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    Archived pages: 25 . Archive date: 2014-06.

  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: .. Genelach Chlann Lochlainn Inse Eoghain.. Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen.. In the twelfth century Muircheartach MacLochlainn became the last person to die in possession of a sovereign kingship of Ireland.. A genealogical text preserved in a seventeenth century manuscript shows a group of MacLochlainn families living on the Inishowen peninsula to be his descendants.. Though retaining their regional importance as rulers of Aileach until the thirteenth century and as  ...   over in modern histories in favour of the families that came to supplant them in these positions.. In these pages I seek to remedy this deficiency by drawing upon the narrative literature, annals, saints' lives and genealogies together with the ecclesiastical records, records of the English colony and continental European records to infill their historical narrative and so authenticate their genealogy.. Further Reading.. Ancient origins.. Early medieval kings.. Late medieval warlords.. Modern remnants..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Ancient Origins.. As the Germanic migrations of the fifth century were plunging much of Europe into the darkness of the unknown a remote island in the far west becomes faintly illuminated to history.. Ireland had never been part of the Roman empire but Latin Christianity and script had been introduced to it by the fifth century enabling the Irish language to flower and produce the oldest body of vernacular literature in Europe.. By the seventh century we find the received corpus of religious, classical and annalistic texts in Latin joined by a native corpus of texts in Irish in genres of law, genealogy, wisdom and narrative that incorporate elements of latinate Christian culture without being subsumed by it.. It is this early and culturally self-confident literacy with its closely intertwined classical and native strands emanating from secular as well as ecclesiastical schools that most distinguishes medieval Ireland from other regions of the Christian West.. Of present interest this literary tradition transmits to us an unparalleled body of genealogical documents, documents that allow us to trace the MacLochlainn origin with confidence to a person living in late antiquity.. The surname MacLochlainn has been anglicised into a variety of forms in recent times but remains in substance a phrase in Irish composed of the words.. mac.. ('son') and the personal name Lochlainn in genitive form ('of Lochlainn') having the meaning son of Lochlainn and so suggesting genealogical descent from an eponym.. The medieval Irish genealogies allow us to identify the eponymous ancestor of the MacLochlainns of Inishowen as a person named Lochlainn who flourished in the early eleventh century, though little else is known of him.. As a personal name Lochlainn would seem to have been a borrowing of the genitive form of the placename Lochlann ('of Lochlann') or perhaps the dative form ('to/in/from/with Lochlann').. The placename Lochlann appears to have been the name of a mythological land of supernatural adversaries believed by the early Irish to exist in the far northern regions of the world.. By the eleventh century Lochlann had become identified with Norway but it does not follow that a person named Lochlainn at this time was Norse or that MacLochlainn means son of the Norseman (both of which are common misconceptions).. While his personal name may indicate maternal Norse ancestry (though the sources are silent on this) the genealogies show that paternally Lochlainn belonged  ...   of Niall known to have died in 465 conquered a kingdom in Inishowen (.. Inis Eoghain.. , 'Island of Eoghan') having a caput at the Grianan of Aileach (pictured above) and a territory so expanded by his descendants that by the eleventh century the leader of the Cenél nEoghain was effective ruler of the north of Ireland.. In parallel with this territorial expansion the Cenél nEoghain widened genealogically to become the dominant segment within the Uí Néill before itself fragmenting into competing genealogical segments, those segments discarded from contention for the kingship going on to form a secondary tier of secular and ecclesiastical nobility within the kingdom and its dependent territories.. In early medieval Ireland individuals did not bear family surnames but were instead known by their personal name with an epithet or patronymic attached in order to aid identification.. Patronymics naturally changed from generation to generation as they tracked the personal name of the father but from the tenth century onwards the newly emerging genealogical segments began to fix patronymics as surnames in order to mark a more exclusive descent from a more recent common ancestor and so set themselves apart from the wider dynasty.. This process can be seen at work in the Cenél nEoghain genealogy causing it to become narrow and stem-like, tracking only the leading segments, so that by the eleventh century we find the kingship confined to the contending dynasties of Clann Néill ('Family of Niall'), who had migrated to Tullaghoge in the south of the expanded kingdom, and Clann Domhnaill ('Family of Domhnall') who remained in Inishowen.. Lochlainn was a member of Clann Néill and so likely bore the surname O Neill marking his descent from the tenth century eponym Niall Glúndubh ('Niall of the Black-knee') from whom only Clann Néill could claim descent.. Following normal practice the patronymic.. mac Lochlainn.. became attached to Ardghal son of Lochlainn but in the late eleventh century a more exclusive surname emerged when the patronymic became fixed upon its attachment to Domhnall son of Ardghal son of Lochlainn.. In becoming divorced from its literal meaning son of Lochlainn the patronymic.. had transformed into MacLochlainn, a fixed surname to be passed from generation to generation within a compact new dynasty descending from Lochlainn.. The medieval Irish genealogies.. The placename Lochlann.. The ancestry of Lochlainn.. Political geography of the north.. The Grianan of Aileach.. back..