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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2010 Conference Highlights - Hamlin, Moore
    Descriptive info: Skip to Sub-Navigation.. Annual Conference.. How to Submit.. Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2010 Annual Conference.. The Norman Hackerman Building Meeting the.. Requirements of the Program, the Owner, and Mother Nature.. Diane Hamlin.. , LEED AP, CO Architects.. Brian Moore.. , HMG and Associates.. Abstract.. The University of Texas (UT) at Austin's new Norman Hackerman Building (NHB) provides space for an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to education, research, and development for the College of Natural Sciences, including Neuroscience, the Center for Learning and Memory, and Organic Chemistry Teaching and Research.. In addition to its demanding program, this sophisticated, laboratory-intensive building presented several challenges: it resides in a hot, humid climate, which places additional demands on cooling and heating; it required innovative design and engineering approaches to meet both project energy savings and a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED.. ) Gold target; and its design had to conform to a prescriptive and historic campus vocabulary.. The program dictated over 250 fume hoods, which required a high volume of outside makeup air.. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) outdoor air design points were required to be 98 F dry bulb and 80 percent relative humidity within the extreme Austin climate.. In addition, heat recovery units were not allowed by UT due to past unfavorable experience.. Although UT imposes stringent requirements on each project, it is also proactive in developing campus infrastructure to aid in efficiency of systems, including measures such as:.. Chilled water distribution system that passes into and through the NHB is fed from a 3 million gallon thermal energy storage tank.. All cooling coil condensate is routed to a central campus recovered water system, which furnishes makeup water to chilling station cooling towers.. The UT Austin campus produces its own power using gas turbine generators with waste heat exchangers producing more than half of required campus steam.. Following a two-year study, the University authorized use of high-performance fume hoods, reducing the maximum required makeup air by 70,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM).. From the beginning of design, the NHB incorporated proven strategies for energy savings and water conservation:.. Variable air volume HVAC systems.. Local re-circulating cooling units for equipment rooms and high heat load spaces.. Cascading air from surrounding spaces into high fume hood density laboratories.. Variable frequency drives for all air- and water-moving equipment.. Daylighting system utilizing photocell sensors to control lighting levels.. Low-flow plumbing fixtures.. City of Austin purple pipe reclaimed water system for irrigation.. Stormwater retention system.. The Norman Hackerman Building at UT Austin.. In addition to the above, several novel strategies were employed for the design of the HVAC and laboratory process cooling water systems.. The main exhaust system for NHB was designed using five to 60,000 CFM capacity high plume fans, each selected for 4,500 feet per minute discharge velocity at maximum flow.. By cycling  ...   required, 31 percent savings in cooling energy, and 90 percent savings in heating energy.. This project will also save UT 4,300,000 gallons per year in cooling tower makeup water simply by routing air handling unit condensate back to the campus recovered water system.. Overall the building energy use is 34 percent better than ASHRAE 90.. 1 requirements and is targeting LEED-Gold certification.. Biographies.. , a senior associate with CO Architects in Los Angeles, has practiced architecture for 14 years and offers specialized experience in academic research facilities.. She recently worked on all phases of the 260,000 sf William H.. Foege Building (bioengineering and genome sciences) at the University of Washington, completed in 2006.. Ms.. Hamlin was part of the team providing programming, design, construction documents, and construction administration services.. She is the project manager for the 330,000 sf Norman Hackerman Building at UT Austin, which completes construction in 2010.. Diane also serves as the (BIM) coordinator for this project, which is being constructed as Construction Management/General Contractors (CM/GC).. Her recent experience also includes the 125,000 sf Medical Education Building at Texas Tech University HSC El Paso School of Medicine, and the 278,000 sf Kendall Square Building B Research Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts.. She also served on project teams for two large healthcare projects: 500,000 sf of new and renovated facilities for University of California, Santa Monica, Los Angles Medical Center, and a 400,000 sf replacement hospital for Kaiser Permanente Panorama City Medical Center.. Hamlin received her Bachelor of Architecture from California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, and is a LEED Accredited Professional.. , since he began his engineering career in 1971 at Lockwood Andrews Newnam in Houston, Texas, has been involved in a wide range of projects.. During the course of his 38-year career, he has designed and/or led the design of mechanical and hydronic systems for over 40 million square feet of space.. Mr.. Moore's diverse experience includes such projects as office buildings; schools; hotels; airports; manufacturing facilities for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries; laboratories; animal facilities; clean rooms; and aerospace manufacturing and research facilities.. Between 1983 and 1988 he was in charge of all building mechanical systems design for Sverdrup Corporation's St.. Louis, Missouri, office.. For eight years prior to joining HMG Associates, Inc.. , Mr.. Moore was a principal and director of engineering for CUH2A, Inc.. , in Princeton, New Jersey.. For nine years, Mr.. Moore lectured in seminars in the United States and Europe on the design of pharmaceutical and biotechnology facilities.. Moore is also a contributing author for the book.. Sterile Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Applications for the 1990s.. , published by Interpharm Press.. Moore received his Bachelor of Science in architectural engineering from UT Austin in 1971 and is a registered engineer in 10 states.. Stay in touch with I.. SL!.. Send us your email.. to join our mailing list..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2010 Conference Highlights - Kelly, Synder
    Descriptive info: People, Presence, Place:.. Co-Creating High-Performance Buildings.. Kathleen Kelly.. , AIA, LEED AP, and.. Andy Snyder.. , NBBJ.. High-performance buildings hit on all cylinders: from environment to context and program.. Globally, achieving sustainable performance and significant energy reduction is hindered by a multitude of issues driven by unique climate conditions, varying code requirements, cultural pressures, natural resource limitations, and soft governmental policies.. Delivering high-performance buildings across international borders requires many powerful resources working in concert, with the team at the epicenter.. Analyzing our design experience in three world regions Asia, the Middle East, and Europe/United Kingdom (UK) reveals the considerations and unique solutions required to deliver energy reduction around the world.. Note the following observations:.. Asia.. Emissions and Energy Use Intensity Scale and impact of development.. Continent of climate extremes Deep understanding of place.. Speed of development Consistency and continuity of team.. Middle East.. Plentiful fossil fuels Life after oil: planning for alternative futures.. Extreme climate Embracing cultural building traditions; renewable resources.. Young society Look to the designer as expert.. Europe and the UK.. Must import fossil fuels Need to leverage renewable resources.. High energy costs Focus on energy reduction.. Rigorous regulations and codes Aggressive design criteria.. The learnings gleaned from working in these regions point to the following themes: the power of the team, the power of policy, and the power of knowledge.. The Power of the Team.. A high-performance team is one configured specifically for the unique criteria of each project.. As experienced in the case study of the Koo Foundation Research Pavilion, located in Taipei, Taiwan, delivering an energy reduction of 58 percent required building a network of knowledge and expertise, spanning geographies, cultures, and value systems.. For the Koo Foundation, collaboration is the bridge between theory and clinical practice.. Building a flexible, sustainable framework to support collaboration was fundamental to the success of their enterprise.. Collaboration across multiple disciplines, global locations, and areas of expertise is also the basis of delivering greater energy performance and a holistic, sustainable building.. Efforts included pushing policy makers for change.. Collaborators must remain in place for the duration of construction  ...   