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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Andersen, Breslin
    Descriptive info: Skip to Sub-Navigation.. Annual Conference.. How to Submit.. Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2007 Annual Conference.. It's Not All About Air.. Water Usage for Containment Protocols and Sterilization are Major Sustainability Challenges in Large Animal Containment Facilities.. Bradley Andersen.. Kevin Breslin.. , Merrick Company.. Introduction.. Laboratories have traditionally been identified as energy hogs due to programmatic requirements for single-pass air.. Domestic water uses, personnel showers, animal room and animal penning/cage washdown, autoclave use, and other programmatic needs account for over 95 percent of the water usage in these facilities.. Water heating and sterilization is a significant portion of a laboratory facility's energy usage, with washdown and sterilization accounting for more than 90 percent of the non-HVAC usage.. Accordingly, major reductions in water and energy usage can be accomplished through intelligent application of established sustainability principles.. This paper uses the USDA's newly completed Large Animal Facility at the National Centers for Animal Health in Ames, Iowa, as a case study.. Water Usage in a Large Animal Containment Facility.. Domestic uses of water at the Large Animal Facility include drinking water, handwashing, and sanitary waste streams (urinals and toilets).. Programmatic water uses include personnel showers (mandatory for exiting the animal rooms and high-containment areas; program-driven for animal room entrance), animal room washdown (including washdown of large animals where required), and drain trap maintenance.. Sterilization uses include autoclaves and high-pressure carcass rendering.. Water heating and sterilization needs also account for a significant portion of the facility's energy usage.. These uses include handwashing, personnel showers, animal room washdown, and sterilization.. At the Ames, Iowa, Large Animal Facility, programmatic needs account for over 95 percent of the water usage and over 90 percent of the non-HVAC energy usage.. Water and energy use are summarized in the table below:.. Strategies for reducing water and water heating energy use include grey water recovery, reduction of shower and animal room washdown duration, and substitution of antiseptic sterilization for hot water sterilization.. Additionally, opportunities exist for heat recovery from the condensate systems for domestic water preheat.. Strategies for water and energy use reduction are listed below:.. Water Use.. Strategy for Water/Energy Use Reduction.. Discussion of Advantages, Disadvantages and Cautions.. Drinking Water.. Replace electric water coolers with bottled water.. This strategy would eliminate all built-in water coolers and replace them with bottled water coolers.. Traditional water coolers typically waste two-thirds of their water in use.. Energy savings by reduction of chilled water use would also be realized.. Handwashing.. Hand sanitizer to supplement handwashing procedures.. This strategy would supplement current handwashing procedures with a regimen of handwashing and hand sanitizer usage.. The intent would be to reduce the duration of hand washing needed to remove dirt and debris from hands and rely on antiseptic sanitizers for final cleansing.. This strategy should be evaluated by the facility Health and Safety Officer and would require training to ensure proper safeguards are maintained.. Sanitary Waste Streams.. Dual flush water closets and waterless urinals.. This strategy would use state-of-the-art water-saving fixtures to reduce domestic water usage for waste streams.. There is little or no first cost premium in using these fixtures.. However, janitorial and maintenance staff must be trained in their cleaning and maintenance to ensure continued user satisfaction.. Grey water recovery.. Grey water recovery systems typically process lavatory and shower waste streams for non-potable reuse.. However, in a biocontainment facility, waste streams within containment cannot safely be reused.. Therefore, grey water recovery within this facility must be limited to those fixtures outside of containment.. One easily implemented type of grey water device is the cascading type lavatory/water closet fixture.. This fixture collects the lavatory waste into the water closet tank for use in subsequent flushes.. Unfortunately, this fixture does not support flushvalve type water closets.. Therefore, a change in fixture type would be required to support this strategy.. Stormwater recovery.. A stormwater recovery system would collect stormwater from building roof drains and eaves into an underground basin.. The water would then be filtered and pumped throughout the building for non-potable uses.. This strategy could be combined with a grey water recovery system (as described above) for additional recovery.. The recovery system would require some usable floor space for treatment and does require significant first cost to implement.. Personnel Showers.. Shorter duration showers.. This strategy would implement shorter duration (four-minute in lieu of five-minute) showers, reducing both water and water heating energy usage.. However, this strategy must be evaluated by the facility Health and Safety Officer for suitability with the accepted agent-handling protocols.. Training of facility staff would be required to ensure continued human and animal safety.. Lower temperature  ...   are identified here, facility personnel can be instructed to examine existing processes and identify procedures that may benefit from batch processing of material (i.. , tissue waste rendering or product sterilization).. Recovery of condensate water.. The Ames, Iowa, facility relies on the campus steam plant for steam production and condensate return.. Currently, the steam plant is not able to re-process the condensate from the facility and it must be wasted to sewer.. Significant water and energy savings can be realized by modifying the central plant operating procedures to accommodate condensate return.. Additional savings in maintenance costs at the steam boilers would also be realized by recovery of the steam condensate.. Analysis.. Implementation of these strategies results in an estimated cumulative savings of almost 1.. 3 million gallons of water (66 percent) annually, equating to approximately $2,200 per year at local water rates.. The greatest water usage reduction occurs with the animal room washdown strategy accounting for more than half of the overall water usage savings.. Although there will be longer room cleaning durations (shoveling animal waste and debris will extend room cleaning time), the water and energy savings will help to offset the added soft costs.. It should also be noted that current campus steam protocol prohibits the facility from returning the digester and sterilizer condensate, resulting in an abnormally high water use for these systems.. Additional savings are realized by reclamation of the steam condensate at the sterilizers and tissue renderers.. The remaining needs account for approximately 18 percent of the water use reduction.. The cumulative energy benefit of these strategies is an estimated 6.. 8 thousand Therms (65 percent) per year, equating to approximately $47,000 per year at an assumed cost of $7.. 