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    Archived pages: 334 . Archive date: 2014-04.

  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Home
    Descriptive info: .. K3PGP.. Experimenter's.. Corner.. Home.. Astronomy.. Bicycle.. Construction.. Laser.. Moonbounce.. Software.. Guest.. Misc.. Sales.. /\/.. \/\.. \/\/.. From.. VLF.. to.. L.. i.. g.. h.. t.. Shop Amazon - Top Holiday Deals.. All material on this website is provided for reference only and may NOT be current.. PLEASE - Only link to.. WWW.. K3PGP.. ORG.. as this website moves to different servers on a space available basis.. Contents of this website are ©1995-2012 of K3PGP and  ...   ANTENNA.. Federal preemption of state and local regulations pertaining to Amateur radio facilities.. FCC.. Memorandum Opinion and Order.. PRB-1 covering antenna structures.. TEXT.. PDF.. HTML.. www.. qsl.. net.. needs your support!.. There ain't no rules around here.. We're trying to accomplish something.. To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.. --- Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) ---.. -.. Kathouse.. PTBike.. KHP.. k3pgp.. codeadam.. weaksignal.. thewpp.. ptpti.. deuce.. broadcastarchives.. greerguitars.. jonespropulsionlabss.. velobee.. therockshows.. wpponline..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Astronomy
    Descriptive info: Home.. Astronomy.. ASTRONOMY.. Adjust brightness and Contrast.. From the land of.. perpetual overcast skies.. where we consider ourselves extremely lucky if we catch a glimpse of anything in the sky including the sun!.. N.. E.. W.. S.. Geosync Satellites ~75 degrees West Longitude.. 12-28-03 2:30 am 8 frames ~1 minute intervals.. Note drift of North satellite!!! Light vertical bars on the left is caused by amp glow as no dark frames were subtracted from this sequence.. SCOPE.. used to capture this sequence.. The new.. GMV-EX6K / MINTRON 12V1E-EX CAMERA.. is sensitive enough to image geosync satellites in REAL time.. The Polaris.. DX-8263SL.. (which is nowhere near as sensitive) is a color camera with similar features.. A comparison of three CCD cameras is.. HERE.. Aurora.. at midnight 11-07-2004.. Time lapse video 11-07-2004.. Sunspot.. 696.. responsible for the.. aurora of 11-07-2004.. NOAA Statistical Auroral Oval Map.. Weather Maps.. Mintron.. 12V1E-EX Mods - Adding external switches - Remote Control.. Mods - Adding external switches - Remote Control.. Manual  ...   Widefield Scope.. 12-21-04.. ETX-125 rear port zero image shift focus mechanism.. 12-27-04.. 700 nm UV / IR infrared blocking Hot Mirror filter ($25).. 01-07-04.. Green Laser.. pointer as a finder scope.. PC164C.. low light level TV Camera.. Jan 2003.. Early AstroPix.. taken with CCD TV Camera - modified hand held Scanner!.. (1995-1996).. Early CCD Camera.. The single photon TOAD detector !.. Available at your nearest pond.. Pulsars.. Difference Between C CS Mount lens.. Size Matters ! (When it comes to CCD Image Sensors that is.. ).. Celestron 114mm Reflector telescope on polar mount.. $5 at a pawn shop!.. Preview.. $5 1.. 25 inch C-Mount adapter - $5 C-Mount ETX back adapter - CHEAP ETX back focal reduction / projection.. (Haven't had time to get back to this).. Moon Phase.. Don't like the weather? - Stick around a few minutes.. It'll change! Could be the worst place on the 3rd rock for astronomy!.. Where 85% of the time the weather.. SUCKS!.. - Wx.. MAPS.. Current.. Solar Image..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Bicycle
