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  • Title: I2SL: Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Zaske, Corona
    Descriptive info: Skip to Sub-Navigation.. Annual Conference.. How to Submit.. Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2007 Annual Conference.. Reinventing Teaching Laboratories at Community College.. Bill Zaske and.. Rich Corona.. , DSA Architects (a member of the SHW Group).. Abstract.. In the era of tuition increases and government funding decreasing, the demand on the community college to augment their science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculums has never been higher.. The competition to attract students and faculty has moved from competing with other community colleges to competing with universities.. Coupled with the pressure to increase the number of graduates in health sciences, general science, engineering technology, and mathematics, these colleges are looking for any advantage that capitalizes on flexibility, research, collaboration, and cost efficiency.. Community colleges generally have smaller budgets and operating expenditures so they look for any advantage they can to reduce the cost of construction, such as efficient laboratory design and balancing initial costs with life cycle costing.. This is particularly important in the areas of laboratory equipment exhausting (consent volume versus variable volume) and daylighting, which when designed for individual laboratories, causes a significant drop in operating expenses.. Another way these colleges are setting themselves apart is by integrating natural laboratories into their curriculum.. The Schoolcraft Community College Bio-medical Technology Center, in Livonia Michigan, has three rain gardens designed into the building s exterior landscaping.. These rain gardens use water that is collected from the roof of the building which is funneled down to the garden, thus eliminating the need for irrigation.. The biology department will use these natural laboratories to augment their curriculum, providing students the ability to study a working microclimate.. Utilizing sustainable design ideology allows for these colleges to not only reduce overall life cycle costs, but also increase their ability to compete with the  ...   space.. By studying the way the laboratory was used before, items such as where fume hoods can be placed and where plumbing lines can be routed start to take form.. By reusing cases and shafts, a large amount of the construction and renovation budget can be spared.. Analyzing the existing mechanical, electrical, and plumping systems and determining what can be reused and what has to be replaced also can reduce the construction cost that the college will have to bear.. By being flexible with the design of the renovated laboratories, the colleges can upgrade their facilities in a cost effective manner.. An advantage these community colleges have over their larger university competitors is the ability for the students to focus on a particular area of expertise.. Built space in community colleges is viewed as a premium; therefore, the design of flexible spaces into the architecture of the building is crucial.. Areas designed to integrate the laboratory, classroom, and collaborative spaces start to enhance the learning environment.. As a result, these colleges can focus on displaying the use of technology and emphasizing learning.. By creating ways to showcase the laboratories in their buildings the colleges can attract potential students and staff to their facilities.. View this entire presentation in PDF format.. (1.. 3 MB, 20 pp).. Biography.. has nearly 20 years experience in mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems design for higher education facilities.. His experience includes all phases, from conceptual design through commissioning and post occupancy evaluation, to ensure all facilities systems are functioning as intended.. Mr.. Corona's current projects include work at Central Michigan University, Michigan State University, University of Michigan, Wayne State University, Cranbrook Educational Community, and North Central Michigan College.. Stay in touch with I.. SL!.. Send us your email.. to join our mailing list..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2008 Annual Conference Highlights - Cummings, DeBraal, McCabe
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2008 Annual Conference.. Three (Integrated) Perspectives on Pursuing LEED Certification on Small Projects in the University Environment: Design Team, Institution Customer.. Mary-Lynn Cummings.. , Director of Space Planning, Cornell University,.. Peter DeBraal, AIA, LEED AP.. , SWBR Architects, and.. Robert McCabe, P.. E.. ,.. Cornell University.. Project.. Cornell University received a $10M grant from the New York State Empire State Development Corporation (ESDC) to create a Biofuels Research Laboratory (BRL).. The BRL will study the conversion of perennial grasses woody biomass into cellulosic ethanol and other biofuels.. Six-million dollars in grant funds was combined with $1.. 8M in other source funds to create a $7.. 8M project to renovate portions of Riley-Robb Hall.. Riley-Robb is located on the main campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, NY.. Riley-Robb is a New York State-owned building that contains approximately 112,000 gross square feet.. It was constructed in 1956 to house what was then the department of agricultural engineering and what is today the department of Biological and Environmental Engineering (BEE) in the College of Agriculture Life Sciences (CALS).. BEE is the lead department on the ESDC grant.. The BRL project consists of three major components: 1) renovation of 1950's vintage large equipment lab into modern wet lab space to accommodate the needs of the Biofuels Research Laboratory (11,560 square feet), 2) modest renovation of existing, adjacent space for activities displaced by the new BRL footprint (7,274 square feet), and 3) related building systems upgrades with enough capacity to enable future renovations and upgrades of contiguous spaces.. The final design was developed from rigorous lab programming with researchers while simultaneously incorporating sustainable design principles.. Grant restrictions dictated that the project needed to be designed and constructed within 20 months.. The construction budget was extremely tight at $5.. 7M.. The project is on budget at 75% of construction and LEED costs are tracking at 2.. 38% of construction cost.. Figure 1.. Exterior rendering of proposed renovated east and south wings of Riley-Robb Hall.. Three Perspectives.. As the BRL project moved into construction, the primary stakeholders to that point of the project - including the design team, the institutional stewards, and the customer - met to debrief on the design process.. Each stakeholder presented a unique perspective, as summarized in the following paragraphs.. Design Team s Perspective.. The design team felt that it was important for sustainability to be conveyed in the design, construction and operation of the facility.. Because the science of biofuels is emerging and the likelihood of funding to renovate the labs to keep pace with innovation is remote, the creation of flexible modern wet-labs and supporting infrastructure was an important goal.. This desire coupled with the university's well-developed sustainable design standards led CALS to decide to pursue LEED certification.. However, validating the LEED certification process and justifying the cost of certification were two obstacles that had to be overcome with the institution and customer.. Institution s Perspective.. The university has for several years used the USGBC LEED program as a process for evaluating, planning, and implementing sustainable practices, with a focus on reduced energy use, but with no prescribed increase in project funding.. At the time the BRL project was in design, Cornell had robust sustainable design standards, but did not have clear expectations about LEED certification, making it impossible to mandate a minimum LEED goal for this project.. In January of 2008, after this project went into construction, Cornell's Board of Trustees approved a requirement that all capital projects on the Ithaca campus exceeding $5M in cost must attain a minimum LEED silver certification and 30% energy savings below ASHRAE 90.. 1 (known at Cornell as LEED/30).. Customer's Perspective.. As this project moved through programming and into design, BEE and CALS, as the project customer, had many questions related to pursuing LEED certification.. The customer looked to the architect/engineer and institution for answers and found it challenging to get and understand those answers.. The customer was most concerned with: How much will it cost? Why some credits and not others? What's required and by whom? What's the value in implementing LEED in such a small part of an old unsustainable building? Could we get better value by spending the same money on other projects within the building? CALS did decide to certify this project when it understood the incremental cost would be minimal.. In deciding to certify this project, CALS made the decision to pursue LEED certification on all college capital projects (before the Board of Trustees made this a requirement in January 2008).. The college was also cognizant that the BRL renovation was a politically visible project that was inherently about sustainability, so LEED was particularly appropriate.. CALS also came to understand that the rest of Riley-Robb Hall, without modern mechanical systems, is already a fairly low-energy use building, and that implementing LEED as areas of the building are renovated is the most cost-effective way to spend limited capital improvement funds.. An Integrated Perspective.. Although each of the three primary stakeholders had unique concerns and responses to the pursuit of LEED for the BRL project, these stakeholders also identified a remarkable level of agreement regarding what went well and what could be improved.. Eleven lessons  ...   had this information during design, the decision to include the window work would have been made rather quickly.. 9.. Keep a record of the cost of LEED as a percentage of construction on your campus and document the return on investment and life cycle costs to make future design decisions much easier.. The BRL project team consumed hours discussing the possible cost of incorporating LEED into the project.. The team found the Davis Langdon report, What Does Green Really Cost to be a most helpful resource in decision-making.. The team estimated the cost of LEED for BRL at 3 to 5%.. With construction almost complete, the extra cost for incorporating sustainability features for LEED certification into the BRL project is estimated at $135,500 for $5.. 7M in construction cost, or 2.. 38%.. These results were shared with Cornell facilities managers and are available on a project management best practice tools website.. Lessons Learned: Go Beyond.. 10.. Consider local resources, such as non-profits that may be interested in recycling building materials.. Ithaca, New York has a wonderful local resource in a group called Significant Elements that specializes in redistributing old architectural elements within the local community.. Significant Elements visited the project site before construction and identified items of interest to them (e.. , marble toilet partitions, steel doors, sinks).. These items were identified in the construction documents for careful removal by the contractor and off-site removal by Significant Elements.. Lessons Learned: Summary.. 11.. Pursue certification and create accountability to ensure that sustainable design initiatives are properly executed.. The LEED process formalizes efforts to build environmentally responsible buildings and enables project teams to gain certification in a cost effective, consistent and comparable manner.. If a commitment to sustainability is not made at the outset, all too often sustainability goals tend to be sacrificed when competing forces, particularly related to budget, emerge.. When the BRL project went to the Cornell Board of Trustees for construction phase approval, the project team asserted the expectation that the project would achieve a minimum LEED certification.. With that public declaration, expectations were set.. Subsequent collaborations have led to further efforts that now leave the project team hopeful that the BRL project will be certified silver.. Setting the goal and keeping it visible has kept the project team focused on achieving, and even exceeding, expectations.. Current Status.. In the fall of 2008 work is being finished on the laboratory and preparations are underway for system startup and commissioning.. The project is on schedule for substantial completion and beneficial occupancy of the BRL by January 2009.. The project continues to track required submissions for LEED certification through the USGBC.. The project has provided a valuable opportunity for the involved stakeholders to gain experience with LEED on a smaller project in a university and institutional setting.. More information about the project can be found at.. www.. fs.. cornell.. edu/projects/pages/riley_robb.. cfm.. Acknowledgement and special thanks: Dr.. Larry Walker, Dr.. Michael Walter, Randy Lacey, Steve Beyers, Matt Kozlowski, Dean Koyanagi, Chris Jung, Robert Chiang, Jon Reis, Donna Goss, SWBR Architects, M/E Engineering, P.. C.. , LeChase Construction Services, Empire State Development Corporation, Cornell University College of Agriculture Life Sciences.. Appendices.. A.. Lessons Learned from the LEED Experience for the Cornell Biofuels Research Lab.. (36 KB, 1 pp).. B.. LEED for New Construction v2.. 