUTHORITY?.. Steven R.. Harmon.. 386.. AQUINAS PERSPECTIVES ON PAUL:.. Thomas, Paul, and the Problem of Torah.. Mark Armitage.. 393.. ENLIGHTENMENT AND ECUMENISM:.. Dom Beda Mayr, O.. B.. (1742-1794).. Ulrich L.. Lehner.. 415.. BEING AND BEARING THE WITNESS OF THE SPIRIT:.. Toward a Post-Colonial Missional Politics.. Derek Alan Woodard-Lehmann.. 437.. Henri Cardinal de Lubac, S.. Corpus Mysticum:.. The Eucharist and the Church in the Middle Ages.. Reviewed by Rose M.. Beal.. 459.. David Grummett.. De Lubac:.. A Guide for the Perplexed.. Reviewed by Bryan C.. Hollon.. 462.. Ephraim Radner and Philip Turner.. The Fate of Communion:.. The Agony of Anglicanism and.. the Future of the Global Church.. Reviewed by Rev.. John C.. Bauerschmidt.. 465.. Robert Barron.. The Priority of Christ:.. Toward a Postliberal Catholicism.. Reviewed by Daniel J.. Treier.. 468.. Mark D.. Jordan.. Rewritten Theology:.. Aquinas after His Readers.. Reviewed by Jean Porter.. 472.. Gilles Emory, O.. Trinity, Church, and the Human Person.. Reviewed by Thomas Joseph White, O.. 474.. GENERAL INDEX TO VOLUME XVIII, 2009.. 478.. Volume XVIII, Number 3.. RICHARD JOHN NEUHAUS+.. 239.. THE TRAVAIL OF FAITH AND ORDER.. Joseph D.. Small.. 241.. ARTICULATING ORDER:.. Trinitarian Discourse in an Egalitarian Age.. Steven D.. Boyer.. TRUTH, TRINITY, AND CREATION:.. Placing Bruce Marshall s.. Trinity and Truth.. in conversation.. with Hans Urs von Balthasar s.. Theo-logic.. Barbara Sain.. SAINT PAUL AND THE FOURTH CENTURY FATHERS:.. Portraits of Christian Life.. Brian E.. 299.. THE EUCHARIST AS SOURCE OF ST.. CYRIL.. OF ALEXANDRIA S CHRISTOLOGY.. Ellen Concannon.. Carl Braaten and Christopher Seitz, eds.. I Am the Lord Your God:.. Christian Reflections on the Ten Commandments.. Reviewed by Helmut David Baer.. 337.. Angela Russell Christman.. What Did Ezekiel See?.. Christian Exegesis of Ezekiel s Vision.. of the Chariot of Irenaeus to Gregory the Great.. Reviewed by Paul M.. Blowers.. 341.. David E Aune, ed.. Rereading Paul Altogether:.. Protestant and Catholic Perspectives on Justification.. Reviewed by Kenneth M.. Loyer.. Neil B.. MacDonald.. Metaphysics and the God of Israel.. Systematic Theology of the Old and New Testaments.. Reviewed by Tee S.. Gatewood III.. 347.. Matthew Levering.. Participatory Biblical Exegesis:.. A Theology of Biblical Interpretation.. 351.. Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.. Magisterium:.. Teacher and Guardian of the Faith.. Reviewed by Geoffrey Wainwright.. 354.. Volume XVIII, Number 2.. PHILIPP MELANCHTHON.. Oswald Bayer.. 134.. AND THE AMERICAN EVANGELICALISM.. Thomas Albert Howard.. 162.. SCRIPTURE IN THE LIFE OF THE BAPTIST CHURCHES:.. OPENING FOR A DIFFERENTIATED CATHOLIC-BAPTIST.. 187.. H.. Evangelicals and Tradition:.. The Formative Influence of the Early Church.. Reviewed by Dennis D.. Martin.. 216.. John Webster.. Word and Church: Essays in Christian Dogmatics I.. Confessing God: Essays in Christian Dogmatics II.. 219.. Peter S.. Oh.. Karl Barth s Trinitarian Theology: A Study in.. Karl Barth s Analogical Use of the Trinitarian Relation.. Reviewed by R.. Michael Allen.. 224.. Guy Mansini, O.. Promising and the Good.. Volume XVIII, Number 1.. A SYMPOSIUM ON SELECTED BOOKS FROM.. THE CHURCH S BIBLE.. , EDITED BY ROBERT LOUIS WILKEN.. 1 CORINTHIANS: INTERPRETED BY EARLY CHRISTIAN.. COMMENTATORS,.. Translated and edited by Judith Kovacs.. Kathryn Greene-McCreight.. THE SONG OF SONGS: INTERPRETED.. BY.. EARLY CHRISTIAN AND MEDIEVAL COMMENTATORS,.. Translated and edited by Richard A.. Norris Jr.. 14.. ISAIAH: INTERPRETED.. BY EARLY CHRISTIAN.. AND MEDIEVAL COMMENTATORS,.. Translated and edited by Robert Louis Wilken.. Claire Mathews McGinnis.. 21.. A NICENE CHRISTOLOGY?.. Robert Jenson and the Two Natures of Jesus Christ.. Tee S.. THE SPEED OF SLOTH:.. Reconsidering the Sin of.. Acedia.. Jeffrey A.. Vogel.. 50.. STEWARDS, INTERROGATORS, AND INVENTORS.. Toward a Practice of Tradition.. Mark S.. Medley.. HOW TO READ CHARLES TAYLOR:.. The Theological Significance of.. A Secular Age.. Stephen E.. Fowl.. Philippians.. Reviewed by William C.. Placher.. Markus Bockmuehl.. Seeing the World:.. Refocusing New Testament Study.. Reviewed by C.. Kavin Rowe.. 111.. David E.. Aune.. Rereading Paul Together:.. 