00 per Therm.. The greatest energy usage reduction occurs with the animal room washdown strategy.. Approximate savings of 1,200 Therms are achievable by substituting antiseptic sterilization for 50 percent of the steam sterilization at the autoclave units.. Heat recovery would add approximately 340 Therms in energy savings through domestic water preheat.. Conclusions.. Given the normally high usage of water required for the washdown of animal rooms, the best opportunity for reduction of water usage in a high-containment animal facility will result from a washdown protocol that can accomplish the washdown using a combination of manual debris removal and high-pressure/low flow devices to remove and dispose of debris.. Because these will vary in each facility, the floor and wall finishes and type and volume of debris need to prevent aerosolization, and available manpower must be evaluated in each case to arrive at the optimum, most water and energy-efficient washdown protocol.. Especially in high containment facilities, the need to review and arrive at acceptable protocols with the bio-safety office is paramount.. View this entire presentation in PDF format.. (2.. 5 MB, 44 pp).. Biographies.. is Vice President and Senior Project Manager at Merrick Company and leads Merrick's Life Sciences team.. He manages the planning and design of large, technically complex, multidiscipline projects, focusing primarily on institutional and laboratory facilities.. Mr.. Andersen is a licensed architect and holds a graduate architecture degree from the University of Washington and an undergraduate degree from Brigham Young University.. He began work at Merrick Company in 1989 and during his tenure there managed significant life science projects including the $70 million BSL3-Ag High Containment facility for Large Animals at USDA's National Centers for Animal Health, the National Seed Storage Laboratory in Fort Collins, Colorado, and numerous laboratory facilities for the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Interior, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.. He works closely with operations and research staffs to maximize the sustainability and cost-benefit in their project designs.. is the Lead Mechanical Engineer at Merrick Company and resides in Aurora, Colorado.. Kevin has over 25 years of experience in the design of commercial, institutional, and governmental facilities and is a registered Mechanical and Fire Protection Engineer, a LEED Accredited Professional, and a Certified Energy Manager through the Association of Energy Engineers.. He has participated in the design of many life-science laboratories, including the USDA Large Animal Lab at the National Centers for Animal Health in Ames, Iowa, and the National Seed Storage Laboratory in Fort Collins, Colorado.. Kevin has also consulted in the commissioning phases of several bio-containment facilities, including the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory in Boston, Massachusetts.. Merrick Company is a multi-disciplinary architectural-engineering firm based in Aurora, Colorado, and has offices in Atlanta, Albuquerque, Los Alamos, Colorado Springs, Kanata, Ottawa, and Guadalahara, Mexico.. Stay in touch with I.. SL!.. Send us your email.. to join our mailing list..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2009 Conference Highlights - Robin, Lowery
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2009 Annual Conference.. Mark L.. Robin, Ph.. D.. , and.. Helen R.. Lowery.. , DuPont Fluoroproducts.. Laboratory Fire Protection with Clean Agents.. Clean agent fire suppression systems are employed to protect valuable assets and in instances where the potential for asset damage due to the fire suppression agent itself is a concern, for example, protecting expensive and sensitive assets such as laboratory and electronic equipment where secondary damage from suppression agents such as water, foam, or dry powder can result in more damage to the protected assets than from the fire itself.. The clean fire suppression agents included in NFPA 2001.. Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Agents.. are widely employed, and currently protect billions of dollars worth of assets worldwide.. This paper discusses the history, use, and application of clean agents for the protection of laboratory equipment and assets.. Halons: The Original Clean Agents.. U.. Army-sponsored research in the late 1940s led to the development of the original clean agents, the halon agents, Halon 1301 (Bromotrifluoromethane, CF.. 3.. Br) and Halon 1211 (Bromochlorodifluoromethane, CF.. BrCl).. Halons 1301 and 1211 are characterized by high fire suppression efficiency, low toxicity, low residue formation following extinguishment, low electrical conductivity, and long-term storage stability.. Because these agents produce no corrosive or abrasive residues upon extinguishment, they are ideally suited to protect areas such as libraries and museums, where the use of water or solid extinguishing agents could cause secondary damage equal to or exceeding that caused by direct fire damage.. Because they are non-conducting, they can be employed to protect electrical and electronic equipment, and because of their low toxicity, they may be employed in areas where the egress of personnel may be undesirable or impossible.. An additional advantage of clean agents is that they leave no residues behind.. As a result, there is no cleanup after their use.. This allows for business continuity (i.. , no interruption in services required following the discharge of a clean agent system).. The financial impact of service disruptions can be significant, especially in telecommunications facilities and in data processing centers.. The estimated downtime impact per minute for various business applications is shown in Table 1.. The downtime impact for a typical computing infrastructure is estimated at $42,000 per hour.. Downtime impacts for companies relying entirely on telecommuni-cations technology, such as online brokerages or e-commerce sites, can reach $1 million per hour or more.. Table 1: Downtime Impact per Minute for Various Business Applications.. Source: Alienan 2004.. Business Application.. Estimated Outage Cost.. Per Minute.. Supply Chain Management.. $11,000.. Electronic Commerce.. $10,000.. Customer Service Center.. $3,700.. ATM.. $3,500.. Financial Management.. $1,500.. Messaging.. $1,000.. Infrastructure.. $700.. Because of their unique combination of properties, halons served as near ideal fire suppression agents and have been widely employed in laboratories and other applications during the past 30 years.. However, due to their implication in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, the Montreal Protocol of 1987, identified Halon 1301 and Halon 1211 as two of a number of halogenated agents requiring limited use and production.. An amendment to the original Montreal Protocol resulted in the halting of the production of Halon 1301 and Halon 1211 on January 1, 1994.. Halon Replacements.. As a result of the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, the ideal halon replacement, in addition to possessing the desirable characteristics of the halons, is required to have a smaller environmental impact on ozone depletion.. The ideal halon replacement would, therefore, be characterized by the  ...   