    Descriptive info: Bicycle.. Vitamins And Herbs.. at Vitanetonline.. com.. Samba Pentium 4 2.. 4GHz.. $52.. 99.. Check it out @ Geeks.. Any order placed using these links help offset the cost of operating this website.. Your patronage is appreciated.. - THANKS!.. NEW:.. You Tube Videos!.. Bicycle Safety.. (How NOT to get hit by cars!).. If.. you don't want to do something it's easy to find an excuse.. However, if you really want to do something you will find a way! - ME.. Check out.. PT Physical Therapy.. for any sports related health issues.. UPDATE SUMMER 2006:.. GASOLINE FREE.. FOR ONE YEAR!.. And now.. FREE GAS.. when (IF?) I need it!.. Why not a tow behind.. TRAILER.. ?.. !!!.. MELTED HELMET.. !!!.. How to carry heavy / bulky items on a bicycle.. (Homemade Panniers, rear rack / fender, etc.. Keeping warm in winter.. (Especially when riding a bicycle!).. FULL TIME Bicycle Video Security Camera.. (Proof when you need it!).. Bicycle headlights, turn signals, brake lights, horn etc!.. (Makes riding on the road a LOT safer!).. Hacking wireless heart rate monitors.. (How to intercept the wireless signal, record on a computer for later analysis, etc.. Winter Cycling According to Pete.. (A humerous but very informative article on riding a bicyle in cold weather.. Schwinn 12 Function Bicycle Computer Manual.. For everyone that can't find the manual after changing the battery.. SOME BICYCLE VIDEO CLIPS FROM AROUND THE WORLD.. Video clip from CBC news.. Ottawa Canada.. Bicycle Chase.. Unknown location other than Stratford Road and Channel 4.. Do NOT put your foot in the spokes!.. - Bicycle Video Camera -.. Sample videos from the new security.. VIDEO CAMERA.. that is now PERMANENTLY  ...   I take a different route.. I had a 105 pound load on the back of the bike when this video was recorded and there is a bit of wobble visible in the video due to the weight.. I'll expand this video when I have time to add to it.. Elevation map.. Some of the hills on the return trip!.. Two ~200 foot climbs, one right after the other! I used to have to WALK the bike up these hills.. I'm now able to climb them at 15 to 20 MPH if I put my mind to it.. And that includes a load of groceries on the back end while climbing.. The downhill section in the middle is a blast!!!.. There is a total of 631 feet gain in elevation in three miles during part of the return trip!.. Having a horn can sometimes save some grief.. The red car approaching from the right did NOT.. stop for the stop sign.. Worse yet they had their left.. turn signal on and were turning into my path.. They.. were talking on a cell phone and looking at their.. passenger instead of where they were going!.. That is until I used the horn!.. A short video clip of a hill that got in my way.. while riding with a friend.. The bike I was riding wasn't the best for hill climbing.. as it weighed close to 50 pounds due to the cargo.. I was hauling on the back end.. Getting across 5 lanes of traffic is a LOT easier.. with turn signals and a horn.. Contents of this website are ©1997 - 2014 of K3PGP and of the originating authors..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Construction
    Descriptive info: Construction.. SAVE THE STANFORD.. DISH ANTENNAS.. Click.. Dish!.. Construction Articles.. The Little Arecibo Dish project!.. A 432 Mhz receiver front end protection filter.. Hacking the USB UT-41 GPS receiver.. 1 PPS, 10 Khz, TTL RS-232.. Remote Programming PTS Synthesizers.. A Low Noise PIN diode Laser Receiver !.. rev 1.. 1.. A  ...   Biasing Modulating Laser Diodes - Safely !.. A $25 Multi-Mode Laser Pen Transmitter!.. Converting Single Phase Power to 3-Phase !.. Blue LED Guitar.. 6000 watt DEUCE Sign.. Shop Vac Water Filter.. Recovering Air Conditioner Wast Heat.. (heating water).. Contents of this website are ©1995-2014 of K3PGP and of the originating authors..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Laser