role of expert, carrying significant influence in lowering energy consumption.. Along with historically based ideas, such as building orientation, shading, and air chimneys, new ideas such as earth ducts and double roofs to generate shaded horizontal surfaces were incorporated in Kuwait University College of Sciences building.. Teams properly schooled in energy principals have the perfect arena to greatly reduce energy consumption.. There are a number of lessons learned from the international experience to refocus the design and policy process in the United States:.. Focus on energy reduction specifically.. Advocacy and accountability for building performance, at a high level, is key in affecting policy change.. Building monitoring: Accountability for performance over the building's lifetime.. Architect as expert: Returning to the idea of Master Builder.. Collective Design Approach: Collaborative team approach is proven globally.. Use of thermal mass and radiation.. Profound energy savings will not be realized without impacting the actions of the building tenants (plug loads).. , a principal at NBBJ, has spent her 19-year career designing science buildings.. With 30 research buildings in her portfolio, Ms.. Kelly is a key proponent of sustainable and regenerative design at NBBJ.. Throughout her years as an architect, her experience has spanned a variety of project types, but always with a view to environmental sensitivity.. As a part of NBBJ's science and education practice, Ms.. Kelly is focused on devising sustainable research environments for the future and the environmental performance of buildings.. She takes a holistic approach, looking for opportunities to push each project towards a positive outcome for both the human experience and the ecosystem we inhabit.. Kelly is a member of the American Institute of Architects and a LEED Accredited Professional.. An advocate of integrated and value-added design,.. is a senior associate and project designer in NBBJ's Science and Education practice.. His experience across geography, project size, and complexity makes him a highly versatile designer.. Snyder believes that great design improves the human condition and is significant of its place and time.. His interests in sustainability extend from environmental responsibility and energy reduction to improving the human experience and adding value..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract - Horn, Lockhart
    Descriptive info: Laboratory Design.. Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract.. Reducing Campus Air Change Rates Safely An Authority Having Jurisdiction and Environmental Health and Safety Approach.. Shannon Horn.. , P.. E.. Timothy Lockhart.. , University of Colorado Boulder.. The University of Colorado (CU) Boulder has approximately 2.. 1 million square feet of laboratory space, which uses approximately 43 percent of the annual energy consumption of the entire campus.. All of the CU Boulder laboratories were built in different eras, following different philosophies and standards regarding air change rates (ACH) and safety.. As such, the CU Boulder Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) and Environmental Health and Safety (EH S) departments were challenged with determining what ACH would be acceptable for the campus, seeking an ACH that minimized energy consumption while maintaining a safe laboratory environment, and how this approach could be pragmatically applied to new and existing facilities using limited resources.. First the departments reviewed codes and industry standards adopted by the university and the state of Colorado, as CU Boulder is required to follow codes as a matter of law and enforcement, as well as use standards, guidelines, and best industry practices to make educated decisions in grey areas not covered by code.. After the review, the departments determined that there is no prescribed ACH that determines a safe laboratory.. The departments also determined that there are three main drivers for ACH in laboratories: loads, hood ventilation, and hazard type of laboratory activities.. To calculate the loads the university was maintaining, the departments surveyed all loads in a space; metered a sample of typical laboratories throughout the campus; and determined a diversity value based on metered data compared to surveyed data.. The departments then benchmarked this information using the.. Labs21 Energy Benchmarking Tool.. The departments considered options to minimize the load variable.. These included working with the laboratory users to use/purchase different equipment, turning off equipment or using setback when not in use, and considering infrastructure changes such as adding fan coil units or chilled beams to decouple the loads from the ventilation.. The departments determined hood ventilation needs by reviewing hood face velocities, and evaluating if re-balancing, modifying/changing the hood to a high-performance fume hood, or converting to a variable air volume system changed the ACH enough to justify the activity.. The departments based hazard classifications on National Fire Protection Association guidelines, laboratory activities, laboratory management, risk analysis, and modeling and monitoring techniques to provide a comfort level in the safety of  ...   helped establish a model that could be applied campus-wide by leveraging limited resources.. CU Boulder is still considering how to continually fine tune the assumptions in the load verification and hazard analysis, how to accurately quantify the energy savings, and how to effectively manage constantly changing and evolving laboratory spaces on campus.. To address these questions, CU Boulder is monitoring/modeling different compounds, using a two-zone model showing generation and decay in near/far field, conducting continuous indoor air quality monitoring and measurement and verification, and establishing a management protocol and commitment from the laboratories to update the departments on laboratory and compound changes, as well as laboratory operation.. By applying this approach campus-wide, CU Boulder estimates an approximate 15 percent average energy reduction for the campus.. is a professional engineer and LEED AP.. , with a Bachelor of Science degree from Colorado State University.. Horn is a campus mechanical engineer for CU Boulder, where she holds a diversity of responsibilities from commissioning agent to AHJ to supporting energy conservation projects and initiatives campus-wide.. Horn has more than seven years experience as a consulting engineer for a diversity of clients that primarily focused on industrial, laboratories, data centers, institutional, high-tech, and educational facilities.. Horn has nine years of experience working as a facilities engineer for a semi-conductor/inkjet facility and a higher education learning institute.. Regardless of position or job title, Ms.. Horn's objective and passion have been oriented towards high-technology environments and how to reduce energy without compromising form, fit, or function.. Timothy Lockhart.. is a certified industrial hygienist and certified hazardous materials manager with a Bachelor of Science in environmental chemistry and toxicology and a Masters of Science in industrial hygiene from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.. Currently employed as an industrial hygienist for CU Boulder, Mr.. Lockhart is responsible for a variety of programs, ranging from indoor air quality to employee exposure assessments, hazardous exhaust ventilation, and employee trainings.. Prior to joining the EH S team at CU Boulder, Mr.. Lockhart was a consulting industrial hygienist for seven years and helped manage health and safety risks for various industrial and corporate clients.. As a consultant, Mr.. Lockhart developed and implemented EH S programs and corresponding audits, conducted indoor air quality investigations, and implemented various strategies to help protect worker health and safety.. Lockhart's understanding of federal and state regulations and current technology has allowed him to provide cost savings for clients, while ensuring sound health and safety solutions..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2008 Annual Conference Highlights - Fox, Bhatti