cost advantages compared to the inert gases, and are characterized by moderate environmental impacts.. Laboratory Fire Protection.. Laboratory fire protection consists of both total flooding systems and portable extinguishers.. In total flooding applications, the protected enclosure completely filled ( flooded ) with a gaseous suppression agent, resulting in flame extinguishment.. Due to the three-dimensional nature of gases, hidden or obstructed fires can be extinguished.. In portable applications, a liquid stream of the agent is directed onto the fire location, affording flame extinguishment.. Total Flooding Systems.. Requirements for the design, installation, and maintenance of clean agent suppression systems are included in NFPA 2001.. Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Agents.. To protect laboratories, clean agent systems must also comply with NFPA 45.. Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals.. and with NFPA 72.. National Fire Alarm Code.. Total flooding (automatic) systems must also comply with UL 2166.. Halocarbon Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems.. or UL 2127.. Inert Gas Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems.. These automatic systems employ rapid detection and rapid agent discharge to extinguish fires while in their incipient stage, limiting the damage to valuable assets.. Typical applications of these clean agent systems include protecting chemical and other laboratories, chemical laboratory fume hoods, clean rooms, flammable storage areas, and computer rooms.. HFC and inert gas systems are suitable for use in occupied areas and for the suppression of Class A (cellulosic), Class B (liquid and gas), and Class C (electrical) fires.. HFC systems (i.. , FM-200 ) are the most widely employed clean agent systems for laboratory protection due to their lower cost and smaller storage space requirements compared to the inert gas systems; the perfluoroketone agent is not appropriate for the protection of areas containing chemicals due to its high chemical reactivity.. Portable Extinguishers.. NFPA 45.. requires that all laboratories be equipped with portable extinguishers.. Requirements for the design, installation, and maintenance of clean agent portable fire extinguishers are included in NFPA 10.. Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers,.. and for the protection of laboratories, portable extinguishers must also comply with the requirements of NFPA 45.. Portable extinguisher units must also comply with UL 711.. Rating and Fire Testing of Extinguishers.. Currently available clean agent portable systems consist of Halotron I (HCFC-123 based) and FE-36 (HFC-236fa) portable units.. Both are suitable for use on Class A, B, and C fires, and portable units are available with various UL ratings (e.. , 1A:10BC, 2A:40BC, etc.. ).. Halotron I consists primarily of HCFC-123, which is slated for phaseout due to its non-zero ODP.. Conclusion.. Clean agent systems are available for both total flooding and portable applications and offer effective protection against Class A, B, and C fires with no subsequent requirement for cleanup or business interruption.. , is a technical services consultant for DuPont Fluoroproducts and has over 25 years of experience in the area of fluorine chemistry and 20 years of experience in the fire suppression industry.. Robin has been extensively involved in the development, testing, and approval of halon alternatives, including HFC clean extinguishing agents, and has participated on numerous fire suppression related technical committees including NFPA 2001 and ISO 14520.. Robin is also the recipient of the 2005 U.. EPA Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award, presented for his efforts in the development of halon replacements and international standards regulating their use.. is the fire suppression agents account manager for DuPont Fluoroproducts.. Ms.. Lowery is active in numerous clean agent related committees and serves on the board of the Fire Suppression Systems Association..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2010 Conference Highlights - Convery
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2010 Annual Conference.. New Applications in Laboratories with Common Technologies.. Sean Convery.. , P.. E.. , Cator, Ruma Associates, Co.. Abstract.. As sustainability in the architectural/engineering/construction (A/E/C) design industry continues to grow in significance, it is now more vital than ever to be progressive in design.. The very nature of laboratories presents our industry with a blank canvas (or Petri dish) of opportunity to devise imaginative designs that will move our trade as a whole toward sustainable goals.. Oftentimes, the most ingenious ideas are generated by improving upon tried and true systems.. This approach offers creative solutions that are integrated with reliable technology to seamlessly combine innovation and usability.. To that end, in the following abstract, we would like to focus on two specific methodologies that increase laboratory energy efficiencies and operational characteristics by applying common technologies in new ways: point of use cooling and heat recovery heat pumps.. Though simple, these methods contribute to the improvement of the overall heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency to build a more sustainable laboratory.. The first method to present is to apply point of use cooling at spaces with high heat-rejecting laboratory equipment, in lieu of utilizing the main air handling that must then exhaust the conditioned air after one use.. Laboratory designs are moving toward putting high heat gain equipment (-80 C freezers, etc.. ) into equipment/freezer rooms or linear equipment rooms.. Since these types of spaces are constantly cooled, taking advantage of re-circulated air from fan-coil units or other point-cooling devices will reduce/remove supply and exhaust air from the building systems, which saves fan energy, cooling energy, and heating energy.. In dense -80 C freezer rooms with eight or more freezers, it has been leaned that these rooms could best be served in a manner similar to data centers: provide cold air supply down the middle between the two rows of freezers and locate return/exhaust grilles around the perimeter to allow the heat to rise straight up from the back of the freezers and out of the space.. If the return/exhaust is simply at the opposite end of the room by the thermostat, the hot air can falsely load the thermostat as well as provide a temperature gradient across the room, thereby unnecessarily triggering the  ...   