115.. David Willis.. Clues to the Nicene Creed.. Reviewed by Kenneth H.. Carter, Jr.. 118.. Volume XVII (2008).. Volume XVII, Number 4.. THE STRUCTURE OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES:.. Bonded with Human Blood or Baptismal Water?.. Peter Galadza.. 373.. ACCESSIBILITY TO EUCHARISTIC GRACES.. THROUGH SPIRITUAL COMMUNION:.. A Backward Glance at a Study of 1966.. John Joseph Williams.. 387.. DYOTHELETISM AND THE INSTRUMENTAL.. HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS.. Thomas Joseph White, O.. 396.. FORTUITA MISERICORDIA:.. Martin Luther on the Salvation of Biblical Outsiders.. Mickey L.. Mattox.. 423.. THE SACRAMENTALITY OF MARRIAGE IN THE FATHERS.. Cavadini.. 442.. John Milbank.. The Suspended Middle:.. Henri de Lubac and the Debate concerning the Supernatural.. Reviewed by Joseph A.. Komonchak.. Jean Porter.. Nature as Reason:.. A Thomistic Theory of the Natural Law.. Reviewed by Matthew Levering.. 469.. Rudi te Velde.. Aquinas on God:.. The Divine Science of the Summa Theologiae.. Reviewed by Reinhard H.. ütter.. 473.. Volume XVII, Number 3.. A BOOK SYMPOSIUM ON ALYSSA PITSTICK,.. LIGHT IN DARKNESS: HANS URS VON BALTHASAR AND.. THE CATHOLIC DOCTRINE OF CHRIST S DESCENT INTO HELL.. IS THERE A DOCTRINE OF THE DESCENT INTO HELL?.. 257.. ON THE UNIVERSAL POSSIBILITY OF SALVATION.. 269.. CHRIST S SAVING DESCENT TO THE DEAD:.. Early Witnesses from Ignatius of Antioch to Origen.. 281.. NEWMAN S COLLEGIATE IDEAL.. Christopher Olaf Blum.. 310.. POPE BENEDICT XVI ON FAITH AND REASON.. IN WESTERN EUROPE.. Jeffrey Morris.. 326.. THOMAS AQUINAS AND THE IMPORTANCE.. OF FASTING TO THE CHRISTIAN LIFE.. Stephen Loughlin.. 343.. Early Narrative Christology:.. The Lord in the Gospel of Luke.. Reviewed by Stephen Fowl.. 362.. Noonan Jr.. A Church That Can and Cannot Change:.. The Development of Catholic Moral Teaching.. Reviewed by James J.. 364.. Volume XVII, Number 2.. A BOOK SYMPOSIUM ON POPE BENEDICT XVI,.. JESUS OF NAZARETH.. THE POPE AND JESUS.. Eero Huovinen.. 139.. JESUS AND THE POPE:.. Reflections on Benedict XVI s.. Jesus of Nazareth.. 152.. POPE BENEDICT XVI s.. :.. Agape and Logos.. Anthony C.. Sciglitano Jr.. 159.. FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS:.. Worshipping Jesus and the Integration of the Theological Disciplines.. 186.. WESTERN, EASTERN, OR GLOBAL ORTHODOXY?.. Some Reflections on St.. Augustine of Hippo in Recent Literature.. G.. Roeber.. THE HUMBLE SPEECH OF THE LORD.. Revelation and Conversion according to St.. Ephrem.. Andrew Hofer, O.. Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt.. Holy Teaching:.. Introducing the Summa Theologiae of St.. Thomas Aquinas.. Reviewed by Peter J.. Leithart.. 243.. Michael Dauphinais and Matthew Levering.. Holy Land, Holy People:.. A Theological Introduction to the Bible.. Reviewed by Lawrence S.. 246.. Volume XVII, Number 1.. THE BURDEN AND GRACE OF ROMAN CATHOLIC LEADERSHIP:.. An Anglican Response to the CDF.. Christopher Wells.. A BOOK SYMPOSIUM ON STANLEY HAUERWAS,.. MATTHEW.. HIDDEN FROM THE WISE, REVEALED TO INFANTS:.. Stanley Hauerwas’.. Commentary on Matthew.. 13.. RUMINATIVE OVERLAY:.. Matthew’s Hauerwas.. 20.. MATTHEW OR STANLEY? PICK ONE.. Luke Timothy Johnson.. 29.. PRINCIPLES OF EXEGESIS:.. Toward a Participatory Biblical Exegesis.. 33.. SUB TUUM PRAESIDIUM:.. The.. Theotokos.. in Christian Life and Worship before Ephesus.. Maxwell E.. Johnson.. 52.. LUTHER ON THE RECEPTION IN GOD’S HOLINESS.. John W.. Kleinig.. 76.. JONATHAN EDWARDS ON JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH.. —MORE PROTESTANT OR CATHOLIC?.. Gerald McDermott.. 92.. THE VATICAN’S ECUMENISTS.. Adam A.. DeVille.. Zoltán Balázs and Francis Dunlop, eds.. Exploring the World of Human Practice:.. Readings In and About the Philosophy of Aurel Kolnai.. Reviewed by Graham J.. McAleer.. 123.. O’Malley, S.. , et al.. The Jesuits: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540–1773.. Reviewed by Trent Pomplun.. 126.. Giuseppe Alberigo and Joseph Komonchak, eds.. The History of Vatican II.. Reviewed by Br.. Jeffrey Gros, FSC.. 127.. BRIEFLY NOTED.. Eckhard J.. Schnabel.. Early Christian Mission.. Reviewed by Nicolas Perrin.. 131.. Volume XVI (2007).. Volume XVI, Number 4.. PAUL AND ISRAEL:.. An Apocalyptic Reading.. Douglas Harink.. 