    Descriptive info: LASER.. NOTE:.. See.. page for homebuilt laser projects.. Using communcations towers as laser reflectors.. Some Observations on Laser Scatter and Cloud Bounce !.. Green Laser pointer as a finder scope.. Laser DX !.. Laser, Audio, Video, and Charts.. AO-40 P3D Laser Experiment.. (Oscar Satellite).. K3PGP Laser Radar Setup.. Faq on Police Laser Radars..  ...   Laser EME at 532 nm !.. Laser Cloud Sensor.. Laser Diode Specs.. Laser Diode Manufacturers.. University of Texas Laser Ranging Station.. Laser Targets.. LF Laser Tests and A New Weak Signal Mode?.. (PGP-1).. FAQ on Lasers from Laser Sam !.. Mirror of Kerry's page (N6IZW) from WB9AJZ.. (Due to slow loading from qsl.. net)..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - EME Moonbounce
    Descriptive info: Moonbounce.. EME - Moonbounce.. Early 1970's style EME from K3PGP.. K3PGP UHF TV reception via EME (1970's).. (Moon bounce reflection).. Radar Echoes from the Sun (1958 !).. FIRST Radar Echoes from the moon (1946 !).. LDE (Long Delayed Echoes on EME circuit).. The Dish Gallery.. Low res Picture collection of Dish Horn Antennas.. MoonTrack.. Click Moon!..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Software
    Descriptive info: Software.. DSP-10 / Ez-Kit Lite other WEAK Signal Processing.. HAMVIEW Weak Signal Software.. PSK31.. PSK/QPSK Tx / Rx program-Req.. Windows 3.. 1, 95/98, or NT with Soundblaster.. DSPBOX.. SDRadio.. v0.. 95.. Tracker.. v8.. 10 W7GJ Moontracking program DOS or DOS Window.. Pifmgr.. dll.. Suggested icon for desktop shortcut to Tracker.. Helical112.. zip.. DOS program for designing helical filters.. IPS-v0.. 57a-Finale.. SM5VXC IP-Sound Transmit / receive audio across network or internet.. soundtap-v0.. 17.. exe.. SM5VXC Sound Tap (Soundtap).. - VISUAL MODES -.. SOFTWARE.. SIZE.. MODES / DESCRIPTION.. LIVE.. PLATFORM.. AUTHOR.. ARGO 1 - 134.. 385K.. MTHELL, QRSS, DFCW, NDB'S.. ---- / RX.. WIN 95, 98, XP.. I2PHD, IK2CZL.. SLOWHELL DF6NM.. 5K.. MT HELL.. TX.. DOS WIN 95, 98.. DF6NM.. CHIRPPIX 2.. 1 DF6NM.. 80K.. CHIRPED HELL AND IMAGE TRANSMISSION.. CHROMAPIX 1.. 6.. 8923K.. SSTV.. TX / RX.. N7CXI, VE3EC.. EZGRAM 2.. 01.. 275K.. OK1FIG.. HELLSCHREIBER 2.. 7.. 704K.. FELD, DUPLO, C/MT, PSK, FSKHELL.. IZ8BLY.. HELLSCHREIBER 4.. 0.. 973K.. FELD, DUPLO, C/MT, PSK, FM, MS HELL.. JVCOMM 1.. 40.. 9143K.. SSTV, FAX, RTTY, NAVTEX.. DK8JV.. LASERSCATTER 0.. 5.. 106K.. WEAK SIGNAL LASER COM.. Based on the following.. RESEARCH.. K0SM.. MACHAN.. 289K.. MECHANICAL TV DECODER.. MMSSTV 1.. 11G.. 2432K.. JE3HHT.. NBTV24.. 24K.. NBTV 24 LINES.. ZL2AFP.. NBTV32.. 23K.. NBTV 32 LINES.. 28K.. NBTV 32 LINES AM / FM.. NBTV48.. 21K.. NBTV 48 LINES.. NBTV60.. AFSK NBTV 60 LINES.. NBTVVIEWER 1.. 03.. 121K.. NBTV 30 AND 32 LINES.. GARY MILLARD.. QRS 4.. 02.. 422K.. QRSS, DFCW.. WIN 3.. 1, 95, 98.. ON7YD.. SLOWFELD 1.. 177K.. SLOW FELDHELL.. WIN 95, 98.. G3PPT.. SLOWFELD2.. 169K.. SLOW FSK FELDHELL, 750HZ / 1000HZ TX TONES.. SLOWFELD3.. SLOW FSK FELDHELL, 500HZ / 1000HZ TX TONES.. SPECTRAN 2 - 213.. 534K.. MTHELL, QRSS, DFCW, NDB'S, WSJT SUPPORT.. I2PHD.. SPECTROGRAM 2.. 3.. 33K.. MTHELL, QRSS, DFCW.. R.. S HORNE.. SPECTRUMLAB 2.. 6 B1.. 2226K.. MTHELL, QRSS, DFCW, PSK, MSK, BPSK AND MORE.. DL4YHF.. 6 B5.. 2259K.. MTHELL, QRSS, DFCW, PSK, MSK, BPSK AND MORE (192 Khz bug fix).. 6 B8.. 2278K.. VFSKCW 05.. 373K.. VFSKCW.. VK2ZTO.. W95SSTV.. 3781K.. N7CXI.. WINHELL 2.. 