2 Registered Project Checklist for Riley-Robb Hall Bio-Fuels Research Laboratory.. (104 KB, 2 pp).. Biographies.. is the Space Planner for Cornell University.. From 2002 through January 2008, she served as the Assistant Dean for Facilities and Operational Services in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell.. In that role, she guided the strategic planning effort for facilities in the College, including capital construction, space planning, budget development, resource projections, and scheduling.. She provided oversight to new construction, renovations, and maintenance of existing buildings; leadership and oversight for College safety, health and environmental programs, including agricultural and field safety, pesticide management, and greenhouse environmental management; and leadership for College emergency planning and facility security issues.. Peter DeBraal.. is a Senior Associate and Project Manger at SWBR Architects and has been with the firm for 3 years.. Previous to SWBR, Peter worked for Stantec Architecture in Rochester, New York, and for various firms in Cleveland, Ohio.. As a licensed architect, and a LEED Accredited Professional since 2000, Peter has focused on the design of research and laboratory space for the college and university markets.. Peter most recently has been apart of the $62 million James P.. Wilmot Cancer Center at the University of Rochester.. He received his Bachelor s and Master degrees in Architecture from Kent State University.. Robert McCabe.. is a Manager of Projects for Cornell University.. Serving the higher education sector since 1986, he has provided engineering design, project management and construction management for new construction and building renovations, including laboratory, heath care, and residential facilities, along with central plants for district energy.. McCabe is a technical contributor to the American Society of Heating Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the International District Energy Association (IDEA), and the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE).. He holds an MBA from Cornell University, a BS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Vermont, and is a registered Professional Engineer (PE) in New York..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Titina
    Descriptive info: Laboratory Design.. Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract.. Adaptive Reuse of a 1950's Hospital Bed Tower For Cutting Edge 21st Century Medical Research.. Ted Hyman, FAIA, LEED AP BD+C.. Phiroze Titina, AIA, NCARB, LEED AP BD+C, CDT, ZGF Architects LLP.. The 12-story, 443,387 gross square foot South Tower (a former medical center tower) is part of the 2.. 4 million gross square foot UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, a complex on the UCLA campus.. The South Tower, completed over two phases in 1951 and 1965, was a nine-story bed tower above surgery, post op-recovery, and imaging and pathology suites in the basement levels.. After the 1994 Northridge earthquake, damage assessment and engineering studies funded by FEMA determined that the South Tower's structure was weakened.. In response, UCLA developed a comprehensive strategy to create a replacement hospital on the campus, and to perform a seismic upgrade and renovation of the tower to house state-of-the-art research wet laboratories in support of the School of Medicine's research and educational programs.. The renovation will bring the tower into compliance with high-rise building codes, improve the thermal performance of the exterior skin, and upgrade core and life safety infrastructure.. The tower will be the first research building on the campus to adopt a developer approach under which users implement interior tenant improvement projects as they are identified.. The open laboratory spaces are programmed to be generic and highly flexible environments that can function as wet bench, laboratory support, or dry laboratory space with quick and minimal build-outs.. This approach allows the University to develop the building without the need to identify specific user groups and research programs that the building will accommodate.. The revamped South Tower will be a key component in the restructuring  ...   six air changes per hour, with chilled beams to deal with equipment heat loads.. The design significantly improves the thermal performance of the existing masonry walls, with long stretches of single glazed ribbon windows, by adding R-15 batt insulation behind the masonry walls and replacing the windows with high-performance spectrally selective double-glazed units.. These upgrades reduce energy use intensity by 30 percent.. The existing sunshades cover more than two-thirds of the ribbon windows and block daylight penetration into the space as well as views of the outside.. These are replaced by a horizontal clerestory sunshade that blocks enough direct sunlight and glare to make the perimeter comfortable for occupants while allowing substantial daylight penetration.. Seven existing exterior stairs serve as means of egress for the South Tower and adjacent connecting buildings.. These stairs are being enclosed and pressurized to comply with code requirements for high-rise buildings.. New curtain wall enclosures for the stairs are designed to be passively ventilated during normal operation of the building.. In case of an emergency that requires evacuation of occupants, the louvers facilitating passive ventilation are automatically closed and the pressurization system turns on.. This strategy will create significant energy savings through not having to condition and pressurize the eight- to 12-story stairs year-round.. In conclusion, the seemingly disadvantageous physical characteristics of the former hospital tower such as narrow floor-plates, low floor heights, continuous strip windows, and a structural grid designed to accommodate patient rooms have been turned into advantages in designing an efficient, high-performance, sustainable research building.. The design has saved $78 million by retrofitting the existing structure and shell, and energy use has been reduced by 30 percent through right-sizing HVAC equipment, use of chilled beams, daylighting controls, and exterior skin upgrades..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Delson
    Descriptive info: Balancing Staff Safety, Health and Comfort with Energy Efficiency in a Diagnostic Laboratory Environment.. Amy Delson, AIA, Strategic Facilities Planning.. Thomas Hughes, CEPE, LEED AP B+C, Mechanical Engineering Consultants, Inc.. Design Challenge:.. Pacific Diagnostic Laboratories (PDL), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cottage Health System (CHS), is the most comprehensive reference laboratory between Los Angeles and the Bay Area.. In 2009, PDL decided to relocate its core laboratory operations to a 25,900-gross-square-foot, single-story former telephone building, across the street from the Goleta Valley Cottage Hospital.. The design challenge was to create a state-of-the-art laboratory providing safe, healthy, and comfortable working conditions for staff, while controlling energy usage, enabling change, and supporting patient care, laboratory operations, and staff satisfaction.. The project was completed in 2010.. Diagnostic vs.. Research Laboratories:.. Diagnostic laboratories are process driven, more like a factory than a research laboratory.. Clinical and anatomic pathology diagnostic laboratories use hazardous chemicals (xylene, formalin, corrosives) and involve preparation/testing of pathogenic specimens.. To mitigate hazardous fumes/noxious odors and control contact with infectious agents, single-pass air (100 percent exhaust), often at high ventilation rates, is needed.. Some portions of the laboratory operate 24/7 (with multiple shifts of staff) while others are 12/5.. Diagnostic laboratories must also adapt to changes in technology, operations, and individual staff requirements.. Sustainability:.. The building design incorporates the following features to improve the energy performance by 37.. 8 percent as compared to California's Title 24 Energy Standards:.. HVAC.. Phoenix Controls VAV laboratory system with Aircuity OptiNet to match ventilation rates  ...   insulation in the walls and roof.. Cool Roof Rating Council certified roofing material.. An energy analysis was developed for CHS as part the California statewide SavingsByDesign energy efficiency program.. Building information modeling enabled coordination of building systems.. The building was fully commissioned by a third-party commissioning agent to ensure the design intent was implemented.. The additional costs to the project were calculated to be $410,850.. Part of this cost was offset by a utility rebate of $138,131.. The remainder was calculated to be offset by energy savings in 6.. 5 years.. Calculated energy savings are 233,633 kilowatt hours of electricity and 57,097 therms of natural gas.. Laboratory Planning Adaptability:.. LEAN laboratory planning approach enables programmatic change without compromising operations or employee health, safety, and comfort.. PDL continues to reconfigure the casework and install new equipment, enabled by the Herman Miller adaptable casework system, and grid of drains provided by cup sink drains mounted in the casework cores.. The casework contributes to sustainability due to its returnable/reusable packaging, durability, pre-consumer recycled content, and post-consumer content.. Flexibility, adaptability, and redundancy in building systems, casework, and open planning enable PDL to balance staff safety, health, and comfort with energy and operational efficiency.. The PDL in Goleta, California, is an example of how the combination of an integrated design approach, forward thinking, and clients who are receptive to innovation can come together to implement a successful project.. Feedback from employees, management, and CHS facilities personnel confirms that design goals are being met..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2009 Conference Highlights - Ostafi, von Below
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2009 Annual Conference.. Joseph Ostafi, AIA, LEED AP.. Dirk von Below, AIA, LEED AP.. , Flad Architects.. Beyond Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED): Sustainable Laboratory Design.. The pursuit of sustainability goals, as defined by LEED, has generated increased efforts by both owners and the construction industry to develop new ways of reducing the environmental footprint of a variety of facilities, including laboratories.. However, to move beyond the goal of merely reducing that footprint, and choosing to eliminate a facility s environmental impact altogether, requires the exploration of new technologies, new design approaches, and modifying user behaviors.. In recent years, Flad Architects has been asked to address unusual situations faced by its clients while creating facilities to meet higher levels of sustainable design criteria.. Incremental solutions were not enough to fully address these challenges, requiring the design team to develop uncommon strategies and redefine what a truly sustainable laboratory would be.. Through a series of discussions, Flad Architects clarified its own beliefs about sustainability and LEED s use as a tool to reduce a facility s environmental impact.. Flad Architects determined that, however effective the LEED program is at moving the market toward more sustainable building practices, the goal of the program is not to completely mitigate a facility s environmental impact.. To actually create a sustainable facility, it must, in fact, fully sustain itself.. Therefore, a sustainable facility, by definition, must meet the following criteria:.. Net-zero energy use.. Net-zero water use.. Net-zero carbon footprint.. Zero waste during construction and operation.. If Flad Architects assumes these combined goals are possible, there are a multitude of questions to be addressed.. What solutions can compensate for the high energy loads and ventilation of laboratories? What would it take to produce all the needed energy on site, as well as enough energy to sell back to the grid to result in a net-zero balance? If it is actually possible to achieve these goals with the technologies available, would it be financially feasible?.. During the search for answers to these questions, it became apparent that these endeavors also required a more holistic response from the operators and designers of the laboratories, while remaining engaged in the fiscal realities of the projects.. The entire project team must increase its focus on finding innovative ways to do more, while reducing energy use and minimizing waste.. Each tactical investment must demonstrate an equivalent return by reducing energy consumption or the environmental impact on the site.. This paper addresses those challenges and the new frontiers available