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Early Medieval Kings.. By the seventh century the Irish had developed a national consciousness, the result of sharing a single language, culture, law and origin-legend from earliest known times.. Ireland was conceived of as a single entity with a political dimension expressed in terms of a pseudohistorical high kingship of Ireland that was projected into the distant past and placed atop the fragmented pyramid of kingship actually existing at that time.. By the eleventh century the myriad tribal kingships of the seventh century survived only as antiquarian titles, their substance long subsumed within territorial lordships held under a handful of regional kingships held by dynastic segments coextensive with a single extended family.. Irish kingship was rapidly converging upon the pseudohistorical ideal of the high kingship and the express object of the three contending dynasts (O Brien of Munster, MacLochlainn of The North and O Connor of Connacht) was to extend their rule across the entire island and to confine succession to a national kingship within the limits of their own extended family.. This heightened contention caused many of the historical sources of the period to describe these kings as.. ríg Érenn co fressabra.. ('kings of Ireland with opposition') but we should be careful to recognise that these kings are being compared somewhat unfairly with the imagined high kings of an idealised past and that Ireland as a kingdom lacking a settled monarchy in which the individual was subject to intermediate private jurisdiction lay firmly within medieval European norms of statehood.. The annals disclose that the MacLochlainn dynasty was founded by Ardghal the son of Lochlainn.. Ardghal had been expelled from Tullaghoge in 1051 yet recovered to become ruler of Aileach by the time of his death in 1064.. His son Domhnall became ruler of Aileach in 1083 and king of Ireland with opposition in 1090.. Domhnall took advantage of a decline in the fortunes of the Clann Domhnaill dynasty to move north and seize Inishowen, moving his base to the religious foundation of Derry around 1100.. He engaged his national rivals the O Brien dynasty of Munster militarily, using marriage alliances to his advantage, while safeguarding his regional position by imposing his son Niall as ruler of Tír Conaill and by dividing Ulaid into several discrete lordships.. As king he memorialised the alliance of Church and state by commissioning a religious reliquary known as the Shrine of Saint Patrick's Bell (pictured above) and eventually died in Derry in 1121 aged seventy three.. His son Niall predeceased him,  ...   moved to undermine MacLochlainn supremacy in the north by dividing Tír nEoghain in two and granting the southern portion to their regional rivals the O Neills.. The rulership was subsequently disputed between MacLochlainn and O Neill as reflected in the fourteenth century retrospective topographical poem of Seán Mór Ó Dubhagáin:.. Uí Néill ríoghdha an ratha truim.. Agus Méig laomsgoir Lachluinn.. Dual don mhaicne gan mhíne.. Dá aicme na hairdríghe.. 'Kingly O Neill of great fortune.. And the very proud MacLochlainns.. A lineage without natural tameness.. Two families of the rulership'.. The effects of this were to be far reaching.. With the MacLochlainns preoccupied in the north Diarmaid MacMurchada (who held Leinster from Muircheartach) protected his local position by hiring Norman auxiliaries from England and Wales.. This led to the direct intervention of Henry II king of England in 1171, the abdication of Ruairí O Connor in 1175 and to the long interference of England in Irish affairs.. The Aileach dynasties stood alone in showing no disposition to accept Henry II as their overlord.. Four sons of Muircheartach (Conor, Niall, Maelsechnaill and Muircheartach) and a collateral named Domhnall ruled Tír nEoghain between 1167 and 1196.. Maelsechnaill forced the Anglo-Normans to abandon their castles across a large area of Meath in 1176 but in 1177 Ulaid fell to the Anglo-Norman freebooter John de Courcy who created an Anglo-Norman earldom of Ulster in its place.. The MacLochlainns initially attacked into the earldom and Domhnall inflicted a defeat upon its forces in 1188 but thereafter allied themselves with de Courcy (to whom they were related through the Norse kings of Mann and the Isles) against their regional rivals until de Courcy was expelled from the earldom by John king of England in 1205.. In the next generation Conor the son of Muircheartach seized the rulership of Tír nEoghain from O Neill in 1201 but was killed soon afterwards.. After a long period of uninterrupted O Neill rule his brother Domhnall ruled intermittently from 1232 onwards (being removed in favour of O Neill by the Anglo-Normans in 1238) but his defeat by the combined forces of O Neill and his ally O Donnell of Tír Conaill at the battle of Cameirge in 1241 proved to be a watershed.. With the MacLochlainn family virtually extinguished the O Neill and O Donnell families proceeded to rule in the north until the English conquest of the seventeenth century.. Medieval Irish kingship.. The MacLochlainn dynasty.. Political history.. The Shrine of Saint Patrick's Bell.. The battle of Cameirge..