1196K.. FELDHELL.. PA3BQS.. WXSAT 2.. 59.. 837K.. FAX.. C BOCK.. 16 BIT SOUNDCARD.. C/MTHELL.. 93K.. C/MT HELL.. DOS.. FELDFFT8.. 81K.. FELDNEW8.. 83K.. HAMVIEW 2.. 21.. 108K.. S/MTHELL.. 79K.. S/MT HELL..  ...   Code.. Fortran 77 and C.. JT65 Executable.. Executable.. MIXW 2.. 16.. 3215K.. OLIVIA, CONTESTIA, RTTYM, THROB, MFSK, MT63 ETC.. UT2UZ, UU9JDR.. MMVARI 0.. 41.. 743K.. RTTY, PSK, MFSK, FSK AND GMSK.. MRP 4.. 055.. 681K.. CW.. N PIEPER.. MT63 TERMINAL 2.. 742K.. MT63.. MULTIPSK 3.. 12.. 3226K.. PSKAM, OLIVIA, DOMINO, THROB, PAX, AND MORE.. F6CTE.. OLIVIA MFSK.. 982K.. MFSK 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 TONES.. WIN 2K, XP.. SP9VRC.. PSK31 1.. 08.. 179K.. PSK31 DELUXE 3.. 3 B993.. 814K.. BPSK31, BPSK63, QPSK31, QPSK63.. HB9DRV.. QUICKPSK 4.. 0F.. 380K.. BPSK31, BPSK63.. KH6TY.. RTTY 2.. 395K.. RXPSK31 2.. 650K.. BPSK31, QPSK31.. ON6MU.. STREAM 0.. 82.. 632K.. MFSK8, MFSK16, PSK63F, PSK31, MT4.. STREAM 1.. 979K.. MFSK8, MFSK16, PSK63F, PSK31, PSK125.. THROB 2.. 197K.. 9 TONE MFSK, 1, 2 AND 4 BAUD.. WINDRM [03NOV05].. 359K.. DRM 4QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM.. WINPSKSE 2.. 23.. 996K.. AE4JY.. WOLF GUI [06JAN06].. 466K.. BPSK 2.. 5, 5, 10, 20 AND 40 BIT/SEC.. KK7KA, DL4YHF.. WSJT 5.. 90.. 5055K.. FSK441, JT6M, JT65A, JT65B, JT65C AND CW.. NO ECHO MODE !.. K1JT.. WSJT Documentation.. WSJT v4.. 70 pdf DOC file.. WSJT Supplement v4.. 90 pdf file.. WSJT v3.. 0 pdf DOC file.. 93.. 3741K.. WSJT 4.. 70.. 6736K.. FSK441, JT6M, JT65A, JT65B, JT65C AND CW.. xx upgrade.. 541K.. Upgrade WSJT 4.. xx to 4.. 98.. 5652K.. WSJT SimJT v0.. 81.. Sensitivity test of WSJT modes v0.. WSJT SimJT DOC 50.. Sensitivity test of WSJT pdf DOC 50.. WSJT SimJT DOC 80.. Sensitivity test of WSJT pdf DOC 80.. AFRICAM 2.. 41K.. CBPSK, PSKL.. ASCII, ET1, ET2, ET3.. VE2IQ.. AFRICAM 5.. 52K.. NEW AFRICAM SUPPORTS GPS-DISCIPLINED BPSK, FSK.. BTL 1.. 54E.. 60K.. ZL2AKM.. RITTY 2.. 38.. 98K.. PACTOR I, RTTY.. K6STI.. AFRICA 3.. CBPSK.. ASCII, ET1, ET2.. COHERENT 4.. 9A.. CBPSK, PSKL, CCW, PSK.. COHERENT 7.. 68K.. 25.. 193K.. PSK08 1.. 137K.. PSK08.. G4JNT.. PSK31 3.. 75K.. SCS PTC-II.. ALPHA 2.. 2089K.. AMTOR, PACTOR, RTTY, CW, PSK31, AMTEX, NAVTEX.. DH7RG.. GAMMARELOADED 3.. 5069K.. PACTOR, COMPATIBLE WITH EASYTRANSFER.. DJ0CU.. NCHOST 2.. 27.. 493K.. PACTOR.. PA0NC.. NCWINPTC 10.. 60.. NCWINTERMINAL 1.. PACTOR, NAVTEX.. SIMPLE 2.. 059.. 6660K.. AMTOR, PACTOR, PACKET, RTTY, CW, PSK31, NAVTEX.. TONO THETA 777.. TCOM777.. 99K.. ASCII, AMTOR A / B, RTTY, CW.. AA4PB.. SYNCHRONIZES THE PC CLOCK..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Guest Articles
    Descriptive info: Guest.. Guest Articles.. by Bill Cantrell, WD5CVG.. BPSK Adventures.. April 99.. Photos of the TEXAS LF Beacon.. How to Design a Class-E Transmitter for Your LowFER Beacon.. Aug 98.. Contents of this website are ©1997-2000 of K3PGP and of the originating authors..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - Misc
    Descriptive info: Misc.. Something Old Something New - Stuff left over from the old home page.. Some of these links may be dead.. General Interest.. Unit Conversion Tables.. Online Callsign Servers.. FCC Part 97 Rules Regs.. Zap telemarketers off your phone and answering machine!.. These Events are now over but you may still find the data useful!.. SETI @ Home.. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with your computer !.. August 11, 1999 Total Solar Eclipse !!!.. Aug 11, 1999 Eclipse Maps.. The Lunar Prospector Moon  ...   ^^^^^ A snapshot of late October early November 1998.. The Eclipse as seen from K3PGP in NE USA and via the internet!.. ^^^^^^^^ ( Updated with Video - See the eclipse from space ! ).. Are you ready for the Solar Eclipse on Feb.. 26, 1998 ?.. HP-478 Thermistor Mount.. Siemens RWNH120 HiRes Schematic.. Siemens RWNH120 LoRes Schematic.. Gunnplexer.. Repairing the HP-8555a Input Mixer.. CMOS 4000 Series Online DataBook.. Mir Progress ? Report.. Stamp FAQ.. Supplemental Heating System for Self-Contained Divers.. VLF..