359.. POETICS AND DOXOLOGY:.. Hans Urs von Balthasar on Poetic Resistance to Modernity s Turn to the Subject.. Kevin Mongrain.. SELF-ANNIHILATION OR DAMNATION?.. A Disputable Question in Christian Eschatology.. 416.. HILARY OF POITIERS AND JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH.. ACCORDING TO THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW.. 445.. Paul Gavrilyuk.. The Suffering of The Impassible God: The Dialectics of.. Patristic Thought.. Reviewed by John O’Keefe.. Charles Kannengiesser.. Handbook of Patristic Exegesis.. Reviewed by Carl L.. Beckwith.. Sergius Bulgakov.. The Comforter.. Reviewed by Anthony D.. Baker.. Michael Wyschogrod.. Abraham’s Promise: Judaism and Jewish-Christian Relations.. Reviewed by Gregory A.. Walter.. 470.. Volume XVI, Number 3.. HOW CAN ONE BE AND SERVE AS A BISHOP?.. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE:.. A Lutheran Examination.. Ashley Hall.. 22.. A HERMENEUTICS OF PROVIDENCE AMID AFFLICTION:.. Contributions by Luther and Weil to a Cruciform Doctrine of Providence.. Amy Carr.. 44.. HAMANN BEFORE KIERKEGAARD: A SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGICAL OVERSIGHT.. Betz.. 65.. Is the Reformation Over? And What If It Is?.. 99.. The Spirit of Early Christian Thought:.. Seeking the Face of God.. Reviewed by Angela Russel Christman.. Wolfgang Klausnitzer.. Der Primat des Bischofs von Rom:.. Entwicklung, Dogma, Ökumenische Zukunft.. Volume XVI, Number 2.. TRIBUTE TO JAROSLAV PELIKAN.. A Book Symposium on Francis Watson s.. Paul and the Hermeneutics of Faith.. PAUL S HERMENEUTICS AND THE QUESTION OF TRUTH.. Richard B.. Hays.. RESPONSE TO RICHARD HAYS.. Francis Watson134.. THE ANTI-SECULAR FRONT REVISITED:.. Reflections on Catholics and Politics in Hitler s Germany.. Michael Hollerich.. 141.. JOHN PAUL II s IRONIC LEGACY IN POLITICAL THEOLOGY.. Victor Lee Austin165.. JUSTIFICATION AND MERIT BEFORE THE PELAGIAN CONTROVERSY:.. The Case of Ambrose of Milan.. 195.. Griffiths Reinhard Hütter, editors.. Reason and Reasons of Faith.. Reviewed by John Betz.. Roderic L.. Mullen.. The Expansion of Christianity:.. A Gazeteer of Its First Three Centuries.. Joseph P.. Wawrykow.. The Westminster Handbook to Thomas Aquinas.. Reviewed by Dustin Resch232.. Volume XVI, Number 1.. DOCUMENTATION.. WORLD METHODIST COUNCIL AND THE JOINT DECLARATION.. ON THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION.. A Book Symposium on Jaroslav Pelikan,.. Acts.. ,.. Brazos Theological Commentary on the BibleFROM APOSTOLIC CHURCH TO CHURCH CATHOLIC,.. AND BACK AGAIN.. THE ACTS AND CHRISTIAN CONFESSIONS:.. Finding the Start of the Dogmatic Tradition.. 18.. WHAT IS A THEOLOGICAL COMMENTARY?.. Kavin Rowe and Richard B.. Hayes.. 26.. MARY IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.. Gary A.. JUSTIFICATION AS VERDICT AND DELIVERANCE:.. A Biblical Perspective.. Peter J.. 56.. THE MELCHIZEDEK TRADITIONS IN THE LETTER TO THE HEBREWS:.. Reading through the Eyes of an Inspired Jewish-Christian Author.. Nathan Lefler.. 73.. LUTHER AND THIS DAMNED, CONCEITED,.. RASCALLY HEATHEN ARISTOTLE:.. An Encounter More Complicated Than Many Think.. 90.. Kinzer.. Postmissionary Messianic Judaism:.. Refining Christian Engagement with Jewish People.. Reviewed by Kendall Soulen.. 105.. Jens Zimmerman.. Recovering Theological Hermeneutics:.. An Incarnational-Trinitarian Theory of Interpretation.. Reviewed by Lois Malcolm.. 107.. Katz.. God s Last Words:.. Reading the English Bible from the Reformation to Fundamentalism.. Reviewed by Telford Work.. 110.. Eugene H.. Peterson.. Christ Plays in Ten Thousand Places:.. A Conversation in Spiritual Theology.. Reviewed by Jonathan R.. Volume XV (2006).. Volume XV, Number 4.. ELECTION, NOT SELECTION.. 379.. GOD SPOKE:.. On Divine Thought in Human Language.. SPOILS FROM EGYPT YESTERDAY AND TODAY.. Thomas G.. Guarino.. 403.. ON THE REJECTION OF BOUNDARIES:.. Radical Orthodoxy s Appropriation of St.. Augustine.. 418.. HEGEL S CONCEPTION OF GOD AND ITS APPLICATION.. BY ISAAK DORNER TO THE PROBLEM OF DIVINE IMMUTABILITY.. Piotr J.. Malysz.. 448.. ON THE MISTAKE OF THINKING REASON S PRODUCTS.. TRANSPARENT TO ITS GAZE:.. Denys Turner on Arguments for the Existence of God.. Ola Tjørhom.. Visible Church Visible Unity:  ...   