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2008 Annual Conference.. Side-by-Side Evaluation of High Performance Fume Hoods for the University of Texas.. Kevin Fox, P.. , CEM, LEED.. , Jacobs Engineering Group,.. Bernard Bhatti, P.. ,.. Project Management and Construction Services, The University of Texas at Austin.. Introduction.. Laboratory buildings are among the most demanding energy users of all facilities on a University campus because of the large quantities of air that require conditioning for ventilation and exhaust makeup.. Typically, the size and quantity of fume hoods installed in a laboratory determines the amount of energy used by the facility.. The use of high performance fume hoods, those specifically designed for superior fume-capture performance at reduced exhaust airflow rates, offers potentially significant energy savings while ensuring a safe and healthy laboratory environment.. The High Performance Fume Hood Evaluation program reviewed and tested commercially available high performance chemical fume hood technologies for potential use at the University of Texas (UT).. The program was conducted to help determine an optimal fume hood design standard for use in the new Experimental Sciences Building, to be located in the heart of the Austin campus.. The new Experimental Sciences building is being designed to Labs21 performance guidelines for energy efficiency and sustainability.. More than 100 new fume hoods are currently programmed for the facility.. Furthermore, high performance hoods deemed acceptable by this program will be considered for replacement and retrofit opportunities to improve the energy efficiency and exhaust system capacity of existing laboratory buildings on campus.. Currently, there are over 1,000 fume hoods installed on the Austin campus.. Background.. The main purpose of a chemical fume hood is to contain toxic and/or odorous materials generated within the hood to keep exposure to laboratory hood operators below established health hazard exposure guidelines.. Consequently, testing fume hood containment performance is a very important safety issue.. It has long been recognized that many factors affect the hood s ability to contain fumes, including inward airflow (commonly measured by face velocity through the sash opening), hood design, room airflow patterns and user activities.. In the past, visual smoke observations and face velocity airflow measurements were used as primary indicators of hood performance.. Recent studies have indicated that face velocity measurement in and of itself may not adequately predict hood performance and containment.. ANSI Z9.. 5-1992,.. Laboratory Ventilation.. , imparts to the owner responsibility to determine internal standards, which define safe and satisfactory fume hood operation and performance.. Many organizations and lab user groups, including the University, have adopted a standard fume hood performance criterion of 100 feet per minute face velocity through an 18 inch sash opening as a means of defining a properly functioning fume hood.. Numerous other standards exist, but 100 feet per minute (FPM) has generally been adopted as an unofficial, arbitrary standard of hood performance by the industry.. The goal of this program was to determine acceptability for use of high performance fume hoods to avoid the energy and performance penalties associated with the prescriptive use of arbitrarily high hood face velocities.. For the purposes of the UT Evaluation Program, a high performance fume hood was defined as one designed to offer superior fume-capture performance using ASHRAE 110 testing guidelines with a face velocity less than or equal to 60 feet per minute with a fully opened sash.. Hood Selection.. A survey of commercially available high performance fume hoods was conducted to allow the university to evaluate available fume hood options.. A matrix was created to document commercially available high performance fume hoods and their physical and operating characteristics.. In order to narrow the focus to hoods deemed worthy of further performance testing, a screening evaluation was conducted to select only those hoods that best fit the university s functional and operational criteria.. The screening criteria consisted of the following parameters:.. Fume hood depth not exceeding 35 inches for ergonomics and to ensure user safety.. Advertised face velocity and total CFM less than or equal to 60 FPM with a fully opened sash.. Static pressure requirements minimized for energy performance.. Maintenance requirements (e.. g.. , evaluation of moving parts, serviceable equipment).. Multiple available hood widths to meet a wide variety of end-use applications.. When the University's screening criteria was applied to the matrix of available manufacturers, three fume hoods were identified as candidates and were selected for further containment performance testing.. The three selected manufacturers each furnished the University with a standard production model, five foot long, high performance fume hood.. As a basis of comparison to the three high-performance fume hoods being tested, a standard 100 FPM fume hood was added to the test group to evaluate standard containment performance for comparison to the three high performance hoods.. Containment Testing.. The ASHRAE 110-1995 testing standard includes three parts: face velocity measurements across the sash opening, local and large volume smoke tests, and tracer gas containment testing.. Containment testing consists of inserting an ejector emitting four liters per minute of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas inside a hood with a fully open sash.. A mannequin equipped with a tracer gas detector in its breathing zone is placed in front of an empty fume hood three inches behind the sash opening, with the breathing zone located 26 inches above the hood work surface.. The test is repeated with the tracer gas ejector located in three different sections of the hood to evaluate containment performance across the width of the sash opening.. ASHRAE 110 testing also includes sash movement effect (SME) and space pressure effect (SPE) trials, measuring containment performance in response to sash cycling and lab door opening and closing, respectively.. ASHRAE 110 is the standard performance testing methodology for chemical fume hoods, but it does have limited effectiveness in testing dynamic hood operation.. Further, it does not specify a pass/fail threshold for hood containment performance.. 5 establishes acceptable fume hood performance at a threshold detection level (at the breathing zone detector of the mannequin) of 0.. 05 parts per million (ppm) concentration of tracer gas when released at a rate of four liters per minute for an As Manufactured (AM) condition, and  ...   