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  • Title: K3PGP - Experimenters Corner - SALES
    Descriptive info: SALES.. You can check the current price of an item by clicking on the links.. Simply remove any items you do not want before checking out.. K108 - CK1610 Serial Isolated Module.. Can be used with.. Astrovideo.. for autoguiding.. CK1610 - Serial Isolated Module (Kit).. CK1610A - Serial Isolated Module (Assembled and Tested).. Manual.. (PDF).. Windows software 9x/2000/ME/XP, Dos Software.. also included Download.. CK1610Software.. You can program and control this relay board via a PC Serial Port.. Simply connect a serial cable from your computer to the connector on relay board.. There are 8 relays each capable of switching 250V/12A.. Connections are via Dinkle connectors (250V rated).. There are also 4 optically isolated inputs that can be used for feed back.. We provide Windows 9x/2000/ME/XP.. software.. download to control the unit.. The kit is a boon to the Science Fair project, laboratory experimenter and so on.. Uses serial port so it can be located over 100 yards from the PC.. Talking to the serial port under Windows XP is a LOT easier than talking to the parallel port.. This unit also works with most USB to serial port adapters so even if your computer does not have a serial port you should be able to use this unit!.. NOTE:.. You can put this device anywhere on your local Ethernet network by using the.. SITEPLAYER.. ! Use the FREE SitePlayer Serial Port Redirector driver for Windows® PC (2000, XP) that comes with the unit.. If you need to go.. WIRELESS.. connect.. to a  ...   There are 8 relays each capable of switching 12VDC / 10A or 240VAC / 5A.. Each relay has an LED to indicate when it is operated.. We provide two sets of complete, stand-alone.. to control the relays: one works under DOS so you can write your own batch files to control individual relays, the other under Windows 9x/2000/ME/XP.. CK1501 Peltier Thermo Electric Heat Pump Cooler.. Everything you need to start controlling temperature (FAN, HEATSINK, ETC.. CK500 - Peltier Junction Assembly.. Peltier Junctions are thermo-electric heating and cooling devices that feature reliable solid state temperature control.. They have many uses such as cooling laboratory instruments, hot running IC's, or consumer products like drink coolers.. This cooler / heater assembly includes a 90mm fan, heat-sink, 65 degrees thermal cut-out switch (used when heating), and a 50W Peltier device that cools to a maximum of 25deg.. below the ambient temperature.. Requires 12VDC.. Note: (there are no specific instructions or uses provided with the assembly).. Specifications:.. Everything you need to start controlling temperature.. 50 Watt peltier module.. Requires 12VDC power supply (0.. 5 Amp to 4 Amp).. Let your imagination take over.. CK1501 50 Watt Peltier Module ONLY!.. CK0501 - Peltier Module ONLY!.. This is for ONE module.. TWO are shown HERE.. Question about an item you ordered?.. This email adr.. is for SALES ONLY as the person handling this for me is only set up to handle sales requests.. Requests for info other than sales will most likely NOT be answered or forwarded to me..