once a project sets goals beyond LEED Platinum.. Two projects embodying these challenges were a confidential client s Renewable Energy Laboratory (REL) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Stony Brook University s Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center (AERTC) in New York.. The REL is intended to lead the world in the research of biomass conversion, as well as the development of other renewable energy sources available near the equator.. The facility needed to reflect the client s commitment to sustainability by moving beyond the confines of LEED and striving to be an exemplary model of environmental responsibility.. In addition to the challenges found in any research facility, Flad Architects had to address the challenges posed by the tropical, equatorial zone.. As energy usage is greater in this hot and humid climate, the REL faced increased energy costs.. Challenges also included preparing a laboratory for sustainable operations in a developing country.. Flad Architects primary strategy to address these challenges was to generate as much onsite renewable energy as possible to offset the facility s consumption.. Figure 1: Rendering of an open interior architectural space.. Stony Brook University s goal for the AERTC was to create an energy research complex that reached beyond the goal of LEED Platinum.. The primary challenge posed by this project was that the facility was to be located on a site without a municipal sewer system, forcing the design team to implement strategies to minimize chemical laboratory waste and to develop systems for dealing with that waste onsite.. When faced with projects such as these two examples, the design team must move beyond a standard approach, addressing the challenges with high performance design, safety philosophies, and behavioral changes; seeking strategies with compounding effects.. High-Performance Design.. To achieve the most energy efficient facility, the design team must ensure architectural and mechanical systems are fully integrated working in tandem, to achieve more than either system could achieve functioning independently.. This partnership between systems results from several factors, including, but not limited to, an integrated design plan incorporating knowledgeable passive design strategies, skillful daylight integration, and expert laboratory and office planning.. Integrated Design Plan.. The first step to fulfilling a strong sustainable agenda is incorporating that agenda into the Integrated Design Plan (IDP).. Rather than simply taking the established business objectives and moving forward with the design, this process engages all parties involved with the project in a visioning session at the outset, to establish the benchmarks, metrics, and standards toward which the project will aim.. By involving  ...   air conditioning are the dominant energy consumers in a laboratory and their requirements are primarily driven by safety concerns.. The two most promising strategies to reduce energy use are the proper control of air changes in the laboratory and new fume hood designs.. By designing demand-driven systems and enabling users to turn off equipment, a large amount of the energy used in the laboratory can be eliminated.. This can be accomplished through the use of occupancy sensors and automatic sash shutoffs.. Another tactic for energy savings is reducing the capacity of the system by accurately diversifying laboratory occupation and fume hood operations.. Not only can this reduce energy use, it can reduce the owner s initial investment.. Although building owners often ask to have the air handling system accommodate 80 to 95 percent hood usage, studies have shown that laboratory air handling systems are consistently over designed, well beyond the needed capacity.. In the majority of laboratories, at any given time 75 to 85 percent of fume hoods are not being used, but are operating and using a significant amount of energy.. The only way to calculate the safe and appropriate air flow rate is through the use of computational fluid dynamic modeling.. With computer models, it is possible to understand the performance requirements of the space, while designing a laboratory that minimizes energy use and maintains a healthy environment for the staff.. A ductless fume hood acts much like a biosafety cabinet in that it filters the air before circulating it back into the room environment.. When a ductless fume hood can safely be incorporated into the laboratory, this energy efficient device can reduce conditioning loads by orders of magnitude through minimizing the exhaust rate.. There are many obstacles remaining before use of the new fume hoods will be widely accepted.. Filters must be changed regularly and certain volatile, small molecule compounds cannot be filtered by these hoods.. Only a motivated user team will make the effort to change its procedures to maintain the equipment and effectively manage its use.. Figure 3: Exterior rendering of AERTC.. Behavioral Changes.. True changes to the environmental footprint will require behavioral changes in the way laboratories and resources are used.. Operation and user behavior will have the largest effects on resource use over the lifespan of the facility.. User Adaptation.. Beyond design and planned safety processes, the greatest challenge faced by any facility is modifying the behaviors of the people who use it on a day-to-day basis.. Making people aware of the processes and procedures to get the most out of the facility is only the first step in changing their behavior over the long term.. Systems must be in place to measure and track energy utilization patterns and their impact on the facility, correcting inefficient behaviors and giving users incentives to improve.. The systems must be designed to react to the user s demands.. Individual staff can be extremely motivated to improve their resource consumption and should be rewarded for careful behavior by returning savings to the team for other expenses.. Over the life of the building, the users themselves will need to track the energy use of the facility to identify opportunities to increase its efficiency as techniques and technologies improve.. Integrating the laboratory utilization demands in the design process allows a designer to uncover potential improvements in many ways.. For example, containment of laboratory waste and water conservation are possible today to the degree that water waste can be minimized to almost zero.. While many might find this an impediment in their working productivity it also creates opportunities to provide more flexible laboratory layouts.. Movable sinks that are serviced from above are possible and again relieve us from a fixed type of infrastructure that is costly to maintain and modify.. Conclusion.. To achieve an actual sustainable laboratory, a holistic view of the project must be taken.. Laboratory design must be approached from a broad perspective, maintaining the vision and business goals of the users while analyzing the laboratory operations to locate every opportunity for cost and energy savings.. Each strategy requires planning, forward thinking, constant modeling, measuring, and management as the project unfolds.. Figure 4: Chart of strategies involved in acheiving net zero energy use.. By moving beyond common strategies, incorporating high-performance design, thoroughly integrating a safety philosophy, and modifying the behavior of the users, a design team can create a facility that moves beyond LEED metrics and is truly sustainable.. Joseph Ostafi.. has more than 14 years of architectural experience in facilities for the pharmaceutical, research and development, and academic fields.. His focus has been in the design of science and technology facilities, laboratory planning, manufacturing, and site master planning.. He has been involved in many projects on accelerated schedules and has worked with a variety of project delivery schemes.. As a project manager at Flad Architects,.. Dirk von Below.. has over 18 years of comprehensive architectural experience including cost estimating, planning, and quality assurance.. He specializes in managing large projects, balancing state-of-the-art design, efficiency, and environmental design within tight financial frameworks..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Schoenhard
    Descriptive info: Selected Highlights of the Labs21 2010 Annual Conference.. Case Study A LEED.. Gold Global Headquarters and Technology Center for Colorcon.. G.. David Schoenhard.. , AIA, LEED AP, with Maki San Miquel Paulson, LEED AP, Wulff Architects.. Abstract.. Colorcon's new Global Headquarters, global data center, and research and development laboratories are in a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED.. ) Gold-certified, 90,000-square-foot complex on a 26-acre site one hour northwest of Philadelphia.. Energy challenges included the heat of data center equipment and fresh air required for laboratories, but efficient fixtures, distribution, and controls have assured thermal comfort and reduced energy costs.. The site is bordered by residential neighbors who are welcome to use a community path through the site, re-created as wildflower meadows and reforested habitat.. An extensively planted roof garden and lunch terrace is watered by stormwater runoff.. Only 22 percent of the building's façade is fenestrated, but over 80 percent of occupants have access to daylight and views.. Occupancy sensors determine ventilation and lighting.. Site Strategies.. The most important decision from a financial and environmental viewpoint was to right-size the building and parking capacity of 169 surface spaces.. The design team preserved 50 percent of the approximately 26-acre site for flora and fauna, including a continuous ecosystem of native field plants.. Site ecosystems include field, meadow, forest, and wetland, and all are designed to encourage native fauna, while discouraging invasive fauna, such as Canada geese.. Berm.. The berm provides multiple benefits and was created by utilizing soil from the data center's sunken floor excavation.. The massing next to the data center acts as a heat sink to conserve energy and shield the sound of the emergency generator.. The height of the berm decreases the apparent bulk of the building in the eyes of neighbors and minimizes the parking lots.. Re-forested Buffer Zone.. Bike and hiking trails meander through a forested buffer zone at the property edge, while bike racks are conveniently located near the building.. These community paths encourage healthy exercise for neighbors and employees and provide opportunities for informal communication.. The buffers recreate native flora, encourage native fauna, and filter and absorb storm water, thus decreasing the size and first cost of detention basins.. Over the entire site, 3.. 5 million gallons of irrigation water are saved annually.. Site Lighting.. Bi-level site lighting tied into the central lighting control system is used, which turns off or dims non-security lights when no longer needed.. Full cut-off, energy-efficient fixtures minimize light pollution, which aids migrating birds, nocturnal fauna, and the adjacent neighborhood.. Roof Terrace and Vertical Green Wall.. The roof  ...   of American soy products instead of petroleum, was chosen for thermal efficiency.. Roofing with a high Solar Reflectance Index limits heat transfer into the building.. Mechanical and Electrical.. There are three areas of occupancy: laboratory at 26,500 net square feet (NSF), office at 46,000 NSF, and data center at 6,100 NSF.. The data center and laboratory areas use a central chiller for cooling, and the office areas use air-cooled package roof-top units.. A central hot water boiler system provides heat for the total building.. Demand ventilation saves substantial amounts of energy by using the occupancy sensors to determine ventilation.. In the laboratories, run-around coils recover heat from the exhaust air during the winter.. In the.. data center and laboratories, free-cooling condensers in chillers allow cooling with outside air when conditions warrant, resulting in free-cooling and partial free-cooling.. Also in the data center, hot aisle/cold aisle.. equipment cabinet arrangement achieves more efficient heat transfer.. Water savings of 48 percent over conventional construction are achieved by using low-flow shower, faucet, and toilet fixtures, including dual-flush automatic valves and waterless urinals.. Construction.. A rigorous Construction Air Quality and comprehensive commissioning program was developed, and a full flush-out was performed on the entire facility prior to occupancy.. A full 95 percent of construction waste was diverted from the landfill through sorting, recycling, and re-purposing materials.. Two years of excellent construction management produced a clean, green building with minimum waste in the process.. Occupancy.. Occupancy has the most environmental impact.. A sophisticated Measurement and Verification Plan tracks energy consumption by function, allowing for continuous performance improvement in the energy systems of the building.. Environmentally preferable maintenance reduces indoor air pollution while improving the quality of the wastewater.. Occupants use central recycling areas in each copy/coffee area.. Drivers of low-emissions, fuel-efficient vehicles are rewarded with preferential parking spaces.. Only one smoking area is allowed on the grounds.. An alliance of corporate policies, design decisions, and occupant education has encouraged active engagement of occupants in environmental stewardship, which is the greatest benefit of all.. David Schoenhard,.. vice president of Wulff Architects, Inc.. , has over 25 years experience in the design of office and laboratory facilities.. A frequent presenter at professional conferences and symposia, Mr.. Schoenhard is committed to the design of efficient and healthy buildings through the innovative use of materials, technology, and design techniques.. As a LEED Accredited Professional, he brings his extensive experience and knowledge of sustainability issues to major projects in the Mid-Atlantic region.. Wulff Architects, founded in Philadelphia in 1992, provides architecture, interior design, and planning services to corporate, institutional, governmental, and industrial clients..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Schaadt