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Late Medieval Warlords.. The Anglo-Norman incursion of the late twelfth century shattered the nascent kingship of Ireland and brought a long period of decentralised warlordism in its wake.. Kingship fragmented and fell back upon those regional dynasties that had contended for the national kingship.. These dynasties in turn found themselves undermined by freebooting Anglo-Norman warlords and reduced to equality with their own newly-militarised minor lords.. The kingly pretentions of these minor lords were likewise reinvigorated and embellished with titular claims to the kingship of long-vanished early medieval sovereignties.. Yet the Anglo-Normans did not prevail in Ireland as elsewhere and the fourteenth century saw a resurgence in Irish fortunes during which many of the losses of previous centuries were reversed and the authority of the English state (in the form of a lordship of Ireland held subsidiary to the English crown) was restricted to a small enclave on the eastern coast.. Though a national kingship failed to re-emerge from the patchwork of native Irish and naturalised Anglo-Norman lordships lying beyond, the leading Irish families accommodated themselves to such an idea by abandoning their antiquarian nomenclature of kingship for one of chiefship of family as marked by the use of surname as title.. The annals disclose that eleven members of the MacLochlainn family (including their leader Domhnall) were killed at the battle of Cameirge in 1241, victims of an unusually thorough slaughter that placed the family on the point of extinction.. Though the genealogies trace two continuing lines of descent, through two sons of Domhnall, the annals indicate that the chiefship was held by his grandson Diarmaid by 1260 so it would appear that of the males of the family only his grandchildren survived the events of 1241.. Outside of the genealogies Domhnall is also known to have had a daughter named Seisilin.. Her obituary in  ...   back to a legendary ancestor of the Uí Néill named Conn Cétchathach ('Conn of the Hundred Battles'), so it would seem that Diarmaid was considered a likely successor as ruler in the north had he survived.. The text.. Ceart Uí Néill.. ('Right of O Neill') indicates that the MacLochlainn family held on to the lordship of Inishowen for some time after 1241 and this is borne out in late thirteenth and early fourteenth century annals and ecclesiastical records showing that they retained sufficient standing to participate in regional political disputes and to provide the Church with two bishops of Derry, though their influence would have been curtailed after 1301 when the Anglo-Norman earldom of Ulster reached its westernmost extent upon the erection of Northburgh castle (modern Greencastle) in northeastern Inishowen.. In 1333 an English inquisition recorded that the manor of Northburgh was lost to the earldom by which time the O Doherty family seem to have extended their sphere of influence north from Tír Conaill so that in 1339 the annals describe them as effective lords of Inishowen and in 1413 as in full possession of the lordship.. This appears to have left its mark as a stratum within the MacLochlainn genealogy with most lines of descent terminating around this time, presumably reflecting loss of status, leaving once again just two lines continuing.. These lines continue through the brothers Aibhne and An Oifistel, the descendants of An Oifistel finding a new role as officials in the Church and the descendants of Aibhne holding on to a fragment of their former lordship that by the early seventeenth century was reduced to a small enclave defended by two castles (pictured above) on the eastern coast of Inishowen.. Descendants of Domhnall of Cameirge.. Descendants of An Oifistel.. Descendants of Aibhne.. Authentication of the genealogy.. The lordship of Inishowen..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Modern Remnants.. The sixteenth century saw the expansion into Ireland of the structure of the English state in the form of a state apparatus replicated from England by which a nominally independent 'Irish' crown was created subsidiary to the English crown.. The English authorities initially envisaged its expansion across the whole island by a policy of surrender and regrant in which Irish lords were encouraged to surrender their lands in return for the regrant of these lands under a title valid in English law.. This policy was unsuccessful and a policy of military conquest and colonisation was adopted in its place.. By the early seventeenth century this had led to the conquest of the whole island, the elimination of the private jurisdictions of chiefship and lordship and the imposition of a government acting solely in the English interest.. Ireland had been controlled but not pacified and an aggravating religious dimension had been introduced in the adoption of a protestant Anglican state identity strongly at variance with the Catholic identity of the general population.. In the wake of the English conquest the options available to the leading inhabitants of Inishowen were conformity, exile or obscurity.. The latter route was the one most travelled leaving only a few MacLochlainn lines traceable beyond 1700.. To consolidate their position the English authorities devised a scheme for the expropriation and colonisation of the lands of western and central Ulster known as the Plantation of Ulster.. The operation of customary law and government was suppressed, all secular lands were declared forfeit to the crown for redistribution to settlers from England and Scotland, Catholic dioceses were dispossessed in favour of the protestant Anglican state church and all religious houses were dissolved.. Alongside this there went a policy of anglicisation under which a few prominent natives were granted a fraction of their former lands provided that they agreed to hold them under English common law tenures.. By 1621 a handful of MacLochlainns had obtained  ...   