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  • Title:
    Descriptive info: Memorandum Opinion and Order in PRB-1 Before the Federal Communications Commission Washington, DC 20554 FCC 85-506 36149 In the Matter of ) ) Federal preemption of state and ) PRB-1 local regulations pertaining ) to Amateur radio facilities.. ) MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER Adopted: September 16, 1985 ; Released: September 19, 1985 By the Commission: Commissioner Rivera not participating.. Background 1.. On July 16, 1984, the American Radio Relay League, Inc (ARRL) filed a Request for Issuance of a Declaratory Ruling asking us to delineate the limitations of local zoning and other local and state regulatory authority over Federally-licensed radio facilities.. Specifically, the ARRL wanted an explicit statement that would preempt all local ordinances which provably preclude or significantly inhibit effective reliable amateur radio communications.. The ARRL acknowledges that local authorities can regulate amateur installations to insure the safety and health of persons in the community, but believes that those regulations cannot be so restrictive that they preclude effective amateur communications.. 2.. Interested parties were advised that they could file comments in the matter.. 1 With extension, comments were due on or before December 26, 1984,2 with reply comments due on or before January 25, 1985.. 3 Over sixteen hundred comments were filed.. Local Ordinances 3.. Conflicts between amateur operators regarding radio antennas and local authorities regarding restrictive ordinances are common.. The amateur operator is governed by the regulations contained in Part 97 of our rules.. Those rules do not limit the height of an amateur antenna but they require, for aviation safety reasons, that certain FAA notification and FCC approval procedures must be followed for antennas which exceed 200 feet in height above ground level or antennas which are to be erected near airports.. Thus, under FCC rules some antenna support structures require obstruction marking and lighting.. On the other hand, local municipalities or governing bodies frequently enact regulations limiting antennas and their support structures in height and location, e.. g.. to side or rear yards, for health, safety or aesthetic considerations.. These limiting regulations can result in conflict because the effectiveness of the communications that emanate from an amateur radio station are directly dependent upon the location and the height of the antenna.. Amateur operators maintain that they are precluded from operating in certain bands allocated for their use if the height of their antennas is limited by a local ordinance.. 4.. Examples of restrictive local ordinances were submitted by several amateur operators in this proceeding.. Stanley J.. Cichy, San Diego, California, noted that in San Diego amateur radio antennas come under a structures ruling which limits building heights to 30 feet.. Thus, antennas there are also limited to 30 feet.. Alexander Vrenios, Mundelein, Illinois, wrote that an ordinance of the Village of Mundelein provides that an antenna must be a distance from the property line that is equal to one and one-half times its height.. In his case, he is limited to an antenna tower for his amateur station just over 53 feet in height.. 5.. John C.. Chapman, an amateur living in Bloomington, Minnesota, commented that he was not able to obtain a building permit to install an amateur radio antenna exceeding 35 feet in height because the Bloomington city ordinance restricted "structures" heights to 35 feet.. Mr.. Chapman said that the ordinance, when written, undoubtedly applied to buildings but was now being applied to antennas in the absence of a specific ordinance regulating them.. There were two options open to him if he wanted to engage in amateur communications.. He could request a variance to the ordinance by way of a hearing before the City Council, or he could obtain affidavits from his neighbors swearing that they had no objection to the proposed antenna installation.. He got the building permit after obtaining the cooperation of his neighbors.. His concern, however, is that he had to get permission from several people before he could effectively engage in radio communications for which he had a valid FCC amateur license.. 6.. In addition to height restrictions, other limits are enacted by local jurisdictions-anti-climb devices on towers or fences around them; minimum distances from high voltage power lines; minimum distances of towers from property lines; and regulations pertaining to the structural soundness of the antenna installation.. By and large, amateurs do not find these safety precautions objectionable.. What they do object to are the sometimes prohibitive, non-refundable application filing fees to obtain a permit to erect an antenna installation and those provisions in ordinances which regulate antennas for purely aesthetic reasons.. The amateurs contend, almost universally, that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder.. " They assert that an antenna installation is not more aesthetically displeasing than other objects that people keep on their property, e.. motor homes, trailers, pick-up trucks, solar collectors and gardening equipment.. Restrictive Covenants 7.. Amateur operators also oppose restrictions on their amateur operations which are contained in the deeds for their homes or in their apartment leases.. Since these restrictive covenants are contractual agreements between private parties, they are not generally a matter of concern to the Commission.. However, since some amateurs who commented in this proceeding provided us with examples of restrictive covenants, they are included for