Jones and Stephanie Paulsell.. The Scope of our Art:.. The Vocation of the Theological Teacher.. Justus George Lawler.. Popes and Politics:.. Reform, Resentment, and the Holocaust.. Reviewed by Michael Hollerich.. Volume XII, Number 1.. ROWAN WILLIAMS: THE NEW ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.. Archbishop Rowan Williams.. Oliver O’Donovan.. The Archbishop and His Times.. A Comment on Rowan Williams and His Circumstances.. Canterbury and Unity.. Christopher Seitz.. 11.. THEOLOGY IN THE RUINS OF THE CHURCH.. REJOICE, HEAVENLY POWERS!.. The Renewal of Liturgical Doxology.. Francis Mannion.. 37.. DISPENSATIONS OF GRACE.. Newman on the Sacramental Mediation of Salvation.. 61.. JOHN CASSIAN ON FAITH AND ACTION.. Implications for Protestant-Catholic Dialogue.. Fred Guyette.. 89.. Alan E.. Lewis.. Between Cross and Resurrection:.. A Theology of Holy Saturday.. Kathryn Tanner.. Jesus, Humanity and the Trinity:.. A Brief Systematic Theology.. Reviewed by Gary Dorrien.. , Cap.. Does God Suffer?.. Reviewed by Joseph M.. Hallman.. Frits de Lange.. Waiting for the Word:.. Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Speaking about God.. Reviewed by Richard H.. Bliese.. John Webster, ed.. The Cambridge Companion to Karl Barth.. The Rites of Christian Initiation:.. Their Evolution and Interpretation.. Jan Michael Joncas.. Scott Appleby.. The Ambivalence of the Sacred:.. Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation.. 116.. Garrett Green.. Theology, Hermeneutics, and Imagination:.. The Crisis of Interpretation at the End of Modernity.. Reviewed by Jim Fodor.. Stephen C.. Barton.. Life Together:.. Family, Sexuality and Community in the New Testament and Today.. Reviewed by Brent Water.. Volume XI (2002).. Volume XI, Number 4.. THEOLOGY AT THE EUCHARISTIC TABLE.. Master Themes in the Theological Tradition.. CAN THE GOSPELS TEACH US.. HOW TO READ THE OLD TESTAMENT?.. 402.. THE EXCEPTION TO THE RULE.. A Protestant Thinks about Contraception.. Helmut David Baer.. 419.. DOING THEOLOGY TODAY.. An Orthodox and Evangelical Dialogue on Theological Method.. Stanley Samuel Harakas.. 435.. SUFFERING IMPASSIBLY.. Christ’s Passion in Cyril of Alexandria’s Soteriology.. 463.. Rausch, Thomas P.. Catholics and Evangelicals: Do They Share a Common Future?.. Williams, D.. Retrieving the Tradition and Renewing Evangelicalism:.. A Primer for Suspicious Protestants.. Reviewed by Hans Boersma.. 484.. Leander Keck.. Who is Jesus? History in Perfect Tense.. Reviewed by John Martens.. 488.. Valerie Koperski.. What are They Saying about Paul and the Law?.. Dunn, ed.. Paul and the Mosaic Law.. Frank Thielman.. The Law and the New Testament: The Question of Continuity.. 490.. Larry W.. Hurtado.. At the Origins of Christian Worship:.. The Context and Character of Earliest Christian Devotion.. John Williamson Nevin.. The Mystical Presence:.. A Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist.. Gary Dorrien.. The Making of American Liberal Theology:.. Imagining Progressive Religion 1805-1900.. Reviewed by Roger E.. Olson.. 496.. Philip W.. Butin.. The Trinity.. Jonathan R.. God So Loved the World: A Christology for Disciples.. Reviewed by Barry Harvey.. Audrey Chapman.. Unprecedented Choices:.. Religious Ethics at the Frontiers of Genetic Science.. Scott B.. Rae and Paul M.. Cox.. Bioethics: A Christian Approach in a Pluralistic Age.. Reviewed by M.. Therese Lysaught.. Stephen H.. Good Eating.. Reviewed by Steven Bouma-Prediger.. Brian S.. Hook, R.. R.. Heroism and the Christian Life: Reclaiming Excellence.. Reviewed by Joseph E.. Capizzi.. Volume XI, Number 3.. SAME CHURCH — NEW ORDER.. A Report on Church-State Relations in Norway.. and Its Ecclesiological Implications.. ISRAEL AND THE EUCHARIST.. A Scotist Perspective.. Robert Trent Pomplun.. 272.. BIBLICAL PRESSURE AND.. TRINITARIAN HERMENEUTICS.. 295.. JUST WAR, PENANCE AND THE CHURCH.. Darrell Cole.. 313.. THE BIBLE AND THE TRINITY.. 329.. THE INCOMPREHENSIBILITY OF GOD.. AND THE ORIGIN OF THE THOMISTIC CONCEPT.. OF THE SUPERNATURAL.. Robert E.. Webber.. Ancient-Future Faith:.. Rethinking Evangelicalism for a Postmodern World.. John G.. Stackhouse, Jr.. Evangelical Futures:.. A Conversation on Theological Method.. Stanley J.. Grenz.. Renewing the Center:.. Evangelical Theology in a Post-Theological Era.. Grenz and John R.. Franke.. Beyond Foundationalism:.. Shaping Theology in a Postmodern Context.. 