mannequin height, the breathing zone is in close proximity to the bottom of the sash, whereas the lower mannequin height breathing zone is near the middle of the open sash field.. It was concluded that the containment performance in the hoods is generally more stable closer to the sash and higher above the work surface.. This demonstrates the importance of proper sash management for all modes of fume hood usage, particularly for hood users shorter than 67 inches.. When the containment tests were conducted with the 75-foot-per-minute cross draft, containment performance was significantly diminished.. The purpose of the testing at this high face velocity (two-and-a-half times in excess of that recommended by ASHRAE guidelines for an acceptable laboratory design) was to evaluate fume hood performance at an abusive operation condition.. As might be expected, when the cross draft past the hood opening exceeds the exhaust flowrate into the hood, unpredictable results can occur.. Operation with such excessive face velocities represents a severely compromised fume hood installation environment, and should be prevented at all times.. (Nonetheless, one overall observation from the 75-foot-per-minute cross draft tests was that one hood, A, performed consistently better than the others.. ).. HAM testing results, conducted with the lower tracer gas flowrate and with no cross drafts, exhibited much more stable containment performance among all the hoods.. Figure 3 shows the containment performance comparisons between hoods for the case where lab apparatus and objects were moved from the front to the back within the hood.. Generally, all hoods performed well below the 0.. 10 ppm AI containment threshold for each of the different HAM tests.. Figure 3.. HAM Test Results Object Move Front to Back.. Table 1 shows the containment performance results of all hoods for all the tests conducted.. For the SME and SPE tests, the recorded AI containment readings were peak recorded values across the range of the test; all other readings were averaged between the left, center and right ejector positions, consistent with ASHRAE 110 recording protocol.. Values in red indicate containment excursions in excess of the 0.. Table 1.. Fume Hood Containment Test Summary.. AS INSTALLED READINGS (AI).. TEST.. CONDITION.. CROSS DRAFT, FPM.. MANNEQUIN HEIGHT, IN.. HOOD A.. HOOD B.. HOOD C.. STD HOOD.. D.. STANDARD.. STANDARD.. 0.. 26.. 00.. SME.. 04.. 03.. 1.. 25.. MODIFIED.. CROSS DRAFT.. 30.. 18.. 09.. 69.. 36.. 11.. 75.. 10.. 65.. 29.. 62.. 06.. 28.. 34.. 07.. 12.. 3.. 05.. 35.. 01.. 93.. 99.. 13.. 67.. SPE.. 97.. 92.. 46.. 08.. 18.. 15.. 73.. 85.. HAM.. HAND INSERT.. 28.. MOVE F TO B.. 02.. MOVE L TO R.. WATER POUR.. OBJ REMOVAL.. OVERALL AVERAGE.. 71.. 61.. AS INSTALLED AVERAGE.. 21.. 14.. 23.. MAXIMUM RECORDED PPM.. For SME and SPE, AI condition represents peak tracer gas reading.. Conclusions.. The overall conclusions drawn from the High Performance Fume Hood evaluation program include:.. One hood, A, exhibited a clear performance advantage across the range of all containment tests conducted.. The containment performance of the standard 100 foot per minute hood was generally inferior to that of the newer hood technologies.. Cross drafts pose a significant challenge to hood containment performance, and must be minimized and eliminated in a lab environment when possible.. Not all high performance hoods are equal.. Standard ASHRAE testing may not predict performance in actual lab operating conditions.. The lower 18 inch breathing zone height proved more challenging for hood containment performance.. High performance fume hoods can operate safely at face velocities less than 100 FPM.. Face velocity in and of itself is not an adequate indicator of safety.. It is important to note that while the high performance hoods used in this evaluation were designed for operation at 60 feet per minute with a fully opened sash, normal operation is recommended with the sash opened no higher than 18 inches.. Since constant volume fume hoods are normally used, they must be balanced to ensure safe operation at the worst case sash abuse condition, which is fully opened.. An 18 inch sash opening yields a net operating face velocity of around 80 feet per minute.. While the containment performance was generally noted to be superior to that of the standard hood, it must be realized that the total exhaust volumes are not significantly lower than those of a standard hood.. Care must be exercised not to assume a 40 percent exhaust flowrate reduction for a high performance hood that is advertised for a 60 FPM face velocity.. In general, for large labs with one or few fume hoods, the total volume of air used in the lab will be driven mainly by the prescriptive air change rate designed for the lab rather than the fume hood exhaust volume itself.. Reductions in hood exhaust volumes may not serve to greatly decrease lab energy use if the room ventilation rates are excessively high.. In general, it is recommended that high performance fume hoods be evaluated in conjunction with lab room air change rates to maximize the energy efficiency of the laboratory.. Kevin Fox.. is the Director of the Energy and Power Solutions Group with Jacobs Engineering in Fort Worth, Texas.. He has been responsible for the design, construction administration and project management of mechanical systems for a wide range of projects, including central steam and chilled water utility plants, power plant cooling tower installations, campus utility infrastructure master plans, biotechnology and research laboratories, educational facilities, student dormitories and commercial HVAC systems.. Fox is a Professional Engineer in Texas, Oklahoma and Missouri, a Certified Energy Manager (CEM) and a LEED Accredited Professional.. Bernard Bhatti.. leads the Project Support Engineering and Design Services for the University of Texas at Austin Project Management and Construction Services department.. This multi-disciplined group provides mechanical, electrical, structural, and civil engineering services and offers design assistance for special architectural, interior design and selection projects, and CADD support for the entire department.. Bhatti holds a Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and is a registered professional engineer in Texas, Arizona, and Oklahoma.. He is also a member of the Advisory Board of the Industrial Energy Technology Conference..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract - Morris
    Descriptive info: Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract.. St John's University Challenge: Upgrade St.. Albert Hall Science Building for Sustainability and OSHA Laboratory Standard.. Robert Morris, Flow Safe.. The death of UCLA researcher Sheri Sangji and subsequent felony charges filed against UCLA, the principal investigator (PI), and others for failing to follow OSHA regulations has brought new challenges to chancellors and provosts of research universities, pharmaceutical/chemical laboratory owners, industrial hygienists, PIs, and laboratory design professionals because there is no grandfather allowance from OSHA's maximum achievable and affordable worker safety control requirements.. The challenge is even greater for older laboratories such as the St.. Albert Hall Science Building, which opened in 1957.. The real issue is that 95 percent of hoods in service today fail to meet the 1990 Federal OSHA Lab 29 CFR Part 1910 standard requiring vapor, splash, and explosion worker protection from hazardous chemicals.. Fume hoods are laboratory workers' primary personal protective equipment (PPE) for hazardous chemicals as defined by OSHA.. The OSHA federal law mandates that all state OSHA programs adopt federal standards protecting laboratory workers.. The OSHA standard should have created a paradigm shift in laboratory worker safety by abandoning face velocity as the performance criterion protecting workers from hazardous chemicals, but it did not.. The hood is designed and specified by architects and manufactured and installed by carpenters as furniture.. They never complied with OSHA requirements and few employers, industrial hygienists, or laboratory design professionals ever read or understood the impact of this law and its changes on worker safety, until now.. The use of fume hood face velocity as the hazardous chemical performance measurement has denied the workers their right under the law to  ...   