    Descriptive info: CSI-Investigating Value A Case Study of the Johnson County Criminalistics Laboratory.. Michael Schaadt, AIA, LEED AP, PGAV Architects.. Chad Foster, AIA, Johnson County Kansas Facilities Management Department.. Lou Hartman, PE, LEED AP, Crime Lab Design.. Designed by PGAV Architects and Crime Lab Design, the Johnson County Sheriff s Office Criminalistics Laboratory is a 62,500-square-foot forensics laboratory in Olathe, Kansas, offering accredited forensic analysis in nine divisions, each with a unique environment.. The laboratory is designed to achieve LEED platinum certification under the NC 3.. 0 rating system.. State of the art, flexible forensic laboratory spaces were created by carefully benchmarking other facilities while identifying trends and forecasts in the field of forensic science.. The Labs21 design process and EPC credits were used as strategies to enhance the design.. To promote collaboration between the various divisions the building features a central daylit core housing open office, administration functions, conference rooms, and communal spaces, with laboratory spaces ringing the periphery.. Critical to meeting the goals of value and environmental stewardship was identifying the appropriate HVAC system for the challenging local climate.. To maximize value, a hybrid air delivery approach was chosen.. Both laboratory and office spaces are fed from the same air handling system; this reduces both first cost and energy consumption, along with simplifying maintenance and improving reliability.. In addition, office occupants benefit from much higher levels of fresh air due to sharing the system with the laboratory spaces.. To realistically target LEED platinum, it was recognized that significant energy conservation measures must be employed.. Innovative strategies ultimately resulted in a building that operates 48 percent more efficiently than a comparable baseline facility.. To address the high cost of constantly tempering incoming outside air, a 16-foot-diameter heat wheel with a 3 angstrom molecular sieve coating transfers the heat and  ...   It is sized to not only serve the Sheriff s Crime Lab but also supplement the plant operations of the adjacent County Communications Center.. The interconnection of the chilled water system between the two buildings permits an improvement of efficiency and an additional layer of plant redundancy in the Communications Center, while also providing the Sheriff s Crime Lab with increased reliability.. Additional energy conservation measures were used to push the envelope of efficiency.. The lighting control system features occupancy sensors, step dimming fixtures, daylight harvesting, and scheduled sweeps.. Where the requirements of forensic science dictated extremely high light levels, LED fixtures were used.. A rooftop photovoltaic system capable of generating up to 18.. 2 kilowatts of power when proper conditions exist was installed, and the building envelope was carefully detailed to ensure high insulation values and low air leakage rates.. The effects of these measures are tracked by an extensive metering system.. These meters will automatically place the central plant into the most sustainable operational mode, as well as provide information to the facility operators that will enable building performance optimization over the lifetime of the facility.. In addition to energy conservation features, the laboratory was constructed with an emphasis on regionally sourced materials that exhibited a high level of recycled content and low levels of VOC offgassing.. Domestic water use was greatly reduced with low and zero flow fixtures and zero irrigation landscaping.. The site is sustainably developed by managing the stormwater in a system of bioswales, raingardens, and a wetland detention basin, and by reserving space for a facility expansion on site.. The design and construction team used Revit-based BIM modeling to enhance building design, support energy modeling, eliminate construction waste, and ensure the environmental performance of one of the nation s most energy-efficient forensics laboratories..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2008 Annual Conference Highlights - Tuma, Marquez, Sego, Schmidt, Cader
    Descriptive info: Energy Efficient and Sustainable HPC at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.. Phil Tuma, P.. , 3M Corporation,.. Andrés Márquez, Ph.. D.. ,.. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,.. Landon Sego, Ph.. Roger Schmidt, Ph.. , P.. IBM Corporation, and.. Tahir Cader, Ph.. HP (formerly SprayCool).. Power consumption in US data centers has been escalating at an alarming rate.. In response to Public Law 109-431, EPA reported that electricity usage by US data centers accounted for 1.. 5% of the total electricity used in the US in 2006.. They projected that if current data center operating practices continue, electricity usage will almost double to 2.. 9% of the total electricity used in the US in 2011 (EPA, 2007).. Consequently EPA issued a call to action to both government and industry to collaborate and set aggressive goals to reduce power consumption in data centers.. In the spirit of responding to the findings and recommendations of the EPA report, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has teamed with several key organizations including: The Green Grid (TGG), ASHRAE TC9.. 9, IBM, 3M, and SprayCool.. As part of this effort, a highly instrumented liquid-cooled cluster has been installed at PNNL.. The cluster is housed in an 800 ft.. data center which resides in a mixed-use data center with a significant amount of instrumentation as well.. The eventual objective of the effort is to be able to report the real-time power consumption, energy efficiency, and productivity of the liquid-cooled data center.. Preliminary results from the effort at PNNL are reported in this paper.. Thermal results are reported for the hottest server components, including the microprocessors and memory DIMMs.. Under all conditions tested, the components have not exceeded manufacturers specifications.. More importantly, the data show that the liquid-cooled servers can be maintained within specifications while rejecting to non-chilled facility water at 78 F (25.. 6 C).. Furthermore, a reasonable extrapolation suggests that the specifications can still be maintained at 86 F (30 C).. In an effort to address global warming, work has started on the qualification of a new 3M Fluoroketone fluid that has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1.. This GWP is the lowest published value of all commercially available coolants.. Details are provided in the body of this paper.. Background.. PNNL and SprayCool have been collaborating on the development of an energy efficient data center cooling solution since 2004, and started with the conversion and testing of a rack of spray cooled HP rx2600 2U servers.. The rack was installed and run for over a year in the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility s data center.. This rack achieved an overall uptime of 96.. 9%.. This effort was followed by the installation of a rack of spray cooled HP rx1620 1U servers and a similar evaluation.. Given the performance of the cooling solution, PNNL issued a request for proposals to develop a turnkey spray cooled cluster.. IBM was the winning bidder with SprayCool the chosen cooling solution.. The decision by IBM to deliver to PNNL, in collaboration with SprayCool, a spray cooled cluster (named NW-ICE) represented a major milestone for the program.. Since the initiation of the effort, the ultimate objective has been to demonstrate the ability to raise a data center s energy efficiency through the deployment of liquid-cooled IT equipment.. With the introduction of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (Lieberman-Warner, 2007), the need to migrate to greener coolants has become a top priority.. In this paper, the authors discuss both energy efficiency and sustainability issues in high performance computing environments.. Spray Cooled NW-ICE and the ESDC-TBF.. SprayCool technology has been implemented in an IBM x3550 cluster, with the cluster installed in a small instrumented 800 ft.. data center housed within a larger mixed-use facility.. The cluster includes seven compute racks, five of which are spray cooled.. The cluster has been named NW-ICE and the data center is referred to as the Energy Smart Data Center Test Bed Facility (ESDC TBF, or simply ESDC).. Additional information on SprayCool technology, NW-ICE, and the ESDC is provided in the remainder of this section.. Description of SprayCool Technology.. Spray cooling broadly refers to the delivery of a coolant via spray, to one or more heated objects.. In the context of this paper, the cooling is of microprocessors as deployed in servers.. The technology can be implemented in a number of ways.. The two most common approaches are referred to as global spray cooling (Cader et.. al.. , 2005) and hybrid (or indirect) spray cooling (Cader et.. , 2006).. In global spray cooling, electronics such as single board computers are placed in enclosures or chassis and are directly sprayed with an electrically non-conducting fluid such as 3M s PF5060.. Upon delivery to the heated electronics, the coolant vaporizes and expands.. The vapor and unevaporated coolant are delivered to a heat exchanger for cooling and a reservoir for collection.. The fluid is then returned to the enclosure for delivery to the electronics.. The hybrid spray cooling approach refers to the fact that some of the heat from the electronics, typically the microprocessors, is removed indirectly by spray, whereas the balance of the electronics are cooled with air.. The indirect heat removal refers to the fact that the microprocessors are cooled with spray cooled cold plates that are placed directly on the microprocessors.. Similarly to the global cooling approach, the indirect spray cooling implementation is done in a closed loop fashion, also relying on a heat exchanger for heat rejection, a reservoir for fluid collection, and a pump for fluid delivery.. Description of NW-ICE.. NW-ICE consists of 195 x 1U dual socket, quad-core Intel Xeon (Clovertown), IBM x3550 servers.. The servers are housed in seven IBM 19 42U equipment racks with a maximum of 28 servers per rack.. The computational network is routed through a DDR2 Infiniband switch which is housed in a separate rack, while the management IP network operates across seven rack-mounted HP switches.. In addition to the management network, each node of the NW-ICE computer can be addressed via five terminal servers.. NW-ICE, assembled via a joint-effort between IBM and SprayCool, is a turn-key solution delivered to PNNL.. System benchmarking done with High Performance Linpack (HPL) clocks a minimum sustained performance of 9.. 3 TFlops.. Five of the seven compute racks are spray cooled, with two of the racks left unmodified to compare air-cooling to liquid-cooling.. Description of the ESDC.. The ESDC (Figure 1) is a state-of-the-art 800ft.. data center housed in PNNL s Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF), which in turn is located in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab (EMSL).. The ESDC is located adjacent to MSCF s prominent 163TF HP supercomputer, sharing power and cooling infrastructure.. The shared components include chillers, chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, cooling towers, and other utilities.. The uniqueness of the ESDC is that it is a true research-dedicated data center housed in a mixed-use facility.. Standard air-cooling in the ESDC is provided by two nominal 30 ton air handler systems, located at opposite ends of the room.. Figure 1: Photograph of NW-ICE installed in the ESDC (HX = heat exchanger).. The ESDC is completely instrumented to measure power delivered to each server, power delivered to each rack, water flow rate delivered to each rack, water temperature, water temperature rise, power consumption by each air handler, and power delivered before and after each power distribution unit.. Close to  ...   