356.. Daniel Boyarin.. Dying for God:.. Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism.. Reviewed by Scott Bader-Saye.. On Christian Theology.. Stephen R.. God of Grace and God of Glory:.. An Account of the Theology of Jonathan Edwards.. The Remaking of Evangelical Theology.. Reviewed by Ashley Woodiwiss.. John Bolt.. A Free Church, A Holy Nation:.. Abraham Kuyper’s American Public Theology.. Reviewed by Robert Benne.. John Polkinghorne, ed.. The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis.. Reviewed by Clark Pinnock.. Michael Ruse.. Can a Darwinian Be a Christian?.. The Relationship Between Science and Religion.. Reviewed by Terence Nichols.. 376.. Robert A.. Gagnon.. The Bible and Homosexual Practice:.. Texts and Hermeneutics.. 377.. Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini.. On the Body:.. A Contemporary Theology of the Human Person.. Reviewed by Christopher J.. Thompson.. Volume XI, Number 2.. PASSIONATELY SEEKING THE TRUTH:.. Unpunctual Protestant Reflections on.. Fides et Ratio.. ONE MEDIATOR THE MAN JESUS CHRIST.. Reconciliation, Mediation and Life in Community.. Colin Gunton.. 146.. SANCTORUM COMMUNIO.. For Evangelicals and Catholics Together.. HOW DO WE CONTINUE?.. The Ecumenical Commitments and Possibilities.. of the.. Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification.. NO SHADOW OF TURNING:.. On Divine Impassibility.. 184.. REDEMPTIVE HOSPITALITY IN IRENAEUS:.. A Model for Ecumenicity in a Violent World.. Bengt Sundkler and Christopher Steed.. New Eggs in Old Nests:.. A History of the Church in Africa.. Reviewed by Lamin Sanneh.. Isaiah: A Commentary.. Reviewed by Claire R.. Mathews McGinnis.. Gavin D’Costa.. The Meeting of Religions and the Trinity.. Reviewed by S.. Mark Heim.. David Coffey.. Deus Trinitas:.. The Doctrine of the Triune God.. The Holy Spirit: Works and Gifts.. The Unaccommodated Calvin:.. Studies in the Foundation of a Theological Tradition.. Joseph Varacalli.. Bright Promise, Failed Community:.. Catholics and the American Public Order.. Brian Stiltner.. Religion and the Common Good:.. Catholic Contributions to Building Community in a Liberal Society.. Reviewed by Bernard V.. Brady.. John Koenig.. The Feast of the World’s Redemption:.. Eucharistic Origins and Christian Mission.. Reviewed by Maxwell E.. 245.. SHORTER NOTICE.. David Penchansky.. What Rough Beast?.. Images of God in the Hebrew Bible.. Reviewed by Gary A.. Volume XI, Number 1.. OPINION.. A SYMPOSIUM ON.. DABRU EMET.. A JEWISH STATEMENT ON CHRISTIANS AND CHRISTIANITY.. 8.. 10.. David C.. Burrell, C.. Barry Cytron.. COMMUNION, ECCLESIOLOGY,.. MANDATUM.. AND PRUDENTIAL JUDGEMENTS.. Dennis M.. Doyle.. PREACHING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUCHARIST.. A Patristic Perspective.. 24.. ALL FOR JESUS.. The Cause, Character and Role of Discipleship Suffering in Q.. Ann Jervis.. 41.. TRANSUBSTANTIATION AND EUCHARISTIC PRESENCE.. Terence Nichols.. RELIGION AND SECULARITY IN A CULTURE OF ABSTRACTION.. On the Integrity of Space, Time, Matter and Motion.. David L Schindler.. 95.. Anna Wierzbicka.. What Did Jesus Mean? Explaining the Sermon on the Mount.. and the Parables in Simple and Universal Human Concepts.. Oakes.. Suffering Divine Things: Theology as Church Practice.. 103.. Knight.. Christ the Center.. Richard Bauckham.. God Crucified: Monotheism and Christology in the New Testament.. Michael Jinkins.. The Church Faces Death: Ecclesiology in a Post-Modern Context.. Reviewed by Ephraim Radner.. Jesus and the Victory of God: Rediscovering Who Jesus Is and Was.. Casey Newman, ed.. Jesus and the Restoration of Israel:.. A Critical Assessment of N.. Wright s Jesus and the Victory of God.. John Bowlin.. Contingency and Fortune in Aquinas Ethics.. Geoffrey Gneuhs, ed.. The Legacy of Pope John Paul II: His Contribution to Catholic Thought.. Charles Curran and Richard McCormick, S.. John Paul II and Moral Theology.. Reviewed by Paul Wojda.. Augustine s Invention of the Inner Self:.. The Legacy of a Christian Platonist.. Reviewed by Paul R.. Kolbet.. Michael Phayer.. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965.. Reviewed by John Jay Hughes.. Paul C.. McGlasson.. Canon and Proclamation: Sermons for Our Times.. Reviewed by Wes Avram.. Volume X (2001).. Volume X, Number 4.. HOLY SCRIPTURE AND THE CHURCH.. CATHOLIC-ORTHODOX RELATIONS IN UKRAINE.. Michael J.. Hollerich.. 395.. JUST WAR.. Reflections from the Lutheran Tradition in a Time of Crisis.. 401.. GOD AND WILLIAM JAMES.. 428.. WHAT IS SO GREAT ABOUT FREEDOM?.. 449.. WITH ANGELS AND ARCHANGELS.. THE APOSTOLICITY OF FREE CHURCHES.. Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen.. 475.. Martin B.. Copenhaver, Anthony B.. Robinson and William H.. Willimon.. Good News In Exile: Three Pastors Offer a Hopeful Vision for the Church.. Marva J.. Dawn.. A Royal “Waste” of Time:.. The Splendor of Worshiping God and Being Church for the World.. Craig Van Gelder, ed.. Confident Witness-Changing World:.. Rediscovering the Gospel in North America.. Living Faithfully in a Fragmented World:.. Lessons for the Church from MacIntyre’s After Virtue.. Gerhard Lohfink.. Does God Need the Church?: Toward a Theology of the People of God.. 491.. Disruptive Grace:.. Studies in the Theology of Karl Barth.. 493.. David F.. Ford.. Self and Salvation: Being Transformed.. Reviewed by Timothy F.. Sedgwick.. Peter Ochs.. Peirce, Pragmatism, and the Logic of Scripture.. Emmanuel Katongole.. Beyond Universal Reason:.. The Relation between Religion and Ethics in the Work of Stanley Hauerwas.. David Fergusson.. Community, Liberalism and Christian Ethics.. Charles Curran, Richard McCormick, eds.. The Historical Development of Fundamental Moral Theology in the United States.. Reviewed by Christopher Steck.. Stephen B.. Clark.. Catholics and the Eucharist: A Scriptural Introduction.. Reviewed by Daniel Keating.. SHORTER NOTICES.. Gilbert C.. Meilaender, ed.. Working:.. Its Meaning and Its Limits.. Reviewed by Robert G.. Kennedy.. Ronald P.. Byars.. Christian Worship: Glorifying and Enjoying God.. 506.. Volume X, Number 3.. AND IN ONE LORD JESUS CHRIST BEGOTTEN NOT MADE.. FORGIVENESS OF.. PAST.. SINS: JOHN WESLEY ON JUSTIFICATION.. A Case Study Approach.. Ted M.. Dorman.. SANCTA SARA, MATER ECCLESIAE.. Martin Luther’s Catholic Exegesis of Genesis 18:1–15.. ORTHODOX ECCLESIOLOGY FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM.. Peter Anthony Baktis.. 321.. THE AUTHORITY OF SCRIPTURE IN SACRAMENTAL THEOLOGY.. Some Methodological Observations.. DiNoia, O.. and Bernard Mulcahy, O.. ST.. MAXIMUS THE CONFESSOR ON PRIESTHOOD, HIERARCHY, AND ROME.. Adam G.. Cooper.. 346.. Gerald R.. Jonathan Edwards Confronts the Gods:.. Christian Theology, Enlightenment Religion, and Non-Christian Faiths.. Hinlicky.. Victor Paul Furnish.. The Theology of the First Letter to the Corinthians.. Reviewed by Leander E.. Keck.. Agape, Eros, Gender:.. Towards a Pauline Sexual Ethic.. Reviewed by Victor Paul Furnish.. Eugene F.. Rogers, Jr.. Sexuality and the Christian Body:.. Their Way into the Triune God.. Holmes Rolston III.. Genes, Genesis, and God:.. Values and Their Origins in Natural and Human History.. Reviewed by Stephen J.. Pope.. Garth L.. Hallett.. Priorities and Christian Ethics.. Reviewed by Tobias Winright.. Volume X, Number 2.. TRIBUTE.. AVERY CARDINAL DULLES.. STAKING ALL ON FAITH’S OBJECT:.. The Art of Christian Assurance According to Martin Luther and Karl Barth.. Richard H.. Olmsted.. THE IMMEDIATELY TRIUNE GOD:.. A Patristic Response to Schleiermacher.. SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION IN THE LUTHERAN CONFESSIONS.. Bertram.. 179.. REVISITING THE FILIOQUE :.. Part Two: Contemporary Catholic Approaches.. INTERPRETING JOB ALLEGORICALLY:.. Moralia.. of Gregory the Great.. Paul Avis, ed.. Divine Revelation.. The Doctrine of Revelation: A Narrative Interpretation.. Timothy Gorringe.. Discerning Spirit: A Theology of Revelation.. Revelation and Truth: Unity and Plurality in Contemporary Theology.. David Weiss Halivni.. Revelation Restored: Divine Writ and Critical Responses.. John F.. Haught.. Mystery and Promise: A Theology of Revelation.. Christoph Schwöbel.. God, Action, and Revelation.. Kern Trembath.. Divine Revelation: Our Moral Relation With God.. Dan O.. Via, Jr.. The Revelation of God and/as Human Reception in the New Testament.. Keith Ward.. Religion and Revelation: A Theology of Revelation in the World’s