design professional redirect responsibility onto others even if licensed or certified? Who is responsible for following OSHA laws, codes, or ANSI standards? Can these responsibilities be passed on to a manufacturer? Case law differentiating performance and design specifications helps in understanding the legal responsibility.. St.. John's is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions.. The St.. Albert Hall Science Building was one of four projects in St.. John s larger energy capital master plan, which was awarded an ARRA matching fund grant.. John s goal is to lower carbon emissions by 15,000 tons annually from a base year 2007 inventory of 49,000 tons.. Faced with OSHA and energy issues at St.. Albert Hall, the St.. John s plan successfully balanced OSHA environmental health and safety with sustainability.. The Solution.. The owner requiring zero risk guarantees drove the answers: project cost, operational disruption, energy savings, and worker safety.. Flow Safe has created a process where even existing asbestos hoods can be field-converted into just like new hoods that meet OSHA, fire code, and the AIHA Z 9.. 5 2012 laboratory standard.. Flow Safe guarantees that the energy savings and the hood will meet OSHA vapor, splash, explosion, and tracer gas testing at zero spill, even in worker abuse conditions.. The cost to demolish, install, re-balance, and test a new hood is between $27,000 and $37,000 with no guarantees and risk.. It costs $11,000 to $13,000 to field-convert, balance, and test an old hood during off-hour operation.. The converted hood will reduce exhaust air by 65 percent, saving $5,000 to $9,000 a year in energy cost without maintenance-intensive complicated controls.. The picture illustrates the before and after results..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Alcorn
    Descriptive info: Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Building Analytical Modeling (BAM) to Create Higher-Performing Buildings.. Renée Azerbegi.. , CEM, LEED-AP.. , Ambient Energy.. As we move toward carbon-neutral buildings by 2030, optimizing all aspects of energy usage, including the programs that we use to model building performance, will be key.. Part of the answer to creating carbon neutral buildings will be the widespread adoption of building analytical modeling (BAM) to create higher-performing buildings using building information modeling (BIM).. BIM for BAM.. We are in a 3D world using programs such as IES-VE and Energy Plus, which can directly import files created in BIM-based programs such as Revit and SketchUp with much less error in architectural translation.. With IES-VE, energy, daylight, airflow, and HVAC loads can all be examined.. Also, IES-VE and Energy Plus model stratification, buoyancy, and surface reradiation so they can more accurately model chilled beam and other systems.. The key to successful translation of a SketchUp or Revit model to an energy model involves some key ground rules and a lot of communication.. BAM should be an integral part of BIM meetings and consultant meetings so all design team members know how we are using the BIM model.. To understand what BAM is required, it is important to understand the owner's objectives:.. Is modeling just for code compliance or LEED.. ?.. Did the owner set an energy use intensity goal?.. Is the project pursuing net zero energy?.. Is the project incorporating natural ventilation?.. Are there any hard-to-daylight spaces or spaces with too much daylight?.. Energy Modeling.. Energy models have different uses at different design stages.. Modeling during programming helps research architectural options natural ventilation strategies, window-to-wall ratios, orientation, massing, etc.. that will really affect the design.. Schematic design involves HVAC system analysis and daylight strategies.. During design development, we look at more specific questions with more emphasis on the  ...   aesthetically.. We work closely with architects to recommend strategies that work cohesively with their design to optimize daylight in a space.. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling.. CFD is meant for analysis on specific airflow patterns and behaviors within a certain set of boundaries (usually a single room).. CFD is also used for optimizing the placement of an exhaust duct or fume hood in relation to a supply, to prove underfloor air or displacement ventilation concepts, or for thermal comfort analysis.. Bulk Airflow Modeling.. IES-VE is used to study room-to-room bulk air flow movement (MacroFlo) of natural ventilation systems.. MacroFlo uses a zonal airflow model to calculate bulk air movement in and through the building, driven by wind- and buoyancy-induced pressures.. Bulk air flow modeling is what is used to model natural ventilation and airflow behavior from room to room, and typically takes less time to simulate than CFD modeling.. In the end, understanding BAM capabilities and when to use what modeling process to optimize buildings will help us achieve the ultimate goal of carbon-neutral buildings sooner than 2030.. Biography.. is the president of Ambient Energy, and has 15 years of experience specializing in energy modeling, green building rating systems, life cycle costing, renewable energy, and mechanical design.. Azerbegi's voluntary commitments to the green building industry currently include chair of the Awards Committee for the Colorado Renewable Energy Society, co-chair of the Energy Efficiency Building Coalition Energy Modeling Committee, and member of the International Facility Management Association's Sustainability Committee.. Azerbegi has a master's degree in building systems engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder, where she quantified both the economic and environmental impacts of LEED for her master's thesis, and a bachelor's degree in environmental science and geography from the University of California at Berkeley.. Azerbegi's current focus is on managing the California office, commissioning team, and Californian and other projects..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Weiss, Schantz
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2007 Annual Conference.. Containing the Cost of Containment, Cost Management Strategies for Biocontainment.. Michael L.. Weiss, Ph.. D.. ABD, HCCP, WorkingBuildings, LLC and Jeffrey L.. Schantz, AIA, Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum.. With construction costs in a period of escalation, owners and facility managers designing and constructing BSL-2, -3, and -4 facilities need a more progressive toolkit for proactively managing costs and maximizing the value of biocontainment dollars.. Costs can be controlled by managing tradeoffs during the design stage by determining the needs of the owner versus the design criteria including programmatic goals, flexibility, complexity, redundancy, scheduling, bid timing, value management, and benchmarking.. Using multiple methods in parallel to guide the project toward budget goals is invaluable.. This strategy allows owners to balance goals and objectives, negotiate functional requirements, influence schedules, and employ benchmarking as an effective means of gaining the upper hand in the battle of the budget for complex biocontainment facilities.. Some of these methods include: flex/complex indexing, escalation monitoring and control, pinpoint  ...   those systems requiring redundancy had a backup system and that the user program was maintained.. In determining the need for redundancy facility wide, a detailed model was developed which rated the requirements, needs, cost and impact of a loss on a system by system basis.. Then through a detailed risk analysis, the findings of the study were compared to the programming requirements.. Once complete, all other systems were designed without full redundancy saving the owner a significant amount in the facility budget.. Another factor affecting the bottom line is to ensure the systems are right-sized for the facility.. Prior to the current energy efficient-requirements of modern laboratories, design scenarios often led to over-sizing systems that are larger than necessary as a margin of safety.. However, this often led to significant costs upfront in addition to energy costs over the lifetime of the facility.. By right-sizing the systems to meet the program, we costs have been saved on construction and lifecycle cost in energy, maintenance, and prevention of premature replacement..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2010 Conference Highlights - Coppinger, Bice