cooling requirement.. In this conception, the heat pump is placed in a side stream configuration on the chilled water return and on heating water return systems, which results in pre-cooling the chilled water return and pre-heating the heating water return on the way back to the central plant.. Though often not thought of as the most consequential system in a laboratory, HVAC and exhaust systems have the potential to present forward-thinking A/E/C teams with many possibilities to develop energy-efficient and sustainable designs.. Simplicity can give rise to revolutionary solutions.. The two approaches discussed in this abstract point of use cooling and heat recovery heat pumps are both inventive ways to apply established technologies in laboratories to increase HVAC and exhaust system efficiency.. By combining the technologies we know best with a bit of vision, we can continue to meet the challenges of a constantly-changing built environment in the same spirit in which our industry has always been grounded earnest ingenuity.. Biography.. joined Cator, Ruma Associates, Co.. , a mechanical/electrical/engineering consulting firm of 80 persons, in 1995, and worked his way from a graduate entry-level engineer to a senior associate in the mechanical department.. He has a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering and is a professional engineer in Colorado.. Convery has a broad array of experience in the design of mechanical systems focusing on higher education campuses, wet and dry research laboratories, utility and service infrastructure upgrades, and central plants.. He has an extensive, successful relationship with Colorado State University, having completed over 65 projects, the majority of them laboratories including Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories.. Laboratories at Colorado State University include the BioEnvironmental Hazards Research Laboratory, the Rocky Mountain Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, and the Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine Center, all containing BSL-3 laboratories.. More recent laboratories include the Colorado State University Research Innovation Center (LEED.. Gold pending), Front Range Community College Sunlight Peak Science Building (LEED Gold pending), University of Colorado Boulder Systems Biotechnology Building (LEED Gold pending), and University of Colorado Denver Research Complex Energy Efficiency upgrades.. Convery has also received Engineering Excellence Awards from the American Council of Engineering Companies in Colorado for his award-winning designs at complex laboratory campuses.. In 2002, he was a spokesman at an ASHRAE Engineers' Technical Conference in Denver regarding the BioEnvironmental Hazards Research Laboratory..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Emond, Seals
    Descriptive info: Ottawa Heart Institute Finds Dramatic Energy Savings in a Duct Sealing Technology to Stop Cross-Building Contamination.. Michelle Emond.. , University of Ottawa Heart Institute.. Robert Seals.. , Aeroseal LLC.. When it comes to air quality issues, the University of Ottawa Heart Institute (UOHI) has a zero-tolerance policy regarding air contamination.. So, when an innocuous chemical isotope, produced in one of the institute's laboratories, was detected in an adjacent building, it was imperative the facility administrators find out how the chemical was apparently traveling from building to building and to stop its migration.. A thorough investigation of possible causes was conducted, and most initial theories were dispelled.. At this point, the spotlight became focused on the Institute's ventilation system.. While each laboratory building is vented separately, it was possible that leakage in the two air duct systems allowed contaminated air and the offending isotope to move from laboratory to laboratory.. "Given this scenario, we were looking at the daunting prospect of actually having to shut down all or part of the facilities and completely rebuild the ventilation system for the hospital," said Michelle Emond, project manager, UOHI.. "Fortunately, one of our contractors told us about a duct sealing technology that does not require tearing down walls and ceilings to access the leaks in the ductwork.. ".. Developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with support from the U.. Department of Energy, the duct sealing technology, now promoted as Aeroseal, works from inside the duct system to seal leaks.. A delivery tube is connected to the ductwork typically through either a temporary access hole or the exhaust vent on the roof and the non-toxic sealant mist is fan-blown throughout the inside of the duct system.. The microscopic particles of sealant remain suspended in air until  ...   energy efficiency of the hospital's ventilation system.. Emond said, "It turned out that prior to the application, we were losing about 800 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of ventilated air through duct leaks.. That meant we had to run our exhaust fans at full power to get sufficient ventilation.. The sealant reduced that air loss down to 10 cfm.. We were able to turn down the power on the exhaust system while actually increasing ventilation efficiency.. The difference was so significant, we are now looking at using this product elsewhere throughout the hospital to ensure proper ventilation and improve energy efficiency.. "The original ductwork was constructed of stainless steel that was welded together to minimize leaks," said Robert Seals, Aeroseal LLC.. "But, as this project highlights, even high-quality installations can suffer from leaks that affect HVAC performance.. A sealant product can fix the problem, usually with minimal if any disruption.. ".. To date, this approach has been used to increase the energy efficiency and performance of thousands of homes and commercial building throughout the U.. , including hospitals, laboratories, and university buildings.. is project manager for the University of Ottawa Heart Institute where she has been employed for the past five years.. Emond holds a degree in architectural engineering technology from the Saskatchewan Technical Institute and studied computer science at the University of Saskatchewan.. is the director of sales and marketing for the commercial division of Aeroseal LLC.. He has more than 15 years of HVAC-related experience, including various positions with The Trane Company, Carrier Corporation, Bryant, and Siemens Industry, Inc.. Seals holds a Bachelor of Science in pre-medical studies from Louisiana College, a Bachelor of Science in environmental engineering from Louisiana State University, and an MBA from the University of Phoenix..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract - Baylow, Knowles
    Descriptive info: Laboratory Design.. Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract.. Passive-Aggressive: A Practical Approach to Natural Ventilation in Laboratory Buildings.. Christopher Baylow.. , AIA, Payette.. Jacob Knowles.. , LEED AP.. , Bard, Rao + Athanas Consulting Engineers, LLC.. Natural ventilation has become a central strategy in sustainable buildings throughout Europe and is now becoming more prevalent within the United States.. Natural ventilation, combined with climate-responsive design, allows spaces such as classrooms, offices, and common areas to operate without mechanical ventilation or conditioning during extended periods.. Although typically overlooked, laboratory buildings need not be excluded; non-laboratory spaces can be designed to take advantage of natural ventilation, while still maintaining a controlled and healthy research environment.. The benefits of natural ventilation in laboratory buildings include energy conservation, increased productivity, personal comfort control, improved indoor air quality, and connection to the outdoors.. Strategies to consider at the beginning of the design process should include optimizing building orientation, program organization, fenestration, thermal mass, and controls such as automated windows, fan assist, and mix-mode ventilation.. More advanced strategies such as night flush venting, wind scoops, and solar chimneys can