in a subversive conspiracy.. In 1689 Diarmaid MacLochlainn, the last known chief, raised a company of soldiers at his own expense to fight the forces of William of Orange.. After being badly wounded and left for dead on the battlefield of Aughrim he was taken to prison in England.. Four years later he escaped to France and joined an Irish regiment in French service but after receiving further injuries he died in exile in 1713.. The private jurisdiction of the clan had no role within the English-controlled state nor did it find a role in the later resistance movements so in time the MacLochlainns of Inishowen ceased to operate as a body corporate, fragmenting into the hundreds of separate families that we find today.. The MacLochlainn genealogy has fortuitously survived as a text within a seventeenth century manuscript known as the.. O Clery Book of Genealogies.. This manuscript was examined and published by the Irish Manuscripts Commission in 1951 in its journal.. Analecta Hibernica.. from which the text has been copied to supply the basis of this website.. Unfortunately no subsequent editions of the genealogy are known to have been captured, leaving only two lines of descent recoverable into the eighteenth century using the reconstructive techniques of modern genealogy.. Of these only a descent from Domhnall son of Brian oge given in an Exchequer bill of 1732 can be traced forward into the present day.. A descent through Diarmaid given in a confirmation of arms of 1702 can not be further traced and so joins the others in oblivion.. So like other catastrophic events before it the English conquest has left its mark as a stratum within the MacLochlainn genealogy but it would be misleading to end on such a note.. Today several thousand MacLochlainns live in Inishowen in natural succession to those who went before them.. Their story continues.. Conquest and colonisation.. Exchequer bill of 1732.. Confirmation of arms of 1702.. Continuing lineages.. Genetics and genealogy..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: The Medieval Irish Genealogies.. An extensive corpus of genealogies maintained in writing for a thousand years from the seventh to seventeenth centuries has been transmitted to us in the extant Irish manuscript codices, a body of connective material that allows the history of early medieval Ireland to be elucidated with an uncommon clarity and depth.. These codices functioned as miniature bound libraries containing collections of laws, genealogies, wisdom texts and narrative tales alongside religious, classical and annalistic texts.. The legal, genealogical, wisdom and narrative collections are the product of native secular druidic/poetic schools whose orally transmitted lore was committed to writing in the seventh century, though the making of lists is known to be one of the earliest uses of literacy and so the genealogies may have been recorded in writing from a much earlier date.. The importance of the genealogical collections in a society in which political power, legal liability and property rights attached to the extended kin group is obvious as is the existence of a conflicting imperative that they be made to reflect aspiration rather than reality.. The extensive crossover of secular and ecclesiastical learning that occurred prior to the thirteenth century repudiation of native secular learning by the Church as it came under greater foreign influence has to some extent mitigated the loss of the earlier writings of the secular schools so that the corpus is transmitted in the first instance in the twelfth century codices of the ecclesiastical schools but thereafter in the codices of the secular schools.. Form.. Agnatic lineages are expressed in narrative form, the two main formulae being the.. genelach.. ('genealogy') ascending vertically in the form.. A m B m C m D.. ('A son of B son of C son of D') and the.. cráebhcoibneasa.. ('nearest branching') descending horizontally in the form.. m A X Y Z.. ('sons of A: X, Y and Z') where.. m.. is the appropriate inflection of the noun.. ('son') for number and case and the personal names of fathers are given in genitive form.. D | C | B | A A_______ X Y Z.. Ascent.. Descent.. Given in isolation these describe a sparse, one-dimensional genealogical space but when grouped in interconnected series they effectively describe the complex, two-dimensional, triangular space inhabited by an extended family.. Brief descriptors of an individual (eg: epithet, office held) are often given but dates are almost always absent as are the names of mothers, wives, sisters and daughters.. Compilation.. The compiler would base his work upon one or more pre-existing genealogical collection.. An earlier edition of a genealogy would be located, edited and merged with contemporary oral genealogies captured by the compiler and presented as part of a new genealogical collection updating the pre-existing genealogical scheme.. Over time successive collections tended to constrain their size through the extensive abridgement of extraneous portions of the scheme so that the genealogy of earlier groups often survives to us as only a single.. Nonetheless, by their copying of earlier materials successive compilers have tended to ensure the survival of the contents of collections now lost and