    Descriptive info: Do Less.. With Less.. Get More.. Building High-Containment Laboratories in Challenging Economies Mexico, India, and (Now) the United States.. Ana Coppinger.. Rainey Bice.. , AIA, LEED AP, Smith Carter Architects and Engineers Incorporated.. Recent events such as SARS and H1N1 have sharpened our collective awareness that humans and animals [and the viruses they carry] now move around the planet at biological warp-speed.. In this warp speed world, one constant is that, economically, we are not equal.. How then do we ensure that all nations are able to build and operate biocontainment facilities without sacrificing biosurety?.. Faced with insufficient and unreliable infrastructures and resources, inaccessibility to modern technology, nonexistent operating budgets, and decreased funding support, developing nations such as Mexico and India are at a great disadvantage.. Or are they? The heightened mobility of disease has increased the demand for the surveillance, storage, diagnosis, and research of dangerous pathogens.. Recession economies have placed the first world in comparable economic distress in building and operation of biocontainment laboratories.. These laboratories, operationally much more demanding than other facilities, need to meet stringent health and safety requirements to ensure safeguarding against epidemiological threat.. If strategies are not found to ensure minimal building and operating costs, necessary projects in first or developing countries may not be built, remain underutilized, or be completely unused due to lack of operating funds.. In this regard, sustainable development is the great equalizer.. Sound social and environmental strategies can be adopted by projects regardless of a particular economic landscape.. Whether rooted in first world or developing countries, sustainable development expects that projects maximize available resources to continue indefinitely.. Environmental strategies are actually quite simple to explore and implement.. There exists a body of knowledge on how to design passively, minimizing engineered solutions through appropriate building orientation, material selection, harvesting of natural resources, etc.. These strategies represent 80 percent of the total energy reduction for any building type.. Often there is a residual requirement for a bit of technology to meet the specific needs of a particular program.. For biocontainment laboratories, this bit is more of a chunk and is generally associated with redundancy and fail safes that respond to increased risk assessments.. This last chunk of technology is the crucial differentiator between first and developing countries.. In developing countries, the chunk of technology is not sustainable,  ...   water use for costly wash down, and decontamination protocols and effective zoning and segregating of critical activities and services, which facilitate partial shut downs when a facility is not at full capacity.. We have been able to do less, with less, and get more.. Virus hunter Nathan Wolf; 2009 TED Conference lecture.. Refers to the combined goals of biosafety and biosecurity standards.. Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects.. Norbert Lechner 3.. rd.. edition 2009.. Chapter 1, Heating, Cooling and Lighting as Form Givers in Architecture.. The three tier approach to the sustainability design of heating cooling and lighting: Tier 1 Basic Building Design, Tier 2 Passive Systems, Tier 3 Mechanical Equipment (bit or chunk).. Refers to a method of documenting and diagramming how, when, and with what resources scientific work will be executed focusing on the flows of personnel, materials, and waste necessary for each activity.. This assists in highlighting where procedural efficiencies, savings, reductions are possible.. Ana R.. Coppinger.. , a captivating and engaging speaker, has been a sustainable designer and high-containment laboratory planner at Smith Carter Architects and Engineers for more than 15 years.. Her project involvement in the past 10 years has been almost exclusively research and diagnostic laboratory design.. She is conversant with the guidelines and standards for human and veterinary laboratories, specializing in animal health issues.. Coppinger received her bachelor's degree in environmental studies and her Masters of Architecture.. is an accomplished laboratory planner with extensive experience in laboratory and animal facility programming and design.. Bice has specialized in the implementation of Imaging Modalities and other technically complex equipment within high-containment facilities for clients such as the National Institutes of Health, Boston University, and the U.. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases.. Bice has practiced as an onsite construction administrator for several projects at Smith Carter and is well versed in the art of consultant coordination.. Her most recent work for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention resulted in Building 401 surpassing its stated goal of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED.. ) Certification and achieving Gold status in early 2010.. In addition to her design and sustainability efforts at Smith Carter, Ms.. Bice serves on the Stadium Tax Allocation District Advisory Board in the City of Atlanta, which reviews and approves new developments throughout the community..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Blakey, Pulito
    Descriptive info: Optimizing Project Outcomes in Pre-Design Using Life-Cycle Analysis.. Robert L.. Blakey.. , Strategic Equity Associates, LLC.. Robert F.. Pulito, AIA.. , The S/L/A/M Collaborative.. Many construction projects today for laboratory research, healthcare, and academic facilities seek to achieve highly complex outcomes.. They seek to balance costs and needs at the facility, organizational, and global levels.. The cost of design and construction is only a very small part of the total financial impact of such projects, yet we often make our budget decisions based almost exclusively on this cost of acquisition.. (See Figure 1).. Complex Outcomes Require New Approach.. Until recently, there were only limited financial metrics available about these complex outcomes in the early phases of pre-design when developing the budget.. Yet, often it is these highly complex outcomes at the organizational and global levels that will create the maximum value and productivity within the proposed facility.. Estimating their value during the early phases of a project is crucial to making an informed decision on the project construction budget.. Instinctively, we often know that there are important reasons why first cost alone is not an adequate indicator of project value and outcome to the organization.. Yet, how exactly do we turn this instinctive knowledge into financial data to guide our budgeting process?.. Concept.. Optimizing project outcomes in pre-design using life-cycle analysis allows us to develop a balanced consideration of these multi-level needs.. It can inform the decision on project budget so that an overly narrow focus on construction cost does not prevent inclusion of highly productive outcomes within project scope.. Such an analysis should include:.. Construction costs.. Soft costs (furnishings, fixtures, design fees, project management).. Surge costs (leased space, moves, build-out, lost productivity).. Maintenance and operations cost, utilities cost, program operational expense.. Long-term leased space requirements.. Individual productivity, opportunity, and risk costs and benefits.. Organizational productivity, opportunity, and risk costs and benefits.. Global