also be considered.. Successful natural ventilation implementation requires an integrated design process, including a clearly communicated set of goals and metrics.. Using comfort, cost, carbon, and containment (the four Cs) as performance categories provides a framework for team members to readily understand and participate in the process.. Comfort.. Comfort is used in a broad sense, and includes aural, respiratory, and thermal comfort.. Aural (acoustic) comfort is often considered separately, and is primarily concerned with outdoor noise pollution entering through operable windows.. Respiratory and thermal comfort are often addressed simultaneously, but it is important to recognize that natural ventilation and natural conditioning are individual concerns.. For example, it is common in Europe to use a mixed-mode system, where hydronic systems provide supplemental heating or cooling, while an air-based mechanical or natural ventilation system provides fresh air.. Adaptive Comfort, as outlined in ASHRAE 55, provides the primary guidelines for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally ventilated spaces.. Photo credit: Warren Jagger Photography.. The Columbia University Gary C.. Comer Geochemistry Building is organized into two distinct zones with different architecture and infrastructure.. The laboratory side is designed as a high energy environment with complex mechanical and control systems, while the office side is designed as a low technology structure with operable windows and individual fan coil units.. Cost.. The cost of natural ventilation should be evaluated from a holistic perspective.. For example, elimination of cooling in the atrium and reduction in peak loads throughout the offices and classrooms can offset the cost of fenestration upgrades, added control sequences, and other items such as variable-speed drives on the atrium smoke-evacuation exhaust to allow fan-assisted air movement.. In addition, life-cycle cost should be considered as energy savings can also help offset first-costs.. Carbon.. Carbon is the metric  ...   pressure relationships that ensure proper isolation can be overwhelmed by rapidly changing wind pressures that might drive hundreds of cfm in or out of a space.. In addition, operable windows can allow exhaust to be reintroduced into the building.. To mitigate these risks, each space needs to be properly categorized during the programming phase, listing pressure relationships and sensitivity to temperature, humidity, and contaminants such as pollen and dust.. The level of control required by a given space, based on the potential risk of non-containment, will help determine where the space may be located and how air movement must be controlled.. Sensitive areas that must be located adjacent to zones that are slated for natural ventilation often warrant a computational fluid dynamics study.. Similarly, potential re-entrainment of exhaust must be evaluated by specialty engineering firms that perform wind-tunnel testing of scale models.. The Science Research Building at the National University of Galway, Ireland, is organized so the atrium, office suites, technical work areas, and perimeter corridors are naturally ventilated, acting as a thermal sweater for the mechanically ventilated laboratory suites.. As shown through the project examples, each situation merits a different solution, but one constant remains.. To achieve holistic success, the integrated project team must approach natural ventilation in laboratory buildings with a clear set of goals and metrics, incorporating an iterative design process with timely analysis and feedback.. Those who are up for the challenge will provide a healthier, more humane environment for building occupants, ultimately supporting the productive and creative community demanded by this critical and competitive industry.. Biographies:.. joined Payette in 1988, was promoted to associate in 1999, and to associate principal in 2000.. Baylow's professional concentration has been on academic science and healthcare facilities.. Baylow is a member of the Research and Innovation Group and chair of the School of Architecture Recruiting Program at Payette and has been a faculty member and thesis critic at the Boston Architectural Center.. Baylow was a grant reviewer for the Recovery Act's Extramural Research Facilities Improvement Program (C06) administered by the National Institutes of Health in 2010.. Baylor received his Bachelor of Architecture from Syracuse University in 1988.. is the senior sustainability consultant at Bard, Rao + Athanas Consulting Engineers, LLC.. Knowles has ten years of experience managing the sustainability and energy efficiency agenda for mixed-use, industrial, research, and healthcare projects.. With a background in architecture and experience with building simulation, Mr.. Knowles' work focuses on the integration of passive and active systems to reduce the operating cost and carbon footprint of the built environment, while maximizing occupant wellbeing.. Knowles' work has supported achievement of LEED.. Gold and Platinum certifications, as well as such grants as the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources High Performance Buildings Grant.. Knowles has presented at numerous engagements, including the Massachusetts and Connecticut Building Congress and Build Boston..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2011 Selected Abstract - Neuman
    Descriptive info: Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract.. Reduce Energy Costs with Standby Laboratory Exhaust Fans.. Victor Neuman, Schneider Electric.. The biggest user of energy in a laboratory is the HVAC system.. Few techniques have been applied to saving energy and operating cost in the chemical exhaust portion of the air-conditioning system.. The current practice is to have two chemical exhaust fans for each exhaust duct.. One is the operating fan running 100 percent and the second is the standby fan, which is off.. Significant energy savings can be achieved by running both the operating fan and the standby fan together, each at 50 percent of design flow.. Owners can expect paybacks for typical two 50 percent exhaust fan projects to be approximately one year.. This quick payback together with the short construction time makes this an exceedingly attractive project.. Two 50 percent exhaust fans save energy by moving down the fan curve.. If fans used energy in a linear fashion, there would be no savings in moving from one 100 percent exhaust fan to two 50 percent exhaust fans.. But the ideal fan volume curve is based on an exponent of 3.. If you reduce the flow in a fan by 10 percent, the power usage is reduced by 27 percent for an ideal fan.. Actual manufacturer s fan curves should be used to find actual fan energy savings.. It is highly recommended that a risk assessment study be performed for any operating chemical, biological, or radiological exhaust fan.. Such a study evaluates the amount and toxicity of all chemicals and air-borne hazards likely to be found in the exhaust system.. A credible spill scenario is constructed and analyzed in terms of dilution rates to receptor sites like doors and windows.. The best kind of risk assessment for a chemical exhaust fan includes a wind tunnel study.. Two possible worldwide global firms that conduct these are.. www.. cppwind.. com.. rwdi.. We are now running both fans and both fans could fail simultaneously..  ...   a pressure capability of 2.. 0 inches of water gauge, and the second fan was off on standby.. Originally, the main fan used 70.. 81 brake horsepower.. In our example, the university energy conservation team modifies the building automation system so that both the main and standby fans run simultaneously.. Now, instead of one fan at 100 percent of design volume, we have two fans running at 50 percent of design volume.. Using the manufacturer's published fan curves, the new control scheme results in each fan running 30,000 cfm at 2.. 0 inch water gauge.. Each of two fans is 16.. 2 bhp for a total of 32.. 4 bhp.. This change saves 38.. 41 bhp, more than half of the original running energy for one exhaust fan is saved by running two fans at 50 percent.. What might be an average cost of making this change? As discussed, it is important to perform a risk assessment of the exhaust fan running at 50 percent flow as it relates to chemical dilution and site geography.. It would be better to run a wind tunnel simulation, but assume one step down from that for a manual calculation study costing $17,500 USD.. In our hypothetical university, as is common practice, the variable speed drives have already been installed, one per exhaust fan.. If the university staff do the reprogramming of the building automation system, the cost will be minimal.. Assume, to be on the safe side that an outside contractor reprograms the building controls for the new operating mode is $10,000 USD.. The resulting cost benefit analysis is:.. The base case is 70.. 81 hp x.. 746 kw/hp x 8760 hrs x 0.. 10/kwh = $46,274 per year to run one fan at 100 percent volume.. The energy use for two fans at 50 percent volume is 32.. 4 hp x.. 10/kwh = $21,173.. The annual savings is $25,100; the installation costs are $27,500; and the simple payback is 1.. 1 years..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2010 Conference Highlights - Hallman
    Descriptive info: Retrofitting Laboratory Exhaust Stacks:.. Successes and Lessons Learned from a Case Study.. Mark Hallman.. , LEED GA, Rowan Williams Davies Irwin Inc.. As laboratory buildings age, energy use and occupant safety can become concerns for owners and users alike.. In many cases, old buildings have outdated exhaust designs that include numerous individual rooftop fume hood exhaust stacks, each discharging a small volume of fume hood exhaust.. These exhausts are high energy consumers due to less flexibility in reducing discharge flow during times of low building occupancy and less efficient fans compared to today's models.. Additionally, these low-flow stacks have low discharge momentum, resulting in poorer dispersion due to the increased likelihood of the exhaust being heavily influenced by local wind flow patterns and wakes.. Please refer to Figure 1 for an illustration.. Poor exhaust dispersion can pose occupant safety concerns due to the re-entrainment of hazardous chemical vapors at fresh air intakes.. Individual exhaust system.. Whenever feasible, retrofitting existing exhausts into fewer and larger manifolded exhausts is an excellent strategy to realize improvements in energy consumption, operational flexibility, and occupant safety.. A successful retrofit of this nature was completed at Georgia State University's Natural Science Center in 2009, which involved converting an existing exhaust system of over 100 individual exhaust stacks into a manifolded exhaust system of 10 fans.. Key goals of the retrofit project were to modernize the building exhaust system, realize energy savings via fan turndown, maintain low noise levels within the building, and maintain or improve overall building comfort and safety for occupants.. Rowan Williams Davies Irwin Inc.. (RWDI) was retained to conduct a dispersion modeling study of this new system to assess its performance and safety for building occupants.. The 10 manifolded fans were divided into  ...   RWDI's recommended safety criterion for both full-flow (between 22,000 and 27,000 cfm per fan) and reduced-flow (between 15,000 and 18,000 cfm per fan) conditions.. This criterion was developed by RWDI to address health and odor targets for numerous commonly used laboratory chemicals.. Therefore, if building activities allow it, the building exhaust airflow rate can be decreased during times of low occupancy, reducing overall fan power and energy use while still not compromising safety.. Please refer to Figure 2 for an example of the improved dispersion.. Manifold exhaust system.. From an energy use perspective, savings that were anticipated with the retrofit have not been fully realized since the building has resumed operation.. This is due to the fact that the extensive research activities that occur in the building hinder the ability to turn down the ventilation rate, given that many researchers remain in the building at all hours.. Automatic ventilation controls are difficult to implement for this reason, as it is difficult to anticipate when the building will be unoccupied.. This underlies a key point: for any retrofit project, it is important that new measures work in harmony with existing building activities in order for all project objectives to be met.. is a technical coordinator providing exhaust dispersion consulting services with RWDI.. He has provided consulting services on exhaust and intake designs for a variety of new and existing facilities in the university laboratory and healthcare sectors, including the Georgia State University Natural Science Building laboratory exhaust retrofit project.. When consulting on projects, Mr.. Hallman looks to provide advice on exhaust designs that can maximize energy efficiency without compromising the safety or comfort of building occupants.. Hallman has a background in environmental engineering and has recently earned his LEED Green Associate accreditation..

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  • Title: I2SL: About Us - Wendell Brase
    Descriptive info: Skip to Section Navigation.. SL Board of Directors.. |.. What We're Doing.. Opportunities to Get Involved.. Testimonials.. Wendell Brase.. Wendell Brase chairs the University of California's Climate Solutions Steering Group and leads an award-winning sustainability program in his role as vice chancellor for administrative and business services at the University of California, Irvine.. The Irvine campus received the 2008 Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award for Climate Change; has earned numerous accolades for sustainability, including a 2009 EPA Environmental Achievement Award and more LEED.. for New Construction Gold awards than any U.. campus; and in 2010 ranked sixth on the Sierra  ...   for Laser Energetics, a laser-fusion project at the University of Rochester, and assistant director of the Eastman School of Music.. In 2002, the National Association of College and University Business Officers recognized him with its Distinguished Business Officer Award.. In 2009, Mr.. Brase contributed a series of articles on the greening of IT in the.. EDUCAUSE Quarterly.. In another recent series of articles, he recommends carbon reduction strategies for institutions that have signed the American College University Presidents' Climate Commitment.. Brase holds a Bachelor of Science and a Masters of Science from the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology..