by their geographically asymmetric development of these materials they have tended to ensure an extensive coverage of families of both local and national importance.. Structure.. Lineages descending from or ascending to a nodal ancestor are gathered as blocks of text under a header to form the genealogy of a named family group.. Group names within headers take the form of the dynastic collectives.. Uí.. ,.. Cenél.. Clann.. Síl.. or surname prefixes.. Ua.. Mac.. applied to a personal name in genitive case (or in the earliest remnants of the corpus the tribal collectives.. Dál.. Corcu.. and suffixes.. -rige.. -ne.. -acht.. applied to a person, animal, divinity or occupation) and indicate group descent from an eponym.. Note that the eponym is not always set as the nodal ancestor and that there is no neccessary inconsistency in this as the eponym may validly be an ascendant or descendant of the nodal ancestor.. The major dynamic to be accommodated within the structure is the segmentation from an older group Y of a newer group Z descending from a more recent nodal ancestor.. This is achieved by gathering the segmenting lineages to form group Z and adding a descriptor such as.. otait Z.. ('from whom exists Z') or.. sunn condregait Z.. ('here joins Z') to the appropriate individual in group Y (often as part of a.. ) though the intervening lineage is not always made explicit.. A compiler would  ...   of historical record and so a genealogy can be authenticated by comparing it in earlier and later editions, by dating the individuals named within it by cross reference to their appearance in other historical records and by dead reckoning from these dated points using average generation lengths.. This approach highlights structural weaknesses in the genealogy caused by:.. Fabrication: deliberate error indicated by an impossible chronology, the use of anachronistic names or a long run of obscure individuals converging into a prominent lineage.. Omission: scribal error caused by conflating two individuals of the same name and losing the generations between or conflating two individuals by treating the name of one as the epithet of the other.. Interpolation: scribal error caused by conflating two collateral lines into one overlong line, splitting the name and epithet of one individual to form two individuals or duplicating a string of names.. Transposition: scribal error caused by misplacing a name or misplacing a string of names.. Interpretation: scribal error caused by incorrect extension of abbreviated names, misreading a damaged page or misreading a cramped format.. A better reading may then be conservatively restored.. In the genealogical record, then as now, the written account is secondary being driven by a primary oral account and so the quality of the oral account captured and embedded within the written account also requires assessment.. Anthropological studies have shown that the near-present portion of an oral genealogy is likely to be historically accurate but that beyond lies an area of ambiguity prone to foreshortening, adjustment and resolution into a single line of fathers and sons.. If the interval between successive strata in the written account falls within the historical time of the oral account captured at each stratum then the written account can be said to be the interlinked product of historically accurate oral accounts and so be historically accurate throughout its full length.. Given that texts on Irish customary law indicate the operation of kingroups spanning six generations (the.. indfhine.. with.. ingen ar méraib.. ) then at least six generations would appear to constitute historical time for this purpose.. Historical Horizon.. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the corpus the historical horizon can be determined only at the level of the individual genealogy.. On this basis the historicity of the corpus is found to diminish steadily beyond the twelfth century upon discovery of much spurious convergence so that just a handful of major lineages remain capable of authentication back into the fifth century.. At this point an absolute historical horizon is met as the historical sources fail and we encounter instead the work of seventh century ecclesiastical schools who fabricated a pseudohistory projecting into the distant past known as.. Lebor Gabála Érenn.. ('Book of Invasions of Ireland') by which the Irish nation were inserted into the Christian scheme of universal history set out in the.. Etymologiae.. of Isidore of Seville within which the peoples of Europe were made to descend through Japhet from Noah and Adam.. The genealogical component of this pseudohistory became attached to the corpus at an early date in a scheme that can be seen to proceed from the remote biblical lineages of the.. through various learned fictions, euhemerised divinities and legendary figures to the handful of prominent individuals known to have existed in the fifth and sixth centuries.. The creative process becomes apparent when comparing earlier and later editions of the genealogies to find the earlier reaches adjusted and readjusted to fit the latest version of the pseudohistory.. Unfortunately this pseudohistorical scheme is so early and so thorough that only tantalising fragments of a superseded pre-fifth century genealogical scheme can be discerned from careful analysis of tribal and dynastic origin legends embedded within the early narrative literature.. The pre-Norman Irish genealogies.. , J.. V.. Kelleher,.. Irish Historical Studies.. 16.. The Irish genealogies: their value and defects.. , K.. W.. Nicholls,.. The Irish Genealogist.. 