use in SprayCool systems.. Figure 4 highlights the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of several commercially available fluids.. The two most attractive fluids, from the standpoint of acceptable GWPs, are Fluoroketones (C6K) and Hydrofluoro-olefins (HFO-1234yf).. The Hydrofluoro-olefins, while attractive from the standpoint of their thermophysical properties, have an unacceptably high vapor pressure in the preferred operating temperature range for SprayCool systems.. The Fluoroketone C6K, along with another related compound with a higher boiling point, is attractive from the standpoint of the thermophysical properties, as well as the vapor pressure in the preferred operating temperature range.. Fluid qualification in SprayCool systems is currently underway, and results will be reported in an upcoming publication.. Figure 4: Comparative Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of new and commercially significant compounds.. Concluding Remarks.. In addition to the concern of global warming, power consumption in data centers is an issue of critical importance in the US and other countries the world over.. In this paper, the authors document an effort to address both areas of concern.. The liquid-cooled cluster, NW-ICE, installed at PNNL has been operational for almost two years, with a number of production jobs running during the last year.. Two key objectives of the undertaking have been to demonstrate 1) the viability, and 2) the energy efficiency of a liquid-cooled cluster.. The viability of the cooling solution has been demonstrated by the cluster operating in both developmental and production modes with minimal downtime.. Proving the energy efficiency of the solution remains a work-in-progress.. The experimental results to-date suggest the ability to reject the processor waste heat to 30 C cooling tower water.. Consequently, spray cooled processors would not require chilled water, thereby reducing the load on the chiller plant.. Finally, work is underway to demonstrate the ability to migrate from the current perfluorocarbon coolant to a green Fluoroketone coolant.. The selected coolant has a global warming potential of 1, which is the lowest published value of all commercially available coolants.. REFERENCES.. Cader, T.. , Tolman, B.. , Kabrell, C.. , and Krishnan, S.. , 2005, SprayCool Thermal Management for Dense Stacked Memory, proceedings of IMECE 2005, paper # IMECE2005-81692, Orlando (FL).. , Westra, L.. , Marquez, A.. , McAllister, H.. , and Regimbal, K.. , 2006, Performance of a Rack of Liquid-Cooled Servers, ASHRAE Journal paper #DA-07-12.. CARB, 2007, Expanded List of Early Action Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in California Recommended for Board Consideration, California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board, September 2007.. US EPA, 2007, GreenChill Partnership.. See also:.. epa.. gov/ozone/partnerships/greenchill/.. US EPA, 2007, Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency in response to Public Law 109-431, August 2, 2007.. energystar.. gov/index.. cfm?c=prod_development.. server_efficiency_study.. Lieberman-Warner, 2007, Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act (S.. 2191).. Footnote 1: The water temperature refers to the temperature of the water delivered to the spray cooled racks.. The water is used to remove the CPU waste heat via a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger located in the bottom of each rack.. Footnote 2: Each node uses 6 DIMMs, with the DIMMs numbered sequentially from DIMM1 through DIMM6.. Phillip Tuma, P.. is an advanced application development specialist in the Electronics Markets Materials Division of 3M Company.. He has worked for 13 years developing applications for fluorinated heat transfer fluids in various industries, including military and aerospace electronics, supercomputers, lasers, pharmaceuticals, and semiconductor manufacturing.. Tuma received a B.. A.. from the University of St.. Thomas, a B.. M.. from the University of Minnesota and a M.. from Arizona State University.. Dr.. Andrés Márquez.. is the Principal Investigator for the Energy Smart Data Center project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).. He is the lead hardware architect for the Data Intensive Computing Initiative at the laboratory.. He also acts as a scientist at the Center of Adaptive Software Systems and the Exascale Computing Initiative.. Marquez is a high performance computer and compiler architect who has worked on the development of the German Supercomputers SUPRENUM and MANNA, on the GENESIS European Supercomputer design studies, on US Supercomputer design studies for the Hybrid Technology and Multithreaded Technology (HTMT) computer (funded by NASA, DARPA, NSA, JPL) and on academic high performance computing projects such as the Efficient Architecture for Running Threads (EARTH) and the Compiler Aided Reorder Engine (CARE).. He has published over 30 peer reviewed papers in journals and conferences in the fields of hardware-, software- and systems- architecture as well as IT infrastructure.. Landon Sego.. is a collaborative scientist for the Energy Smart Data Center (ESDC) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).. His doctoral research focused on statistical methods for health care surveillance and the monitoring of rare events.. His areas of statistical expertise also include experimental design, quality control, statistical programming, and methodologies which account for less-than-detect data.. While at PNNL, Dr.. Sego has provided statistical consultation in the design and analysis of experiments involving staff training, graphical user interfaces, and the ESDC.. As a graduate student, he provided statistical consultation in the design and analysis of experiments for graduate students and faculty in the Agricultural, Biological, Veterinary, and Engineering sciences.. Sego also consulted with Bank of America developing statistical methodology and customized software to improve the quality of the information used to guide investment strategies.. He has authored (or co-authored) a number of journal articles and presentations in both statistical journals and other subject areas.. Roger R.. Schmidt,.. Distinguished Engineer, National Academy of Engineering Member, IBM Academy of Technology Member and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Fellow, has over 30 years of experience in engineering and engineering management in the thermal design of IBM s large-scale computers.. He has led development teams in cooling mainframes, client/servers, parallel processors and test equipment utilizing such cooling mediums as air, water, and refrigerants.. He has published more than 100 technical papers and holds 96 patents/patents pending in the area of electronics cooling.. He is a member of ASME s Heat Transfer Division and an active member of the K-16 Electronics Cooling Committee.. He has been an Associate Editor of the Journal of Electronics Packaging and is now associate editor of the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer.. He has taught extensively over the past 25 years Mechanical Engineering courses for prospective Professional Engineers and has given seminars on electronics cooling at a number of universities.. He is Chair of the ASHRAE TC9.. 9 committee on Mission Critical Facilities, Technology Spaces, and Electronic Equipment.. Tahir Cader.. is an alternate director of The Green Grid, is a member of The Green Grid s Technical and Liaison Committees, and is a member of ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.. 9.. At SprayCool, Dr.. Cader serves as Technical Director.. His areas of emphasis include high performance computing and commercial data centers, as well as system architecture development for telecom, semiconductor test, and other emerging market opportunities for SprayCool s liquid-cooling technology.. With over 14 years in the high tech industry, he has served on several industry electronics packaging and thermal management panels, has been a member of the organizing committee for several technical conferences, and has served as session chair/co-chair for several technical conferences.. Cader is both a sole inventor as well as a co-inventor on 15 SprayCool patents issued, a sole/co-inventor on 12 filed SprayCool patents, and a co-author for more than 40 peer-reviewed journal, conference, and trade journal technical articles.. He is also a significant contributor to several published ASHRAE Datacom Series books..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Labs21 2007 Annual Conference Highlights - Rumsey, Berry
    Descriptive info: Energy Efficiency in Vivariums.. Peter Rumsey.. , Rumsey Engineers, and.. Glen Berry.. , Design for Science.. Building efficient laboratories can be a challenge, but vivariums present an even bigger challenge.. With their higher demands for temperature stability and humidity control, as well as for energy, they are more difficult to design than other facilities.. Despite these challenges, there are many opportunities for successful efficient design.. Vivariums can be two to three times more energy intensive than laboratories, as they typically have higher air change rates and use more steam and energy for cage rack cleaning and sterilization.. Traditional practice usually places safety and performance above all other concerns, at the expense of energy efficiency.. Most facilities managers, owners, and engineers have a belt and suspenders design mentality: if one is good, two must be better.. Vivariums in a large holding room.. Transgenic mice are the next big thing in biotech laboratory research, and to some extent this is driving the exploding need for vivariums.. These are mice without immune systems they are useful for research because they die at the slightest infection.. Researchers inject different materials to determine what reaction causes death.. If there s an outbreak, however, the potential problem is that all the mice die.. Therefore, barrier control and optimal airflow are at a premium.. Some of the design strategies that have been effectively employed in efficient vivariums include: lowering minimum air change rates; using computational fluid dynamics modeling to optimize airflow; specifying highly efficient air handling equipment; minimizing reheat; and selecting highly efficient cage rack cleaning systems and tunnel washers.. The selection  ...   president of Rumsey Engineers, Inc.. , is a global player in energy efficiency, with over 20 years of experience in a broad range of government, scientific, and private sector projects.. His expertise includes design of efficient HVAC systems and energy monitoring systems in commercial buildings and critical environments, management of project teams, and analysis of design options using computer simulation tools.. Peter has published many papers on energy efficiency and HVAC issues.. Before founding Rumsey Engineers, he held engineering and management positions at Sol*Arc Architects, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, XENERGY Energy Consultants, the International Institute for Energy Conservation, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company.. Rumsey has a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley, and is a registered mechanical engineer in 11 states, including California, Arizona, and Texas.. He is a Certified Energy Manager and an active member of ASHRAE and the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE).. The AEE San Francisco Bay Area Chapter named Peter Energy Engineer of the Year in 2001.. is the president and founder of Design for Science.. Berry has specialized in the programming, planning, and design of science buildings since 1986.. He holds a Master of Architecture degree from the University of Utah (1988) and a Bachelor of Arts degree in design from Brigham Young University (1983).. Berry is a registered architect in Utah and Nevada, and is certified with the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards.. Prior to founding Design for Science in June 2000, Mr.. Berry was a principal with Hellmuth Obata + Kassabaum, GPR Planners Collaborative, and Research Facilities Design..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Laboratory Design Newsletter 2012 Selected Abstract - Alcorn