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  • Title: Labs21 2008 Annual Conference Abstracts: E2 - Frazier
    Descriptive info: Sustainable Materials for a Laboratory Waste and Neutralization System.. Patrick Frazier.. , SCHOTT North America.. One of most important engineered systems in a laboratory building is the waste and vent piping.. Numerous studies have been written focusing on efficient HVAC systems.. This is understandable because air exchange and venting is vital for laboratories, and, when done properly, offers a high potential for overall cost savings.. On the other hand, there is a dearth of available information regarding the subject of acid waste drainline systems, or wet side design as it is sometimes called, and what material does exist can sometimes be misleading.. This is unfortunate because the design of the acid waste piping system can be just as vital to the sustainability profile and overall safety of a laboratory as other systems.. In today's industry; specifying engineers, building owners, architects, and contractors are all becoming increasingly aware of the term lifecycle costs.. Very often, only the initial costs (materials and installation) are considered when choosing a piping material, and this can be very short-sighted.. A well  ...   Borosilicate glass.. High-silicon iron.. High-end plastics: Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF).. Low-end Plastics: Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride (CPVC) and Polypropylene (PP).. When considering the total life-cycle costs for piping materials, the following topics should be considered:.. Chemical compatibility.. Thermal expansion.. Modifications and replacement.. Fire and safety.. Biography:.. is the product manager for SCHOTT North America's Tubing and Labware Division.. Frazier has been with SCHOTT for over six years and is a member of the American Society for Testing Materials Committee C-14 on Glass and Glass Products.. During his career, he has given numerous technical presentations on acid waste piping systems.. Some of the audiences include the engineering and maintenance staff of Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Vanderweil Engineers, Syska Hennessy Group, and ASPE.. SCHOTT itself has over 40 years of experience working with engineers and building owners to design sustainable laboratory waste and vent systems.. Back to Agenda.. EPA Home.. OARM Home.. DOE Home.. FEMP Home.. This page is no longer updated.. EPA gave I.. SL permission to house this page as a historic record of the Labs21 Annual Conference..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Lane
    Descriptive info: Sustainable, Cost-Effective Ultra-Low Temperature Freezers.. Neill Lane, Stirling Ultracold.. A new generation of ultra-low freezers powered by linear free-piston Stirling engines, is now reaching the market.. They offer a dramatic reduction in energy use, exceeding 50 percent versus the installed base in some cases, compared with the cascade compressor systems now used in existing ultra-low freezers on the market worldwide.. A conventional full-size (25 to 30 cubic feet) -80 C freezer uses about the same amount of energy as the average United States household up to 22 kWh/day.. High energy use results in significant heat rejected to the facility HVAC system, additional requirements for infrastructure and back-up power, and noisy operation.. Depending upon the electric power source, the freezer and HVAC system electric use can cause production of up to 100 tons of CO2 over the freezer life.. The industry has recognized the problem of ultra-low freezer energy consumption and the major freezer manufacturers have recently marketed energy-efficient conventional cascade freezers; according to the manufacturers, when operating at -80 C, these freezers use between 0.. 59 and 0.. 75 kWh/day/cubic foot of storage space.. At this condition the Stirling freezer uses 0.. 4 kWh/day/cubic foot: between 53 percent and 67 percent of the energy of the best cascade freezers.. The energy performance of Stirling freezers was independently verified at a number of customer beta sites.. These include, among others, a bio-repository, a large biotech company, and university and non-university research facilities.. The University of California at Davis has published its independent test results.. Lower steady state freezer energy consumption reduces the need for air-conditioning and lowers operating cost.. In addition, the beta site data have shown that the Stirling freezer peak current demand is only 37 percent of that measured for  ...   moving parts.. Cooling is distributed to the interior of the cabinet through a sealed gravity-driven thermosiphon with no moving parts; a small amount of refrigerant (less than 20 percent of that used in a cascade system) evaporates at cabinet interior and condenses at the cooling engine.. The thermosiphon operates isothermally so there is minimal temperature gradient in the evaporator and interior chamber walls.. The cooling engine modulates continuously to match the heat load on the cabinet, creating straight-line temperature performance, unlike the operation of cascade freezers where temperature is controlled by compressors cycling on and off.. Over the life of a conventional ultra-low freezer, the compressors stop and start thousands of times.. In contrast, assuming no power outages, the free-piston Stirling engine may start only once in the life of the freezer.. In conventional cascade compressor freezers, it is expected that the compressors fail one or more times in the life of the freezer, necessitating a complicated and costly repair where the refrigerant and oil have to be removed from the freezer.. Typically rigid insulation also has to be replaced.. In contrast to the oil-lubricated compressor, the Stirling engine uses gas bearings with no-wear operation.. Stirling engines of this design are proven in many applications.. They have flown on the Space Shuttle and continue to cool the instruments on the Rhessi satellite.. Nonetheless the cooling engine has been designed to be easily replaced with no need to remove oil, no cascade experience required, and clip-on flexible insulation to simplify maintenance.. The freezer cabinet employs vacuum-insulated panels, and with the compact cooling system offers the highest vial count per square foot of floor space on any freezer on the market.. The freezer has a touch screen controller with a graphical user interface..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Haiges
    Descriptive info: Sustainable Technologies for Old and New Buildings; Energy Reduction from Chilled Beams.. Donald Haiges, P.. , SEi Companies.. While chilled beam (CB) technology has been used in Europe for many years it is still relatively new in the United States.. The CB concept, however, is not a new engineering principal but rather a new application.. CB solutions are a variation of the chilled ceiling concept that was very popular in U.. hospital design for patient rooms in the 1970s.. The chilled ceiling provided uniform cooling without drafts for a generally light, sensible cooling load.. Chilled beam is just a fancy term for an overhead room, chilled water cooling system.. CBs can provide heating as well as cooling.. Their use is becoming popular as a means to save energy, as well as to improve thermal comfort.. How They Work.. CBs come in two general styles: passive and active.. The passive CB is so named, as it is basically a static device.. Looking like a horizontal finned car radiator, cooling is achieved by radiation and convection.. The radiation effect works like this: heat from people and equipment radiates to and is absorbed by the CB.. Also, the finned surface of