5 (2).. Kingship, genealogies, and regnal lists.. , D.. N.. Dumville,.. Early Medieval Kingship.. , P.. H.. Sawyer and I.. Wood.. Irish origin legends and genealogy: recurrent aetiologies.. Ó Corráin,.. History and Heroic Tale: A Symposium.. , T.. Nyberg et al.. The Irish genealogies as an onomastic source.. , N.. Ó Muraíle,.. Nomina.. Kings, chronicles and genealogies: reconstructing Celtic mediaeval dynasties.. E.. Thornton,.. Family Trees and the Roots of Politics.. S.. B.. Keats-Rohan.. Creating the past: the early Irish genealogical tradition.. Peritia.. 12.. Orality, literacy and genealogy in early medieval Ireland and Wales.. Literacy in Medieval Celtic Societies.. , H.. Pryce..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: The Placename Lochlann.. The standard dictionary of Old and Middle Irish dryly observes that the placename Lochlann exhibits variation in both form and declension [1].. Its earliest citations are to Lothlind found in a marginal verse in a mid-ninth century copy of Priscian's.. Institutiones Grammaticae.. preserved in the monastery of Sankt Gallen in Switzerland [2]:.. Is acher ingaíth innocht.. Fufúasna fairggæ findfholt.. Ní ágor réimm mora minn.. Dondláechraid lainn ua Lothlind.. 'Bitter is the wind tonight.. It tosses the ocean's white hair.. I fear not the coursing of a clear sea.. By the fierce heroes from Lothlind'.. and to Laithlind found declined as.. Laithlinne.. in the.. Annals of Ulster.. in 848:.. Bellum re nOlcobur ri Muman 7 re Lorggan m Cellaig co Laighniu for gennti ecc Sciaith Nechtain in quo ceciderunt Tomrair erell tanise righ Laithlinne 7 da cet dec imbi.. 'A battle was won by Ólchobar king of Munster and Lorcán son of Cellach with the Leinstermen against the pagans at Sciath Nechtain in which fell Tomrair the earl, heir-designate of the king of Laithlind and one thousand two hundred about him'.. In context both Laithlind and Lothlind clearly refer to the homeland of the early Viking raiders.. Carl Marstrander identified Lochlann with Rogaland in Norway on the ground that Rogaland would naturally develop into Lochlann when spoken on the Irish tongue [3] but his argument does not account for the earlier forms of the name.. David Greene considered all forms of the name and contended that it referred to a maritime centre of Viking power, that in its early forms it was an Irish name meaning 'marsh pool' and that interference from Rogaland and remoulding under the influence of the elements.. loch.. ('lake') and.. land.. ('land') resulted in a development to Lochlann and an identification with Norway from the eleventh century onwards [4].. Donnchadh Ó Corráin later posited that it was in origin the seemingly unattested Norse name.. Loðland.. ('Grassy Land') borrowed into Irish and argued unconvincingly on circumstantial evidence that it referred to Viking Scotland but otherwise agreed with Greene that it developed into Lochlann under the influence of 'Lakeland' folk etymology and became identified with Norway from the eleventh century onwards [5].. So while there is agreement on what Lochlann came to mean there is no agreement on its origin.. In this respect it seems significant that none of the above commentators have properly considered a parallel usage in the early narrative literature.. The Otherworld.. In the early narrative literature the Otherworld is a supernatural place inhabited by supernatural beings.. Its space-time coexists invisibly with that of the real world but just occasionally these hidden parallel dimensions open up to permit entry.. Entry is usually unwitting being masked by unusual weather phenomena at an edge or margin such as a seashore, the rampart of a fort or the twilight between night and day.. The beings found within are generally of human form being young and beautiful, wearing clothing rich and wonderful and dwelling in strange homes wrought from unknown metals though on occasion sinister species of grotesque and frightening adversaries are encountered.. These various beings would seem to be artefacts of the gods and goddesses of the old pre-Christian religion reduced to mortality so as to accord with Christian sensibilities.. Upon return to the real world the traveller often experiences a discontinuity of time and space, finding themselves hundreds of years or hundreds of miles from their point of departure despite having been but a short time away [6].. Of present interest Lochlann appears as a northern/eastern overseas Otherworld inhabited by supernatural adversaries in the ninth century tale.. Cath Maige Tuired.. ('Battle of Moytura') [7], in the eleventh century tale.. Siaburcharpat Conculaind.. ('Phantom-chariot of Cúchulainn') [8] and in several subsequent tales.. In rationalising this dual historical/narrative usage Proinsias MacCana held that the Vikings were likely assimilated into pre-existing Otherworld adversaries [9].. Unfortunately MacCana proceeds from the restrictive premise that Lochlann was in origin the name of the Viking homeland and so somewhat forces his conclusion that the narrative usage was a borrowing from the historical usage.. Geography.. Holding to the ancient idea of the earth as a globe lying at the centre of the firmament the medieval worldview finds geographical expression in the schematic.. mappa mundi.. ('map of the world') or.. orbis terrarum.. ('globe of the earth') in whose projection an O-shaped ocean encircles a truncated northern landmass divided into the three continents of Europe, Asia and Africa by a T-shaped body of water representing the Mediterranean, Hellespont and Nile.. Distant lands are embellished with creatures and phenomena taken from readings of the ancient geographers, the Bible and classical mythology.. The  ...   