Religions.. Reviewed by David S.. 227.. Walter Brueggemann.. The Covenanted Self: Explorations in Law and Covenant.. Reviewed by Ellen F.. Davis234Craig L.. Blomberg.. Neither Poverty nor Riches: A Biblical Theology of Material Possessions.. Reviewed by Luke Timothy Johnson235Colin Gunton.. The Triune Creator: A Historical and Systematic Study.. Reviewed by Philip W.. Butin237Kathryn Greene-McCreight.. Feminist Reconstructions of Christian Doctrine:.. Narrative Analysis and Appraisal.. Reviewed by Teresa Berger239Timothy Sedgwick.. The Christian Moral Life: Practices of Piety.. McDonough240Stanley Hauerwas, Chris K.. Huebner,.. Harry J.. Huebner, and Mark Thiessen Nation, eds.. The Wisdom of the Cross: Essays in Honor of John Howard Yoder.. Reviewed by Philip D.. Kenneson242Aidan Nichols, O.. Christendom Awake: On Reenergizing the Church in Culture.. Reviewed by Don J.. Briel243Mary Todd.. Authority Vested, A Story of Identity and.. Change in the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod.. Reviewed by Barry A.. Long245.. William H.. Willimon and Richard Lischer, eds.. Concise Encyclopedia of Preaching.. Reviewed by David Schnasa Jacobsen247.. Volume X, Number 1.. A SYMPOSIUM ON THE DECLARATION.. DOMINUS IESUS.. Dominus Iesus.. , A Catholic Response.. Avery Dulles, S.. , A Lutheran Response.. Eugene Brand.. , An Episcopalian Response.. , A Methodist Response.. , A Reformed Response.. , An Evangelical Response.. BIBLICAL ORIGINS AND THE PROBLEM OF THE FALL.. REVISITING THE “FILIOQUE”:.. ROOTS AND BRANCHES OF AN OLD DEBATE Part One.. 31.. A SHARED DILEMMA.. Catholics and Lutherans on the Authority and Interpretation of Scripture.. 63.. THE DARKNESS BEFORE THE DAWN?.. Robert Benne.. SACRA DOCTRINA.. AND THE AUTHORITY OF ITS.. SACRA SCRIPTURA.. According to St.. Francis Martin.. 84.. Engaging Scripture: A Model for Theological Interpretation.. K.. Greene–McCreight.. Ad Litteram: How Augustine, Calvin, and Barth.. Read the “Plain Sense” of Genesis 1–3.. Is There a Meaning in This Text?.. The Bible, the Reader, and the Morality of Literary Knowledge.. Fredrick C.. Holmgren.. The Old Testament the Significance of Jesus:.. Embracing Change — Maintaining Christian Identity.. Reviewed by Claire Mathews McGinnis.. Scott Bader-Saye.. Church and Israel after Christendom: The Politics of Election.. Reviewed by Katherine Sonderegger.. Spiritual Exegesis and the Church in the Theology of Henri de Lubac.. Reviewed by Marcellino d’Ambrosio.. Cynthia S.. Crysdale.. Embracing Travail: Retrieving the Cross Today.. Darby Kathleen Ray.. Deceiving the Devil: Atonement, Abuse, and Ransom.. Reviewed by Susan Windley-Daoust.. Braaten and Robert W.. Marks of the Body of Christ.. Wentzel van Huyssteen.. The Shaping of Rationality:.. Toward Interdisciplinarity in Theology and Science.. Reviewed by Christopher L.. Minor.. Joel James Shuman.. The Body of Compassion:.. Ethics, Medicine, and the Church, Radical Traditions.. Volume IX (2000).. Volume IX, Number 4.. THE JUSTICE OF HELL AND THE DISPLAY.. OF GOD’S GLORY IN THE THOUGHT.. OF JONATHAN EDWARDS.. IS THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION POSSIBLE?.. Douglas Farrow.. 404.. THE CHRISTIAN YEAR AND.. THE TYPOLOGICAL IMAGINATION.. IN JOHN KEBLE’S PAROCHIAL SERMONS.. Maria Poggi Johnson.. OLD TESTAMENT TYPES OF THE CROSS.. The Tree of Life.. John Keble.. 429.. SOUTHERN BAPTIST AND.. ROMAN CATHOLIC SOTERIOLOGIES.. A Comparative Study.. Stephen J.. Duffy.. THE JUBILEE INDULGENCE AND.. THE.. JOINT DECLARATION ON.. THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION.. THE ENTITLED POOR.. Human Rights Language in the Cappadocians.. Susan R.. Holman.. 476.. The End of the Church:.. A Pneumatology of Christian Division in the West.. Reviewed by Joseph L.. Religious Reading:.. The Place of Reading in the Practice of Religion.. Burrell.. John Milbank, Catherine Pickstock, and Graham Ward, eds.. Radical Orthodoxy: A New Theology.. Mother Church:.. Ecclesiology and Ecumenism.. Reviewed by Nicholas M.. John Breck.. The Sacred Gift of Life:.. Orthodox Christianity and Bioethics.. Reviewed by Joel James Shuman.. Barth’s Moral Theology:.. Human Action in Barth’s Thought.. Reviewed by David M.. McCarthy.. Richard John Neuhaus.. Appointment in Rome.. Reviewed by Robert Barron.. Text and Truth: Redefining Biblical Theology.. Reviewed by A.. Adam.. 507.. Barton, ed.. Where Shall Wisdom Be Found?.. Wisdom in the Bible, the Church and the Contemporary World.. Reviewed by Romanus Cessario.. 