    Descriptive info: Fact or Fiction: Water Conservation Strategies in the Southwestern U.. Reveal a Glimmer of Hope.. Mara Baum.. , AIA, LEED AP.. BD+C, and.. Gabriel Cervantes.. , LEED AP, HOK.. The Scripps Institute of Oceanography has reported that the lifeline for the Southwest the Colorado River and Lake Meade water distribution systems will soon teeter at the brink of failure.. In an effort to discover and outline the current trends in laboratory water conservation in the extremely dry southwestern U.. , the presenters developed a series of questions and surveyed a range of laboratory stakeholders in southern California, Nevada, and Arizona.. They then produced an in-depth study of the responses and presented them at the Labs21 2012 Annual Conference.. Because laboratory facilities' cooling and process loads require a significant amount of water, compared with other building types, they are at a higher risk in a future of uncertain water supply and increasing water rates.. Despite this, anecdotal evidence suggests that recent and currently planned laboratory projects in the Lower Basin incorporate only minimal water conservation measures.. Based on interviews with laboratory personnel representing public university, private university, corporate, and government facilities, the presenters were able to acquire an understanding of how these water issues are being addressed by laboratories relative to facility type and ownership (public vs.. private).. The questions that presenters sought to answer included:.. Are most laboratories pursuing water conservation?.. What are motivations behind the decision to pursue or not pursue water conservation?.. Do trends in water conservation approaches vary by owner?.. What are the strategies being used for water conservation?.. As a result of the study, the presenters were able to establish the trends that show which water conservation technologies and strategies are common to the region, as well as the underlying motivational factors behind their use, and noteworthy facility examples.. The trends that they were able to identify suggested that all facilities work to conserve water, and that 75 percent of those surveyed indicated that conservation is very important in decision making.. Further, they established that retrofits are very common in facilities in this region.. One of the discovered trends was that government-owned facilities, above all other ownership types, were more likely mandated by regulations to conserve water.. In contrast, non-government-owned  ...   lab facilities, non-laboratory-specific conservation measures are the most common.. Additionally, most facilities use very little once-through cooling water.. Beyond that, there were not many consistent trends in strategy selection for water conservation in the region, other than the almost nonexistent use of rainwater harvesting given low precipitation.. Ultimately, water conservation is a significant issue and one that is top of mind in all laboratory facilities; unfortunately the solutions are not simple, and there is a long way to go to finding consistent techniques that will conserve water.. is HOK's firm-wide healthcare sustainable design leader.. Ms.. Baum oversees sustainability implementation, research, and education across HOK's global healthcare market sector, also providing support to science and technology projects.. A thought leader and researcher in the sustainable design field, Ms.. Baum speaks regularly at regional, national, and international conferences, including the American Institute of Architects Convention, Greenbuild, the California Higher Education Sustainability Conference, Living Future, and others.. She is also on the faculty of Boston Architectural College and recently co-authored the.. Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50 Percent Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building.. She holds a Masters of Architecture and a Masters of City and Regional Planning from the University of California, Berkeley.. A LEED AP since 2001, her experience with LEED.. and Green Guide for Healthcare projects covers tens of millions of square feet.. is a project manager, laboratory planner, and project architect, as well as a California-registered architect with HOK who offers more than 20 years of professional experience with an emphasis on research facilities.. His involvement in projects of high complexity, such as the new William Eckhart Research facility at the University of Chicago, or the Convergence of Molecular Science and Engineering Research Building at the University of Southern California, gives him a depth of technical expertise that he brings to each project.. Cervantes is committed to collaboration and open communication, particularly given the complex requirements of research facilities.. Whereas all projects he undertakes are designed for highest levels of sustainability, he is ultimately in pursuit of creating net zero energy buildings.. Cervantes received a Bachelor of Arts in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Masters of Architecture from the University of California, Los Angeles..

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  • Title: I2SL: E-Library - Highlights from IASP Meeting 2009
    Descriptive info: How Sustainability Advances Science Parks, Their Users, Communities, and Investors.. Phil Wirdzek.. , International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories and.. Lisa Galley.. , Galley Eco Capital.. Executive Summary.. Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21.. ), a U.. government program, is rooted in an awareness that, as a building type, the laboratory demands our attention: what the cathedral was to the 14th century, the train station was to the 19th century, and the office building was to the 20th century, the laboratory is to the 21st century.. That is, it is the building type that embodies, in both program and technology, the spirit and culture of our age and attracts some of the greatest intellectual and economic resources of our society.. Unfortunately, laboratories are also major consumers of resources.. Among these necessary resources is the substantial financial investment to design and construct a laboratory, which exceeds that for commercial buildings in several ways.. ,.. The Labs21 energy benchmarking tool.. shows that the energy intensity of a lab can be three to eight times that of an office building and, depending on the science activities and the building's age, can even exceed this range.. In addition, lab management and operations require highly experienced and educated operators and building engineers.. Water consumption and waste water discharges can also be substantial, due to round-the-clock mechanical operations, process equipment cooling, animal care, and more.. Adding solid and hazardous waste management to operations expands the resource impact.. Together, this list begins to convey a story of major lifetime costs resulting from an initial capital investment to build a laboratory.. Logically, it can be argued that science parks are defined by their laboratories.. Clustering intellectual might into a physical locus increases scientific rigor, promotes direct and personal interactions, encourages multi-disciplinary research, expands individual expectations, and much more.. However, this arrangement can place great demands on regional resources, impacting infrastructural systems such as utilities and community-based services.. This impact can be further magnified as cleanrooms, data centers, healthcare, fabrication labs, and other high-technology facilities and industry partners are, by necessity, attracted to or brought into the science park.. Currently, although the weakened U.. economy is forcing U.. real estate owners to fight to keep their properties profitable, interest in sustainability generally and green building in particular continues to grow considerably, bolstered by public awareness, an emerging national energy agenda, published evidence of a positive business case, and qualitative benefits.. Science parks' comparatively higher fixed costs present on its face a somewhat riskier business model than typical investment commercial real estate, but they have entered a time of unique opportunities.. Their greater resource intensity and longer term focus of ownership, coupled with the recent passage of significant federal stimulus legislation with its dominant focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy and technology create an environment where sustainability initiatives can help grow the bottom line and increase science park competitiveness and contribution to community.. Successfully achieving that green business case, however, requires that the operational, investment, and finance processes within science parks be adapted for sustainability as well.. This paper introduces the IASP community to the mission and applicability of the Labs21 program.. It uses Labs21 as a foundation to promote sustainable master planning and the need to design and engineer science parks and their client facilities to meet a sustainable energy and environmental future.. It also describes the economic realities to be considered by investors and developers for creating sustainable science parks.. Like any complex system, the survival and usefulness of a science park demands flexibility, adaptability, and efficiency in all aspects of its being.. The world is facing a future of challenges that are dictated by population growth, economic re-positioning, resource consumption, and environmental instability.. Unlike a single laboratory facility, science parks have the unique opportunity to embrace a very dramatic vision for the future one that is dynamic, resourceful, and attractive, requiring a bold approach to place a value on these challenges in the world of financial investing.. The Labs21 movement in the United States has captured global interest and is the opportunity upon which to address sustainable science parks.. With this paper, the authors wish to engage the IASP community in collaboration to support sustainable choices and generate the considerable influence sustainable science parks can offer one another and the built environment itself.. Part I: Sustainable Laboratories Increasing Value, Decreasing Costs.. Can laboratories be designed and operated to positively contribute to the goals of sustainability? Clearly, laboratories are not spec buildings, nor are they identical in design, engineering, or use.. Whether for industry, government, or academia, they must not be viewed as financial investments for profit taking.. They are each, by necessity and purpose, custom designed, engineered, built, and operated.. They require a long-term financial commitment and are expected to have a useful life of several decades.. As such, they will obligate owners and investors to considerable costs and risks throughout their life cycle and disposal.. Their design and engineering also place a long-term demand on local and regional utilities, community services, natural resources, and infrastructural support.. Laboratory activities span a wide spectrum anything imaginable is possible and buildings are often altered throughout their lives to accommodate users' new and changing requirements.. These changes are both systemic (e.. , HVAC modifications, utility service enhancement, new laboratory equipment) and cosmetic (e.. , walls and partitions, re-surfacing, non-lab space reconfiguring), and they can occur often.. Such changes must ensure continued health and safety for users and occupants, ensure functionality of facility systems, and support the work for which the changes were implemented.. Image of a laboratory workspace.. As laboratories are created to support science and discovery, the level of increasing sophistication in scientific equipment, laboratory technologies, and machinery also advances and on a scale of acceleration that challenges a building s designed and engineered capacities.. Often, and as a result of scientific necessity, lab equipment and machinery that might not be available or affordable will be modified and re-constructed by the users themselves to achieve their objectives.. This action might occur without consideration to the building s service capabilities.. With few exceptions, laboratory safety, efficiency, and operational effectiveness are readily affected by laboratory users.. Simply opening or closing a fume cupboard or a lab door affects the laboratory's performance on a minute-to-minute basis and over many years.. Laboratory owners and owner representatives often have little, if any, knowledge or control of the user activities.. Communication among facility engineers, owner representatives, and users might occur only on a need-to-know basis, often determined only by the user.. Taken together, these elements magnify the risks of losing control and operational integrity of a laboratory, which affects operational costs, safety, resource consumption, and the need for costly capital repairs and improvements.. Those working to build or alter an existing laboratory to achieve specific sustainable goals must fully appreciate these significant forces within the context of the laboratory's lifetime purpose and yet accommodate the unexpected shift in future missions.. Often, a natural tendency is to over-design, over-engineer, or over-size laboratories to allow for the unknown and address users flexibility demands.. Though this is a reasonable approach, it can increase the capital cost, lifetime operational, and maintenance expenditures and place a greater demand on resources.. Solutions to these and many other challenges are being pursued and, through the coordinating efforts of the Laboratories for the 21.. st.. Century (Labs21.. ) program, are shared and evaluated by this industry.. Laboratories for the 21.. ) A Backbone of Sustainable Science Park Planning.. Labs21 was launched in response to U.. legislation to improve energy efficiency within the federal government.. It is a voluntary partnership program cosponsored by the U.. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), conceived as an open forum for the exchange of energy efficient laboratory strategies and sustainable environmental solutions that were not readily shared within or implemented by the U.. laboratory community.. By working with the U.. laboratory industry, Labs21 became the leading forum for the exchange of strategies, solutions, experiences, and know-how throughout the U.. industry.. Using Labs21 to encourage this exchange, EPA and DOE recorded the information and documented examples where such solutions were applied.. The agencies have continued this effort and, in collaboration with others, are adding new studies, tools, training materials, and analyses to encourage increasing energy efficient and environmentally sustainable laboratories.. Labs21 provides three areas of participation for the laboratory community.. These include 1) a voluntary partnership opportunity, 2) technical tools and resources, and 3) training and education.. The voluntary partnership component is a relationship with the federal cosponsors in which lab facility owners gain access to technical support provided by the cosponsoring agencies.. In this relationship, partners agree to set energy and environmental goals for new or existing laboratory projects and to document progress toward meeting those goals.. Partners are expected to present progress on projects at annual Labs21 conferences and, when completed, work with the agencies to develop case studies.. For their part, EPA and DOE use the partner projects as one of many sources of information for technical tools and resources, such as case studies and best practices, which capture the experiences of the partners.. Through these agencies, Labs21 has accumulated a considerable base of information, which is offered through a Labs21 toolkit.. and other online resources.. The toolkit and resources include not only the partner case studies and best practices but also design assistance tools, literature reviews, an energy benchmarking system for labs, and much more.. As for training and education, Labs21 uses these materials to create the Labs21 training workshops, of which four are currently available and several others are in development.. These workshops include an introductory design and engineering course, an advanced lab HVAC workshop, an operation and maintenance course, and a workshop offering a guide for sustainability.. Furthermore, through a new agreement with the International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories (I.. SL), the Labs21 workshops and annual conference are being expanded to reach an international audience and expanded facility types, including healthcare, data centers, and cleanrooms.. Through I.. SL and its new partnership with the American Institute of Architects (AIA).. , comprehensive and living laboratory design and planning guidelines are being developed to integrate the building strategies that will offer a sustainable approach for laboratories to meet global building challenges.. The annual conference, which attracts experts from the national and international laboratory building community and is cosponsored by I.. SL and the federal agencies, promotes Labs21 and the program's energy efficiency and sustainable environmental practices.. From architects to users, from laboratories to data centers, the conference enables networking and the exchange of information.. The conference provides interactive meetings on special topics such as onsite renewable power systems, water management, ventilation strategies for hospitals, high-containment labs, K-12 learning labs, and much more.. Many sessions feature presentations from around the world and have included Singapore, Europe, Australia, and the Middle East.. The annual event is held in different U.. locations to promote the greatest level of information exchange.. The Labs 21 program emulates and builds on the U.. Green Building Council s very successful Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED.. ).. The LEED system provides a guide for the building industry for setting energy and environmental goals.. LEED establishes a variety of building attributes for specific categories that address sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality.. A point-based system within each category provides designers with guidance for pursuing energy efficiency and environmental sustainability with many building types.. LEED therefore provides an early road-map for owners and designers to set goals and measure their progress through construction.. As such, the LEED system has become the benchmark for buildings within the United States.. The LEED criteria do not completely address the unique characteristics of laboratories, however.. Recognizing this opportunity, Labs21 created a system to integrate with the LEED structure, adding a new set of criteria that addresses the unique characteristics present in laboratory buildings.. The Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria (EPC) is a consensus-based set of criteria developed by members of the Labs21 community that expands on LEED and now provides guidance for goal setting by laboratory owners and designers.. In combination with LEED, the EPC offers decision-makers a clear pathway to energy efficiency and increased environmental performance goals for laboratories.. Sustainability Investments and the Rate of Return.. Do sustainability investments provide a return? Yes.. The Labs21 case studies and best practices guides, as well as the increasing numbers of accounts in trade literature such as R D Magazine, Engineered Systems, Sustainable Facilities, and others, describe such results.. For example, Figure 1 shows the added costs for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Science and Technology Facility (S TF) in Golden, Colorado, which lists all the energy improvements and their incremental capital costs.. Most of these energy savings measures had fairly a quick payback, especially given that this facility is expected to be owned by NREL for several decades.. Payback Versus Cost for Additional Energy Conservation Measure for NREL S TF.. The payback can be recognized through other measures, however not just financial.. As a long-term asset, a sustainable laboratory is flexible and its limits uncompromised, attracting and retaining the best talents, providing user convenience and comforts safely, and ensuing an informed and intelligent interaction among the building, the user, and the operator throughout its useful life.. Lab Building O M Costs.. The Labs21 case studies (representing the labs that have taken measures to save energy) show that the energy cost for operating an energy efficient lab building are in the range of $3 to $4 per square foot annually.. This cost becomes especially noteworthy where energy costs are high, such as those reported by Cornell University where energy costs can be nearly 10 times the custodial and maintenance costs combined (see Figures 2 and 3).. Compare this to the energy costs of a new office building designed to meet the latest ASHRAE standards, which is approximately $0.. 77 per square foot annually.. Figure 3.. O M Costs From a Sample of Cornell Laboratory Buildings.. Description.. Maintenance $.. Custodial $.. Utility $.. Total O M.. Year Built.. Gross SF.. Geology T R.. $1.. 55.. 04.. $4.. 12.. $6.. 71.. 1984.. 75,000.. Physics research.. 24.. 26.. 99.. $9.. 49.. 1965.. 250,000.. Engineering T R.. $0.. 60.. 83.. 44.. 87.. 1955.. 100,000.. Biotech research.. 82.. $5.. 08.. $7.. 50.. 1987.. 175,000.. Chemistry T R.. 38.. 09.. 92.. 39.. 1921.. 233,000.. 37.. 28.. $8.. 64.. 1942.. 130,000.. Materials research.. $2.. 30.. 23.. 54.. $10.. 07.. 1963.. 50,000.. Chemistry research.. 78.. $11.. $14.. 88.. 1967.. 106,000.. Nano research.. 42.. 94.. $16.. $19.. 74.. 2004.. 150,000.. Averages.. 97.. 20.. $12.. (These data are for fiscal year 2007).. The Outlook for Sustainable Science Parks.. Given that laboratories can be sustainable, what about other extreme building types such as data centers and cleanrooms, for example? Organizations like Green Grid and Critical Facilities Roundtable are pursuing sustainable outcomes in these facilities and are considering similar criteria as the Labs21 EPC to set goals and record success.. But, when aggregated into a single campus setting, such as a science park, what sustainable expectations can be met and what are the possibilities?.. Simply put, if labs, data centers and other high-technology facilities can find their way to sustainability, then the science park can embrace these objectives as well.. Investors and developers can provide considerable reinforcement to the sustainability goals of their individual clients.. They can establish a campus sustainability code of ethics for clients.. By coordinating goal setting, planning alternative utility  ...   their sustainability programs:.. Higher Operational Risk and Constrained Funding Sources:.. The fact that science parks studied have an 86-percent average occupancy and can expand an additional 151 million square feet suggests that these properties are already burdened with high carrying costs, in the form of vacant available space and land banking for future expansions.. Much like hotels, nursing homes, and other highly real estate dependent operating businesses, science parks must manage a very high degree operating leverage.. Sustainability Decisions Should Fit Ownership Objectives:.. The ownership structure of science park properties is more often that of a long-term hold as compared with typical commercial property owners.. This means that sustainability investment decisions need to emphasize the cost/benefits over the lifetime of the assets being evaluated.. Greater Resource Intensity Means a Greater Green Business Case:.. As detailed in Section 1, science park properties typically contain many more resource intense elements than those found in conventionally built commercial properties.. Reducing resource intensity therefore, becomes a great business opportunity, since properties can yield even larger (or quicker) investment results than similar measures at conventional properties.. Considering the previous point about their comparatively high fixed costs, every dollar saved or avoided through greater resource, operational and maintenance efficiencies is disproportionately rewarded in the project s net cash flow.. Unique, Large Funding Opportunities Tied to Energy Efficiency Sustainability:.. While much of the research indicates that science park managers are experiencing funding challenges, the recent passage of ARRA contains hundreds of billions of dollars which should fund infrastructure, energy, and science.. Science parks are partners with many of the federal agencies, state and local governments as well as landlords to tenants who will all be direct recipients of federal stimulus dollars.. The federal government has made repeated announcements that much of the funding will focus on increasing energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy.. Science park owners and managers will undoubtedly be working to understand the various sustainability-related requirements with the many sources of federal stimulus funding, in order to make sure their parks obtain any funds they may qualify for.. Connecting Doing Well with Doing Good in Science Parks: The Finance Hurdle.. The previous section summarizes the particular business issues and advantages that science parks might encounter when pursuing a sustainability program; however, the success of any capital initiative depends as much on its process as its outcome.. For science parks, like many other property types pursuing sustainability, their finance and investment processes may need greening to make sure the good decisions are as sustainable as the properties themselves.. The typical capital raise and investment process within many campus communities reveals industry standard processes that inadvertently hinder sustainability and, ironically, derail realizing the very financial efficiencies and opportunities that the science park owner may seek.. In Galley Eco Capital's work with real estate investors and their partners, it has been observed that these problems typically stem from 1) not knowing enough about sustainability, 2) not understanding how to value the opportunity and/or 3) insufficient accountability for and measurement of environmental performance within the project portfolio.. Below is a breakdown of the many ways in which these symptoms can manifest:.. Area of Need.. Symptoms.. Need for Education.. Investment decision-makers are not knowledgeable about sustainability in a campus setting.. Investment team is not integrated into the sustainability planning process early enough to obtain and provide input on financial matters.. The outside financial partners of the science park (key donors, local/state agencies, tenants, equity investors, contractors) have not expressed interest in sustainability, which silently pressures the investment team to avoid inclusion of sustainability choices within finance.. Need for Accountability.. No explicit policy requirement exists that ties financial decisions to positive environmental outcomes.. Need for Better Opportunity and Risk Evaluation.. Capital planning does not include comprehensive sourcing of monetary and non-monetary incentives, which may subsidize a portion of the costs of greening buildings.. Capital decisions do not assess environmental regulatory risk (e.. , potential carbon emissions costs, mandated energy reporting).. Capital decisions are based on short, undifferentiated payback periods.. Capital decisions are too narrowly focused on first cost considerations, without the balance of benefits being obtained in exchange