encircling ocean) can clearly be seen to provide a pre-Viking functional prototype for the Lochlann of.. and the text in.. Conclusion.. Lochlann was the name given to both a narrative Otherworld and to the historical homeland of early Viking raiders.. As no linguistic prototype of Lochlann is known to be attested in the Norse sources it would seem economical to conclude that both usages share a common Irish origin, leaving Lochlann as an Otherworld inhabited by supernatural adversaries in the far north brought horribly to life by the sudden emergence of Viking raiders from that quarter.. Having sequenced the narrative before the historical usage (and so freed ourselves from the need to force a prosaic meaning such as 'marsh pool' or 'grassy land') it seems significant that the meaning of Old and Middle Irish words beginning.. laith-.. and.. loth-.. touch at a point suggestive of the mythological ale-vat of sovereignty (.. laith.. in the sense of 'ale', 'liquor', 'intoxicating drink' and.. loth.. in the sense of 'trough', 'vat', 'tub', 'vessel for holding liquid').. The ale-vat of sovereignty is an ancient motif with reflexes in the seventh century Irish tale.. Baile Chuinn Chétchathaig.. ('Ecstatic Vision of Conn of the Hundred Battles'), the Welsh tales of the.. Mabinogi.. and the twelfth/thirteenth century French grail romances in which a man travels unknowingly to an Otherworld hall and there meets a beautiful woman who as goddess of the land dispenses sovereignty as a drink from a golden vessel [14].. The falling together of two words would go some way to explaining the observed variation in form and declension and so Laithlind and Lothlind are perhaps best harmonised as compound placenames displaying the very early adjective + noun word order.. ('ale') +.. lind.. ('pool', 'lake', 'sea', 'ocean') and.. ('vat') +.. ('pool', 'lake', 'sea', 'ocean') being alternate placenames for a body of water said to contain an underwater Otherworld in which sovereignty is contested with supernatural adversaries.. This is an ancient theme with reflexes in the seventh century Irish poem.. Mess-Telmann.. in which a deceased prince of that name is said to have battled.. Fomoire.. ('Under-demons') living beneath the world [15]:.. Mál adrúalaid íathu marb.. Macc sóer Sétnai.. Selaig srathu Fomoire.. Fo doíne domnaib.. 'A prince who has reached the realms of the dead.. The noble son of Sétnae.. Laid waste the vales of the Fomoire.. Under the worlds of men'.. through the eighth century Anglo-Saxon poem.. Beowulf.. in which a monster terrorises a king's drinking-hall from an underwater lair [16] to the enigmatic ninth to twelfth century Welsh poem.. Preiddeu Annwn.. ('Spoils of the Otherworld') in which the legendary king Arthur raids an undersea Otherworld to seize a cauldron [17].. The development of the meaning and form of Lochlann as posited above can be represented in the following stemma:.. Meaning/.. Time pool/lake/sea/ocean of sovereignty ancient | |.. Laithlind.. Lothlind.. | | homeland of Vikings 9th century | lakeland/.. Lochlann.. | Norway 11th century.. While the earlier part must remain conjectural due to a lack of contemporary sources, the fact that the sequencing of the narrative before the historical usage allows us to resolve the two early forms of the name onto a specific narrative motif within a specific narrative theme makes for a powerful, simple and elegant solution.. A solution, moreover, that renders the distant conjunction of theme, motif and place in.. (conflict with Fomoire, cauldron from Otherworld, Otherworld named Lochlann) as something other than coincidence.. Dictionary of the Irish Language: Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials.. , E.. G.. Quin, s.. v.. Lochlann, Lothlainn.. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus.. , W.. Stokes and J.. Strachan, volume 2, 290.. 5.. Miscellaneous - Lochlann.. , C.. Marstrander,.. Ériu.. 5 (1-2).. The influence of Scandinavian on Irish.. Greene,.. Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress.. , B.. Almqvist and D.. Greene.. The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the ninth century.. Time, space and the Otherworld.. Carey,.. Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium.. 7.. A.. Gray, paragraphs 50-51.. The Journal of the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland.. (fourth series) 1 (1), 385.. The influence of the Vikings on Celtic literature.. MacCana,.. Proceedings of the International Congress of Celtic Studies.. 1959.. Onomasticon Goedelicum.. , s.. Lochlainn.. The Lough Foyle colloquy texts.. 52.. The location of the Otherworld in Irish tradition.. Éigse.. 19.. Ireland and the Antipodes: the heterodoxy of Virgil of Salzburg.. Speculum.. 64.. The narrative setting of Baile Chuinn Chétchathaig.. Études Celtiques.. 32.. The Celtic Heroic Age: Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic Europe and Early Ireland and Wales.. T.. Koch and J.. Carey, section 46.. Beowulf: A Verse Translation.. , M.. Alexander.. Preiddeu Annwn and the figure of Taliesin.. Haycock,.. Studia Celtica.. 18/19..