information.. Eugene O.. Thomas of Hollister, California, included in his comments an extract of the Declaration of Covenants and Restrictions for Ridgemark Estates, County of San Benito, State of California.. It provides: No antenna for transmission or reception of radio signals shall be erected outdoors for use by any dwelling unit except upon approval of the Directors.. No radio or television signals or any other form of electromagnetic radiation shall be permitted to originate from any lot which may unreasonably interfere with the reception of television or radio signals upon any other lot.. Marshall Wilson, Jr.. provided a copy of the restrictive covenant contained in deeds for the Bell Martin Addition #2, Irving, Texas.. It is binding upon all of the owners or purchasers of the lots in the said addition, his or their heirs, executors, administrators or assigns.. It reads: No antenna or tower shall be erected upon any lot for the purposes of radio operations.. William J.. Hamilton resides in an apartment building in Gladstone, Missouri.. He cites a clause in his lease prohibiting the erection of an antenna.. He states that he has been forced to give up operating amateur radio equipment except a hand-held 2 meter (144-148 MHz) radio transceiver.. He maintains that he should not be penalized just because he lives in an apartment.. Other restrictive covenants are less global in scope than those cited above.. For example, Robert Webb purchased a home in Houston, Texas.. His deed restriction prohibited "transmitting or receiving antennas extending above the roof line.. " 8.. Amateur operators generally oppose restrictive covenants for several reasons.. They maintain that such restrictions limit the places that they can reside if they want to pursue their hobby of amateur radio.. Some state that they impinge on First Amendment rights of speech.. Others believe that a constitutional right is being abridged because, in their view, everyone has a right to access the airwaves regardless of where they live.. 9.. The contrary belief held by housing subdivision communities and condominium or homeowner's associations is that amateur radio installations constitute safety hazards, cause interference to other electronic equipment which may be operated in the home (television, radio, stereos) or are eyesores that detract from the aesthetic and tasteful appearance of the housing development or apartment complex.. To counteract these negative consequences, the subdivisions and associations include in their deeds, leases or by-laws, restrictions and limitations on the location and height of antennas or, in some cases, prohibit them altogether.. The restrictive covenants are contained in the contractual agreement entered into at the time of the sale or lease of the property.. Purchasers or lessees are free to choose whether they wish to reside  ...   legitimate activities of the states.. NLC believed that both Federal and local interests can be accommodated without preempting local authority to regulate the installation of amateur radio antennas.. The APA said that the FCC should continue to leave the issue of regulating amateur antennas with the local government and with the state and Federal courts.. Discussion 20.. When considering preemption, we must begin with two constitutional provisions.. The tenth amendment provides that any powers which the constitution either does not delegate to the United States or does not prohibit the states from exercising are reserved to the states.. These are the police powers of the states.. The Supremacy Clause, however, provides that the constitution and the laws of the United States shall supersede any state law to the contrary.. Article III, Section 2.. Given these basic premises, state laws may be preempted in three ways: First, Congress may expressly preempt the state law.. See Jones v.. Rath Packing Co.. , 430 U.. S.. 519, 525 (1977).. Or, Congress may indicate its intent to completely occupy a given field so that any state law encompassed within that field would implicitly be preempted.. Such intent to preempt could be found in a congressional regulatory scheme that was so pervasive that it would be reasonable to assume that Congress did not intend to permit the states to supplement it.. See Fidelity Federal Savings & Loan Ass'n v.. de la Cuesta, 458 U.. 141, 153 (1982).. Finally, preemption may be warranted when state law conflicts with federal law.. Such conflicts may occur when "compliance with both Federal and state regulations is a physical impossibility," Florida Lime & Avocado Growers, Inc.. v.. Paul, 373 U.. 132, 142, 143 (1963), or when state law "stands as an obstacle to the accomplishment and execution of the full purposes and objectives of Congress," Hines v.. Davidowitz, 312 U.. 52, 67 (1941).. Furthermore, federal regulations have the same preemptive effect as federal statues, Fidelity Federal Savings & Loan Association v.. de la Cuesta, supra.. 21.. The situation before us requires us to determine the extent to which state and local zoning regulations may conflict with federal policies concerning amateur radio operators.. 22.. Few matters coming before us present such a clear dichotomy of view point as does the instant issue.. The cities, countries, local communities and housing associations see an obligation to all of their citizens and try to address their concerns.. This is accomplished through regulations, ordinances or covenants oriented toward the health, safety and general welfare of those they regulate.. At the opposite pole are the individual amateur operators and their support groups who are troubled by local regulations which may inhibit the use of amateur stations or, in some instances, totally preclude amateur communications.. Aligned with the operators are such entities as the Department of Defense, the American Red Cross and local civil defense and emergency organizations who have found in Amateur Radio a pool of skilled radio operators and a readily available backup network.. In this situation, we believe it is appropriate to strike a balance between the federal interest in promoting amateur operations and the legitimate interests of local governments in regulating local zoning matters.. The cornerstone on which we will predicate our decision is that a reasonable accommodation may be made between the two sides.. 