productivity, opportunity, and risk costs and benefits.. Additional costs and benefits unique to the specific project.. Researching and developing these metrics and applying them to project decisions involves significant expertise.. Yet the results of this type of effort are extremely valuable.. Why? It's about.. Alignment.. :.. Our early decisions are better informed.. The outcome is the true reason we build.. An adequate budget is always an issue.. We optimize our budget and maximize value.. We are able to provide budget justification when improvement is still possible.. Project Planning.. What are the steps involved? How are the metrics developed? How is the life-cycle analysis performed?.. Step 1: Master Planning / Pre-Programming / Business Plan Validation Team Formation.. An expert in life-cycle is included in the pre-programming team.. He assumes responsibility for interacting with the design team and the various owners/stakeholders, performing the research and data-mining, finding applicable financial metrics, and developing a comprehensive financial analysis based on the time value of money.. Step 2: Design Charette, Stakeholder Input, and External Assessment.. The design charette process flows in a relatively normal path at this stage of the process, developing several alternatives for consideration.. Each alternative is quantified as to scope, estimated budget, timeline, and construction period impact on the client.. Parallel to this, the stakeholders are asked to help develop not only the typical needs assessment, but also an opportunities assessment of possible outcomes.. This is very similar to a strengths / weaknesses / opportunities / threats (SWOT) for their organization's future direction.. SWOT is the first step in developing alignment between the client organization's mission and vision and the specific construction project goals.. SWOT is created to reflect the several different layers of organizational impact: locally at the facility/department level, mid-level for the program/institution/firm as a whole (internal outcome), and globally for the outcomes achievable by the program/institution/firm (external outcome).. Step 3: Development of Financial Metrics.. Each of the important points brought out in the needs and opportunities assessments developed in Step 2 is researched using data-mining to develop key performance indicators (KPI) that are closely related.. During this phase, the architect will optimally be researching other recently built projects that compare favorably to the alternatives being considered for this project.. These same recently completed projects are then researched in relation to the KPIs previously developed.. By considering the existing client's  ...   for further refinement and tuning throughout the project.. As an example, it can even be used during actual construction for assessing and validating the impact of change-orders.. Case Study.. This powerful new tool is demonstrated in a case study of its actual use at Cornell University in the design of a new Agricultural Laboratory Sciences facility to replace the aging Stocking Hall, built in 1910.. Five construction options were considered:.. Minimal refurbishment to resolve outstanding code issues.. Full renovation of the existing facility.. Replacement of a portion of the facility and renovation of the remainder.. Replacement of the facility on the existing site.. Replacement of the existing facility on a new site.. Several different stakeholders with significantly different goals were identified early on:.. Building/Facility-state-of-the-art, energy-efficiency, functionality, flexibility.. Department of Food Science-attraction/retention, program reputation, growth, image.. Cornell University-prestige/national reputation, leadership, financial asset, master plan.. New York State-growth, economic development, risk reduction.. Food and Dairy Industry-industry-related advancements, development of new technologies, food product development.. Each stakeholder group was most concerned about what directly impacted them, yet was also concerned about the total picture.. Utilizing life-cycle analysis in pre-design allowed the opportunity to show each of them exactly what they wanted to see.. Each stakeholder group's financial picture, as well as the total bottom line, was able to be summarized.. (See Figure 2).. Pro Forma by Option and Outcome Level.. The results of the study showed that while the cost of the replacement facility was only marginally greater than the minimal replacement option over the 30 year life-cycle period, the potential productivity benefits of an outcome-based design were almost 300 percent greater! (See Figure 3).. Life-Cycle Cost and Benefit by Option.. Optimizing project outcomes in pre-design using life-cycle analysis allowed Cornell University to develop a balanced consideration of these multi-level needs.. Most importantly, it informed the decision on project budget early while change was still possible.. Thus, an overly narrow focus on construction cost did not prevent inclusion of highly productive outcomes within project scope as it so often has in the past.. Results indicate that this is a very useful process for identifying early the economic benefit of possible project outcomes and using this information to inform initial budget decisions.. Thus, multi-level project outcomes can be optimized with minimal impact on the cost of acquisition (i.. , first cost).. Further, this process works well in coordination with other innovative approaches to improved outcome, such as evidence-based design, integrated project delivery, optimized transition to occupancy, and post-occupancy study/evaluation.. (See Figure 4).. Figure 4.. Synergy Benefits of Life-Cycle Analysis in Pre-Design.. It also closely couples organization mission and vision with the construction process.. The result is the creation of a strong synergy between business goals and the structure that physically supports and houses them.. No longer is the building simply a house for the program.. In this new paradigm, the building is an integral part of the program.. View this entire presentation in PDF format.. (1.. 6 MB, 26 pp).. Robert Blakey.. is the founding principal of Strategic Equity Associates, and is an expert in the field of life-cycle studies.. Robert graduated from California Coast University with both a Bachelors of Science Degree in Management and a Masters of Science Degree in Engineering Management.. Robert has over 15 years experience in management with much of it in the area of facilities management and project management.. Areas of specialized training include life cycle cost engineering analysis, technological forecasting, systems engineering, property management and facility management.. Robert is a licensed engineer in the U.. Merchant Marine.. He holds a Chief Engineers license for Steam, Motor, or Gas Turbine Vessels of Any Horsepower (unlimited), and has over 20 years experience in various disciplines of mechanical and electrical engineering.. Robert Pulito's.. specialties include planning, programming, design and management of significant science and technology projects for both academic and corporate clients.. He holds Bachelor of Architecture and Bachelor of Science degrees from Syracuse University.. Robert has worked on numerous specialized laboratory projects for Pfizer Inc.. , including the innovative Clinical Research Unit adjacent to Yale Medical School; Capital Community College; University of Connecticut South Campus; MIT Chemical Engineering Program and Feasibility Study; Emory University Pediatrics Research Facility; and Cornell University's Stocking Hall..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract - Alcorn