508.. Volume IX, Number 3.. WILHELM LÖHE AND THE CATHOLICITY OF THE CHURCH.. THE CHURCH AS THE PLACE OF SALVATION.. On the Interrelation between Justification and Ecclesiology.. THE EUCHARISTIC IDIOM OF THE GOSPEL.. 297.. MODERNITY AND THE “MERELY SOCIAL”:.. Toward A Socio-Theological Account of Baptismal Regeneration.. 319.. ECCLESIA SANCTA, ECCLESIA PECCATRIX.. The Holiness of the Church in Martin Luther’s Theology.. 331.. ORIGEN AND THE CRISIS OF THE.. OLD TESTAMENT IN THE EARLY CHURCH.. Joseph T.. Lienhard, S.. After Writing:.. On the Liturgical Consummation of Philosophy.. Ronald F.. Thiemann, William C.. Placher, eds.. Why are We Here?.. Everyday Questions and the Christian Life.. Reviewed by Paul Giurlanda.. Dockery, ed.. New Dimensions in Evangelical Thought:.. Essays in Honor of Millard J.. Rodney Clapp, ed.. The Consuming Passion:.. Christianity The Consumer Culture.. Reviewed by Michael L.. Budde.. Edward J.. Larson, Darrel W.. Amundsen.. A Different Death:.. Euthanasia and the Christian Tradition.. 378.. Bernhard Lang.. Sacred Games:.. A History of Christian Worship.. Volume IX, Number 2.. A SYMPOSIUM ON A CALL TO EVANGELICAL UNITY :.. THE GOSPEL OF JESUS CHRIST:.. An Evangelical Celebration.. (Reprinted from.. Christianity Today.. ).. RESPONSE TO A CALL TO EVANGELICAL UNITY.. Paul R.. GOD SET FORTH IN THE INFALLIBLE SCRIPTURES.. David Scott.. 142.. A ROMAN CATHOLIC RESPONSE TO.. A CALL TO EVANGELICAL UNITY.. 144.. UNITY IS GIVEN, WE MUST ATTAIN.. An Eastern Orthodox Response to A Call to Evangelical Unity.. 148.. ECCLESIAL APOSTOLICITY CONFESSED IN THE CREED.. Jared Wicks S.. 150.. ON CHRISTIAN UNITY:.. The Way from Below.. 165.. AN EVANGELICAL REFLECTION.. ON SCRIPTURE AND TRADITION.. JONATHAN EDWARDS AND THE.. SALVATION OF NON-CHRISTIANS.. 208.. METHODIUS OF OLYMPUS AND THE PLAN OF SALVATION.. Lloyd G.. Patterson.. 228.. The Size of Chesterton s Catholicism.. Reviewed by Ralph C.. 236.. Union with Christ:.. Reviewed by Ted M.. Julian of Norwich and the Mystical Body of Christ.. Reviewed by Catherine Pickstock.. Thomas C.. Oden and Christopher A.. Hall, eds.. Mark, Ancient Christian Commentary.. on Scripture, New Testament,.. Volume 2.. Gerald Bray, ed.. Romans, Ancient Christian Commentary.. Volume 6.. Reviewed by Richard A.. Layton.. Reinhard Hütter and Theodore Dieter, eds.. Ecumenical Ventures in Ethics:.. Protestants Engage Pope John Paul II s Moral Encyclicals.. James Tunstead Burtchaell.. The Dying of the Light: the Disengagement of.. Colleges and Universities from their Christian Churches.. Reviewed by Leigh D.. Jordahl.. Michael Root and Risto Saarinen, eds.. Baptism and the Unity of the Church.. Reviewed by Ruth A.. Meyers.. 250.. Volume IX, Number 1.. AUGSBURG, 1999: BY GRACE ALONE.. Some Reflections by a Participant.. Karl P.. Donfried.. THE STATE AND FUTURE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT.. NEWS FROM THE GRAVEYARD.. 19.. TOWARD A CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY OF ISRAEL.. TOWARD A THEOLOGY OF ORDINARY LIFE.. Sparrow.. LOSING A FRIEND.. Ellen F.. Davis.. THE WORD OF GOD IN THE SECOND CENTURY.. Systematic Theology,.. Volume 3.. Reviewed by Ralph Del Colle.. Torture and Eucharist:.. Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ.. S.. Cutsinger, ed.. Reclaiming the Great Tradition:.. Evangelical, Catholics, and Orthodox in Dialogue.. Miroslav Volf.. After Our Likeness:.. The Church as the Image of the Trinity.. Word Without End:.. The Old Testament as Abiding Theological Witness.. Reviewed by Corrine L.. Patton.. Parker.. The Living Text of the Gospels.. Reviewed by Dwight N.. Craig S.. Farmer.. The Gospel of John in the Sixteenth Century:.. The Johannine Exegesis of Wolfgang Musculus.. Reviewed by John L.. Farthing.. Gospel Virtues:.. Practicing Faith, Hope and Love in Uncertain Times.. Michael Budde.. The (Magic) Kingdom of God:.. Christianity and Global Culture Industries.. Kenneson.. Worship with One Accord:.. Where Liturgy and Ecumenism Embrace.. Reviewed by Dirk J.. Smit..

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