23.. Preemption is primarily a function of the extent of the conflict between federal and state and local regulation.. Thus, in considering whether our regulations or policies can tolerate a state regulation, we may consider such factors as the severity of the conflict and the reasons underlying the state's regulations.. In this regard, we have previously recognized the legitimate and important state interests reflected in local zoning regulations.. For example, in Earth Satellite Communications, Inc.. , 95 FCC 2d 1223 (1983), we recognized that.. countervailing state interests inhere in the present situation.. For example, we do not wish to preclude a state or locality from exercising jurisdiction over certain elements of an SMATV operation that properly may fall within its authority, such as zoning or public safety and health, provided the regulation in question is not undertaken as a pretext for the actual purpose of frustrating achievement of the preeminent federal objective and so long as the non- federal regulation is applied in a nondiscriminatory manner.. 24.. Similarly, we recognize here that there are certain general state and local interests which may, in their even-handed application, legitimately affect amateur radio facilities.. Nonetheless, there is also a strong federal interest in promoting amateur communications.. Evidence of this interest may be found in the comprehensive set of rules that the Commission has adopted to regulate the amateur service.. 5 Those rules set forth procedures for the licensing of stations and operators, frequency allocations, technical standards which amateur radio equipment must meet and operating practices which amateur operators must follow.. We recognize the amateur radio service as a voluntary, noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications.. Moreover, the amateur radio service provides a reservoir of trained operators, technicians and electronic experts who can be called on in times of national or local emergencies.. By its nature, the Amateur Radio Service also provides the opportunity for individual operators to further international goodwill.. Upon weighing these interests, we believe a limited preemption policy is warranted.. State and local regulations that operate to preclude amateur communications in their communities are in direct conflict with federal objectives and must be preempted.. 25.. Because amateur station communications are only as effective as the antennas employed, antenna height restrictions directly affect the effectiveness of amateur communications.. Some amateur antenna configurations require more substantial installations than others if they are to provide the amateur operator with the communications that he/she desires to engage in.. For example, an antenna array for international amateur communications will differ from an antenna used to contact other amateur operators at shorter distances.. We will not, however, specify any particular height limitation below which a local government may not regulate, nor will we suggest the precise language that must be contained in local ordinances, such as mechanisms for special exceptions, variances, or conditional use permits.. Nevertheless, local regulations which involve placement, screening, or height of antennas based on health, safety, or aesthetic considerations must be crafted to accommodate reasonably amateur communications, and to represent the minimum practicable regulation to accomplish the local authority's legitimate purpose.. 6 26.. Obviously, we do not have the staff or financial resources to review all state and local laws that affect amateur operations.. We are confident, however, that state and local governments will endeavor to legislate in a manner that affords appropriate recognition to the important federal interest at stake here and thereby avoid unnecessary conflicts with federal policy, as well as time-consuming and expensive litigation in this area.. Amateur operators who believe that local or state governments have been overreaching and thereby have precluded accomplishment of their legitimate communications goals, may, in addition, use this document to bring our policies to the attention of local tribunals and forums.. 27.. Accordingly, the Request for Declaratory Ruling filed July 16, 1984, by the American Radio Relay League, Inc.. , IS GRANTED to the extent indicated herein and in all other respects, IS DENIED.. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION William J.. Tricarico Secretary Footnotes 1Public Notice, August 30, 1984, Mimeo.. No.. 6299, 49 F.. R.. 36113, September 14, 1984.. 2Public Notice, December 19,1984, Mimeo.. 1498.. 3Order, November 8, 1984, Mimeo, No.. 770.. 4MARS is solely under the auspices of the military which recruits volunteer amateur operators to render assistance to it.. The Comission is not involved in the MARS program.. 547 CFR Part 97.. 6We reiterate that our ruling herein does not reach restrictive covenants in private contractual agreements.. Such agreements are voluntarily entered into by the buyer or tenant when the agreement is executed and do not usually concern this Commission..

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