for costs.. Valuation of buildings typically excludes consideration of many green features (renewable energy, advanced water and building controls).. Underwriting of building projects (particularly multi-tenant buildings) does not include an assessment of the impact of the third-party rating system criteria across the pro forma income and expense projections.. Financial decisions narrowly focus on impacts of sustainability on owner finances, not the business case of other stakeholders tenants and community (e.. , site selection that increases commutes).. Need for Feedback Loop to Assess Effectiveness.. There is no benchmarking, measurement, and verification of the existing portfolio of campus buildings.. The investment team has no data history that supports sustainability choices.. Ongoing management reporting does not detail environmental and social outcomes alongside financial results.. Addressing these types of challenges constructively requires science park owners and managers to adapt their current finance and investment processes to include green finance features, which help them to better identify and capture the economic benefits associated with a sustainability program.. This paper discusses some of the more critical of these issues in the following sections.. Green Finance.. Based on work to date, Galley Eco Capital has defined green finance as a system of public and private market mechanisms that promote the finance of sustainable real estate.. Green finance has three core qualities:.. Rewards Resource Value:.. Green property construction and operations attempt, as much as possible, to direct the wise use of natural resources, since the failure to do so results in a high permanent costs to the property owner, tenants, and surrounding community.. This means that green financing sources, whether internal and external, take into account the responsible use of resources within their decision making criteria.. Intentional:.. The green capital provider seeks sustainable outcomes, in addition to economic ones.. One example might be an equity source that has earmarked funds at market returns for a LEED-Gold asset, a state bond initiative that funds school energy efficiency retrofits, or the campus adherence to triple bottom line criteria, such as fair wage and healthcare policies for all workers.. Integrative:.. Doing green finance successfully involves combining applicable regulations, incentives from multiple jurisdictions, ratings standards of third-party organizations, and even triple bottom line investment criteria.. At its heart, a green finance program advances the science park's sustainability by directly tying capital raising and funding decisions to environmental and social value created (or negative outcomes avoided).. The resulting benefits for the investment team might be accessing new funding contingent upon meeting sustainable investing requirements, a higher return on investment from lower operating costs, regulatory risk reduction or greater financial efficiency getting more done with the same revenue base.. Green finance can take several forms; for example:.. The pooling of avoided costs (such as avoided energy and water rate hikes) and savings from capital programs in order to pay for newer projects, conserving the deployment of fresh capital.. Winning outside capital, from a source with allocated funds earmarked for property built using a third-party green building rating criteria.. The sourcing of funding from incentives and grants structured to help pay for green features.. A series of analytical protocols that aid the assessment of environmental outcomes alongside financial ones.. A system of measuring and quantifying the economics associated with resource savings can also provide a basis for structuring deals popular with university and corporate owners, such as sale leasebacks or build to suit real estate.. Applying Green Finance Strategies to Sustainable Science Parks.. Figure 4.. Applying Green Finance to Sustainable Science Parks.. Figure 4 shows how applying green finance assessments and tools can assist the investment team in isolating efficiency and cash flow opportunities within a science park s sustainability strategy.. Essentially, the model details several ways in which positive environmental outcomes can be monetized to the park's benefit.. Note that it does not expressly mention any costs or savings associated with carbon emissions.. It is assumed that, if carbon regulations were introduced, then conventional building owners would see carbon tax costs flow through operating expenses, in addition to having their building assessed with additional investment risk in any future appraisal lowering its value.. In that scenario, the sustainable science park owner would realize the avoided cost of carbon emissions via lower operating costs and an avoidance of a discount to value tied to no carbon risk.. Tips for Getting Started with Green Finance.. Following is a list of low-level easy as well as larger organizational initiatives that can help science park owners and managers to more effectively connect their finance and investment processes with their sustainability initiatives:.. Include life cycle cost analysis within investment decision-making:.. Life cycle cost analysis compares the total costs of a project over its lifetime with the benefits it creates.. It is the most widely accepted industry protocol for assessing environmental outcomes alongside financial ones.. Do not use a one size fits all payback periods:.. Using a single payback metric of two to three years is flawed because it assumes that the risks of all projects are equal (they are not), and it also forgoes assessing the likelihood of achieving the desired budget and environmental outcomes.. Sustainability projects displaying a high probability of achieving the desired outcomes within budget but having a longer payback may be better than shorter paybacks with a lower probability of realizing desired outcomes.. Multiple payback periods are also appropriate, which will result in the benefits from projects with shorter paybacks financing others with longer paybacks.. Underwrite energy and water efficiency to the green rating standard being achieved:.. This is the low-hanging fruit of the green project s investment pro forma.. For example, if the science park is building to LEED-NC v2.. 2 standards, then achieving the credits associated with Energy and Atmosphere and Water Efficiency credits will almost certainly require a review of the anticipated energy and water use and a recalculation of same within the project investment.. pro forma.. Understand Revenue/Expense Synergies when Underwriting:.. Similar to integrated design, sustainable projects generate benefits that come from a whole system of interactions which often reflect in the cash flow.. For example, water savings typically help reduce other energy costs.. Commissioning not only results in lower repair and maintenance costs over the project's life, but also a lower capital repair budget, due to longer equipment life.. In multi-tenant rental settings, green buildings may not always generate rental premiums above their peers, but tenants clearly prefer them, which reduces vacancy costs due to faster leaseup and higher retention rates.. Understand how incentives affect science park owners and its partners:.. The work of many science park owners and managers will increasingly focus on the combination of incentives with other forms of financing that are expressly target the greening of properties.. For example, the National Institutes of Health announced that the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act contains $10.. 4 billion allocated to the NIH for the next two years, within which is $1 billion for extramural repairs, construction and alteration, $500 million for the renovation and new construction of NIH facilities and $300 million in shared instrumentation and capital equipment.. 23.. Many nonprofit science park owners assume that their lack of tax liability precludes their projects from taking advantage of incentives.. Many others are aware of a few, but do not have time to search comprehensively.. They may also overlook that fact that many incentives (such as the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005) are structured so that a key partner, such as a general contractor may be able to claim the incentive instead creating a valuable contract bargaining point.. Create an internal investment fund around operational, energy and water savings and avoided costs:.. The best way to make sure that your investment process is identifying and benefiting from most green efficiencies possible is to explicitly measure and pool these financial opportunities together and have a sub-process for discretely allocating those funds.. Make them a reporting requirement on par with all other income and expenses.. This will require a little extra effort at first, but it will get everyone s attention.. Of course, this requires implementation of the next suggestion, benchmarking.. Establish a portfolio wide benchmarking, measurement and verification of building performance:.. Start a benchmarking process along with continuous monitoring and verification of building performance within your existing building portfolio.. This will help you to make future green finance decisions based upon knowledge of areas of financial success within your existing portfolio.. The first part of this paper laid out the potential cost reductions and financial opportunities for laboratories built using Labs21 EPC criteria.. This portion of the paper explored the latest evidence that green buildings offer a strong financial case alongside many positive environmental and social outcomes even against a backdrop of the U.. real estate industry experiencing a severe downturn.. Ironically, science parks, with their higher degree of operational leverage and resource intensity are in a unique position to benefit from the Labs21 program and its resources, which should be applied when considering recent federal stimulus legislation and which leans heavily in favor of sustainability-related initiatives.. This new environment supports a strong business case for sustainable science park properties.. The paper further explored the need for finance and investment professionals dealing with science parks to adopt green finance tools and techniques provided by Labs21 in conjunction with other guidance such as LEED within their overall sustainability planning, in order to maximize the potential benefits that any sustainability program could bring to the science park.. The paper provided recommended actions for those professionals who would like to get started with green finance, noting, however, that there are many more techniques and potential capital sources which would need to be examined and included within any final fully operational green finance program.. The authors would be pleased to engage the IASP community in partnership with Labs21 in support of these objectives.. References.. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy.. August 2000.. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low Energy Design.. Alex Carrick.. March 19, 2008.. Construction Cost Increases for Four Office Building Categories.. Reed Construction Data.. http://www.. reedconstructiondata.. com/news/2008/03/construction-cost-increases-for-four-office-building-categories/.. Davis Langdon.. July 2007.. Cost of Green Revisited: Reexamining the Feasibility and Cost Impact of Sustainable Design in the Light of Increased Market Adoption.. Energy Benchmarking.. labs21century.. gov/toolkit/benchmarking.. htm (now available at.. i2sl.. org/resources/toolkit/benchmark.. html.. Toolkit.. gov/toolkit/index.. org/resources/toolkit.. International Institute for Sustainable Laboratories.. org/partnerships/index.. Enermodal Engineering.. NREL Office Building Energy Analysis.. Golden, CO.. Dave Williams, CEO of ShoreBank Pacific.. March 4, 2009.. The Financial Perspective.. Presented at the Green Building Finance Investment Forum.. Green Building Council.. Building Impacts (presentation).. usgbc.. org/DisplayPage.. aspx?CMSPageID=1720.. RREEF Alternative Investments, How to Green a Recession? Sustainability Prospects in the US Real Estate Industry.. https://www.. rreef.. com/cps/rde/xchg/ai_en/hs.. xsl/3157.. McGraw-Hill SmartMarket Report.. Turner Construction 2008 Market Barometer.. Details of the full American Recovery Reinvestment Act can be found at.. recovery.. gov.. Discussion with 120 real estate executives at the Green Building Finance Investment Forum West, on March 3, 2009, during opening session titled, Pension Fund Perspectives.. Galley Eco Capital is the organizing chair of the Green Building Finance Investment Forum West, held March 2-4, 2009.. Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.. 2008.. Doing Well by Doing Good.. org.. Greg Katz, principle of Good Energies.. Presentation at GreenBuild, the U.. Green Building Council s national conference.. Building Impacts (presentation).. Association of University Research Parks.. 2007.. 21st Century Directions: Characteristics and Trends in North American Research Parks.. National Institutes of Health.. nih.. gov/about/director/02252009statement_arra.. htm..

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