    Descriptive info: What Building Information Modeling Can Offer for Understanding Financial Income and Expenses for Laboratory Buildings.. Terence Alcorn.. , RA, Burt Hill/Stantec.. By utilizing Building Information Modeling's (BIM) capacity to perform quantitative calculations and to analyze imbedded information, the BIM model can be programmed to provide a visualization of financial information that can be used by architects, builders, owners, and users.. In order to improve the designs of laboratory buildings and to improve the efficiency of the use of laboratory buildings, BIM can provide a model that contains and processes the information needed, and then displays that information in a way that helps visualize and understand that data.. Two examples will be used to show the range of opportunity that BIM can provide in processing data and providing a visual display of that information.. Example #1.. Working with a client to renovate 120,000 square feet of research space, but with very limited swing space, the project involved multiple phases and multiple relocations of researchers over the projected length of the renovation.. The financial modeling on this project involved using BIM to visualize the income generated from research grants to the quality and quantity of space allocated to conduct the research that generated that income.. Initially, laboratories were qualified as Class A, Class B, and Class C based on their physical condition and working environment and then income based on grant dollars was applied to generate a profile of existing conditions based on grant income.. Although a dollar density program was simple to develop, the program provided a valuable means for tracking and comparing the changing conditions being encountered over time, but also served as a tool for planning future space utilization goals.. Example #2.. The  ...   between the two models for energy use needed versus people occupying the spaces show again a significant difference in 66 percent of the spaces studied with the variance between the projections by a factor of 300 percent.. Energy cost followed an expected pattern when compared by room type with the laboratory; write up spaces had the least expensive cost per square foot and equipment rooms had the most expensive cost per square foot.. Cost comparison by floor and user group showed a range of $1.. 48 to $2.. 01 per floor, a range of approximately 25 percent between each of the different floors.. Room Comparison Drawing.. The advantage of a BIM model is its capacity to act as a visualization tool in presenting information and in its ability to incorporate embedded data between an Excel spreadsheet and the specific items that make up the model.. As we attempt to gather more information and increase the accuracy of information gathered to improve our laboratory designs and increase our energy efficiency, BIM may be used to improve our ability to comprehend and process that data.. Terence Alcorn.. is a registered architect with 25 years of experience, primarily in higher education and laboratory design.. Alcorn's notable projects have included both the computer science building and the national supercomputing building for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and two research laboratory buildings for The Scripps Research Institute's new campus in Florida.. Alcorn has been a professor of economics, teaching both micro- and macro-economics, has served as a board member for the Frank Lloyd Wright Darwin D.. Martin House in Buffalo, and has been a speaker on quantity versus quality at the American Institute of Architecture Students conference in Phoenix..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Sharp
    Descriptive info: A Comprehensive Review of the Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Impact of Dynamically Varying Air Change Rates at Multiple Laboratory Facilities.. Gordon P.. Sharp.. , Aircuity, Inc.. At the Labs21 2005 Annual Conference, a unique energy savings approach was presented that would dynamically vary the minimum air change rates, or air changes per hour (ACH) of a research laboratory based on the real time measurement of the laboratory s indoor environmental quality.. Per this concept, the room s minimum ACH rate is reduced to a level such as two or four ACH when the laboratory air is determined to be clean from the real time measurement system.. When air contaminants or odors are detected in the laboratory, the ACH rate is dynamically increased to a higher level such as 15 ACH to purge the space.. When the measurement system senses the laboratory air has returned to a clean state, the air change rates are reduced to their lower levels.. A design analysis for a Seattle laboratory showed that this approach could reduce building energy costs by 20 percent and cut the gross heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) first cost by $1.. 05 million.. A year later, at the Labs21 2006 Annual Conference, a case study was presented on the implementation of this concept at the Harvard School of Public Health.. Two laboratory areas were heavily instrumented and actual data was presented on the propagation time and spread of chemical vapors for different simulated release conditions.. The results of this testing showed that chemical vapors spread uniformly through the laboratory with some expected variation due to distance.. This paper provides actual data and analysis of indoor environmental conditions at approximately 75 different laboratory areas at seven different laboratory facilities in the United States and Canada.. Approximately 250,000 hours of environmental and control data were analyzed to draw many conclusions about the environmental conditions within these laboratories and the indoor environmental quality and energy impact of dynamically varying laboratory air change rates at six of these sites.. As an example, Figure 1 shows an averaged summary of the total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) data collected from all the laboratory and vivarium spaces.. The graph indicates  ...   any increased laboratory airflow.. Figure 2 indicates that this level is exceeded only on an average of 0.. 2 percent of the time.. Thus, there is minimal impact on energy efficiency to provide proper safety by purging the laboratory at increased airflow during these potential smoke or aerosol events in the laboratory area.. In conclusion, with minimum air change rates, rather than hood makeup air or thermal load requirements often being the dominant factor determining today s laboratory air flow volumes, this concept for dynamically varying air change rates should significantly increase the energy efficiency of both new and existing facilities.. Using this strategy, we can maintain occupant safety while furthering the goals of sustainable laboratory design.. View this entire presentation in PDF format.. (4.. 7 MB, 37 pp).. Gordon Sharp.. has over twenty five years of wide-ranging entrepreneurial experience and more than 20 U.. patents to his name.. From 1979 to 1985, he was vice president and co-founder of IMEC Corporation, a motor controls technology company from which he created a spin-off company called the Phoenix Controls Corporation.. As president, CEO, and founder of Phoenix Controls, Mr.. Sharp led the development of a $25 million venture capital backed world leader in laboratory airflow controls that was honored for three consecutive years by INC magazine as one of the 500 fastest growing private companies in America.. In early 1998 Phoenix Controls was acquired by Honeywell, Inc.. Thereafter, in addition to participating in restructuring the Honeywell Home and Buildings Solutions business, Gordon led development of a Honeywell business unit, now known as Aircuity.. In January of 2000, Aircuity became an independent, venture capital-backed company and today is the leading manufacturer of multiplexed sensing systems to optimize building ventilation for energy-efficient performance without sacrificing occupant comfort or health.. Sharp is the chairman and founder of Aircuity and a graduate of Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Bachelor's and Master's degrees in electrical engineering.. He is a member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z9.. 5 Laboratory Ventilation Standard committee, and is a member of the board of directors of the International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories, a nonprofit foundation and official cosponsor of the Labs21 2007 Annual Conference..

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