the beam sets up natural air convection in the room.. Since warm air naturally rises and cool air falls, warm air above the beam is cooled by the beam s finned element and then falls down into the room.. Passive CBs above slatted ceiling yet to be installed.. The active CB has greater capacity than a passive beam.. The active beam is so named because its capacity is enhanced by a ducted supply-air connection to induce air across the CB coil via nozzles, producing greater cooling per square foot of beam surface area.. This principle is not unlike perimeter floor mounted induction units that were prevalent in high-rise building design in the 70 s and 80 s.. The active CB is an induction unit.. Laboratory Application.. - To understand a proper application for the use of CBs in a laboratory application, we need to understand the HVAC laboratory dynamic and the derivation of the laboratory heat and air flow balance.. Generally speaking, there are three types of laboratory scenarios: 1) Hood Driven Loads where the air flow and air change rates are dictated by high hood densities such as a chemistry, research, or teaching laboratory; 2) Neutral Loads where the minimum required air change rate or a light hood load is equivalent to the room sensible load.. Such would be a biology laboratory with a single hood or biosafety cabinet and light equipment loading; and 3) Equipment Driven Loads where the room air flow is determined by high internal sensible equipment heat gains, being greater than the hood makeup or minimum air change requirements.. It is in this third scenario that the CB solution has the greatest opportunity for application.. In scenario three, the use of a CB can offer first cost and energy savings by reducing the primary total supply air compared to a conventional all air solution.. Since most laboratories as a rule do not use recirculated air, all the air required to satisfy the room cooling load over and above the hood exhaust or a minimum air change rate is an added energy burden since it is all raw outdoor air (OA).. If the added cooling load can be cooled directly by chilled water rather than OA, the energy to cool down or heat up the OA to room conditions is saved.. The table below shows a simple benefit example of a three air change per hour (ACH) reduction in OA on an all OA system.. These savings assume a 10 foot laboratory ceiling height, a summer design condition of 78 wet bulb, and a winter temperature of 0 F.. 3 ACH OA REDUCTION EXAMPLE SAVINGS.. Square Feet.. NSF.. Air Reduction.. CFM.. Refrigeration.. TONS.. Heating.. PPH.. Horsepower.. Sup Exh.. BHP.. 10,000.. 5,000.. 35.. 350.. 10.. 25,000.. 12,500.. 85.. 850.. 20.. 50,000.. 170.. 1,700.. 40.. A fourth scenario within a laboratory building is the supporting laboratory offices, conference, teaching areas, and the like that are sensible load driven.. Here the CB can be used to reduce the total room air flow otherwise required by an all air system.. For example, assume a single office with a solar exposure requiring 250 cubic  ...   do at 75 F with overhead air systems.. SYSTEMS COMPARISON - 250,000 SF.. System.. OA CFM.. Total CFM.. Tonnage.. Air HP.. Conventional VAV.. 110,000.. 325,000.. 1,100.. 550.. Fan Coils.. 460,000.. 300.. CBs.. 130,000.. 900.. 190.. Condensation Control.. - From an engineering perspective a significant design element with the use of the CB is attention to room dehumidification control to assure condensation does not occur on the CB surfaces or the related chilled water piping.. For this reason, use of CBs in the areas with high internal latent gains can be quite problematic.. Room dehumidification is controlled by the room make up air requirement, with the supply air dehumidified below the room design dew point.. This dry air is used to offset the internal room latent heat gain.. Further, chilled water supplied to the CBs is not at the traditional 42 F cold water temperatures but more in the 58-60 F range, or 3 F above the room control dew point.. This guarantees that condensation will not occur on the beam or piping.. While active CBs can be provided with a drain pan, dehumidification is best controlled through the room supply air.. Piping Tips.. - In many CB applications, a separate CB piping system is provided due to the need for an increased supply water temperature, 58 to 68 F for example.. In many laboratories, some level of process cooling may still be required or some use of fan coils are still necessary for cooling densities beyond the capacity of the CB.. In one recent laboratory renovation, where a 42 to 56 F chilled water cooling loop already existed, this loop was used for the CBs incorporating a three-way blending valve and local zone fractional horsepower circulating pumps.. Savings were achieved by not installing a separate CB central piping loop.. Saving Reheat.. Previously, it has been discussed how energy savings can be achieved through reduced air flow and the reduction of OA with the corresponding heating and refrigeration reduction.. In the laboratory, CBs can provide further savings through the reduction of reheat energy associated with all-air systems.. In laboratories where supply air quantities are determined by peak equipment cooling loads, reheat is necessary to maintain room conditions when those loads do not materialize.. When primary room supply air can be reduced through the use of the CB, or when winter supply air temperatures can be raised allowing room cooling by the CB, reheat energy can be significantly be reduced.. Summary -.. The benefits of the CB application are many:.. Energy savings through reduced air motor horsepower (HP) and air-side equipment sizes.. Reduced outdoor air loads in most laboratory applications reducing chiller and boiler sizes.. Energy savings by reducing the need for reheat.. Quiet operation due to reduced air volumes.. Improved and assured actual ventilation rates.. Reduced duct sizes, especially beneficial in renovation applications.. Improved air comfort through fewer drafts.. Yet the CB solution in not a Silver Bullet! As with any HVAC design, the full application must be evaluated with its corresponding limitations:.. The CB becomes a ceiling design element requiring significant architectural coordination.. Design in high humidity areas requires control to prevent condensation on the coil surface.. The CB is not conducive to high latent cooling applications.. The CB installation is new to the building trades, suggesting an installation cost premium.. Design application will improve with honest case studies of new installations.. There are few manufacturers and many are located outside the United States.. We should see more acceptance of CB solutions as the design and construction community becomes familiar with the systems and as proven operational track records are established.. CBs can provide a great alternative to fan coil and all air systems given the appropriate application.. (1.. 4 MB, 22 pp).. Donald Haiges.. is a Principal with the SEi Companies, a national mechanical and electrical engineering consulting firm.. He is an architectural engineering graduate from The Pennsylvania State University with 30 years of engineering practice, responsible for the design of institutional and corporate research facilities.. Don has been responsible for the engineering conceptualization, design, and start-up of more than 15 million square feet of such research facilities.. Representative clients in the academic community include MIT, Harvard, Columbia, Princeton, Vanderbilt, Brown, Tulane, Yale, and Middlebury.. Clients in the pharmaceutical arena include Dupont, Lederle, Merck, Hoffmann-La Roche, Novartis, Pfizer, and Wyeth-Ayerst..

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