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: The Ancestry of Lochlainn.. A written corpus of genealogies was maintained in Ireland from at least the seventh century.. Though the corpus is transmitted to us in genealogical collections of the twelfth century or later, the texts contained within these manuscripts contain archaic language and substrata that indicate that the corpus was regularly updated from earliest times.. We are extremely fortunate in that the Cenél nEoghain genealogy is one of the most fully recorded within the corpus and that the keeping of annals began circa 550 on the island of Iona under Saint Colmcille.. The Iona Chronicle is heavily concerned with the northern Uí Néill kinsmen of Colmcille as is its continuation which was maintained in the north of Ireland from circa 740.. Through various routes of transmission these have supplied the authentic early stratum lying behind all of the extant collections of Irish annals (eg:.. Annals of Inisfallen.. Annals of Tigernach.. ) and this has left the Cenél nEoghain genealogy as one of those most amenable to authentication within the corpus.. The Iona Chronicle and its continuation are best exemplified in the.. which is the product of a compilation of several closely related strands in the eleventh century.. By adopting a conservative methodology and cross referencing the Cenél nEoghain genealogy only to.. entries that have been shorn of all known or suspected interpolation (eg: those written in a later hand in the surviving manuscript, those that betray knowledge of subsequent events, those that are duplicated or are drawn from just one strand indicating insertion during transmission) and which conform to its linguistic gradient (earlier later : Latin Irish) and its stylistic gradient (earlier later : less detail more detail) we are in a position to authenticate the genealogy by reference to annals that have every appearance of being contemporaneous.. It is not known when the entries prior to circa 550 were inserted into the annals so we are advised to carefully analyse every such entry on which we seek to rely and evaluate it strictly on its own merits.. The death entry of Eoghan son of Niall reported in 465:.. with the exception of personal name and patronymic is completely in Latin and so conforms to the linguistic gradient.. is bare of any detail other than the fact of death and so conforms to the stylistic gradient.. refers to an important northern Uí Néill event and so would have been of interest to the circa 550 annalist.. concerns an event that would have been within living memory during the lifetime of the circa 550 annalist and so is contemporary at commencement of recording.. is free of any computation or synchronism indicating reconstruction by reference to surrounding entries and so is recorded with some confidence.. is written in the main hand in the surviving manuscript and so was likely in the older manuscript that this was copied from.. betrays no knowledge of subsequent events and so appears contemporary.. is not duplicated across two or more years resulting from difficulties in harmonising dates across the various strands indicating that it was present in the earliest stratum prior to its transmission through these various strands and so is of any early date.. is not introduced with a formula indicating incomplete transmission across the various strands such as 'Others say.. ' indicating that it was present in the earliest stratum prior to its transmission through these various strands and so is of any early date.. approximates to the average generation length observable in later generations.. is consistent with early tradition placing Eoghan as a contemporary of Saint Patrick who died circa 492.. reflects the nested nomenclature Uí Néill Cenél nEoghain attested in the earliest stratum from 563 onwards.. and so may be admitted to the authentication.. Unfortunately the entry finds no parallel corroboration in the.. due to a gap in the surviving text or the.. which have suffered abbreviation but this is in the nature of these early sources and so does not render the entry any less reliable a witness.. Much the same argument can be made for the admission of the somewhat less laconic death entry of Muircheartach reported in 534 except that this time the entry finds parallel corroboration in the.. in 532 and so clearly forms part of the authentic early stratum lying behind all of the extant collections of Irish annals.. On this basis the authenticated lineage of Lochlainn from the fifth century to the ninth century is as follows [1]:.. Niall Noígiallach, son obit 465 | Eoghan, obit 465 | Muireadhach | Muircheartach Mac Ercae, obit 534 | Domhnall Ilchelgach, obit 566 | Aedh Uaridnach, obit 612 | Maolfithrich, obit 630 | Maolduin, obit 681 | Fearghal, obit 722 | Niall Frossach, obit 778 | Aedh Oirdnide, obit 819 | Niall Caille, obit 846 | Aedh Findliath, obit 879.. The genealogical collections proceed to give Aedh Findliath two sons and at this point the genealogy of Clann Néill diverges from that of Clann Domhnaill.. We know from a reading of the annals that Clann Néill were in control of Tullaghoge and the south of Tír nEoghain and bore the surname O Neill while Clann Domhnaill were in control of Inishowen and the north and seem not to have borne a surname.. The genealogical collections show the MacLochlainns of Inishowen originating in the following eleventh century lineage [2]:.. Lochlainn | Ardghal, obit 1064 | Domhnall, obit 1121.. A problem presents itself at this point as the genealogical collections bridge the gap between Aedh Findliath and Lochlainn with two alternative lineages (one through Clann Néill and one through Clann Domhnaill) rendering Lochlainn's lineage through the tenth century controversial.. Ardghal died in 1064 so we might expect his father to have flourished in the early eleventh century.. The only member of the Cenél nEoghain named Lochlainn to be mentioned in the annals around that time appears in 1023 in a death entry given most fully in the.. of a Lochlainn who was ruler of Inishowen and Magh Iotha with father Maelsechlainn and brother Niall.. Maelsechlainn has an alternate spelling Maelsechnaill [3] and so we can construct the following mini-genealogy from the entry:.. Maelsechlainn/Maelsechnaill |__________ | | Niall Lochlainn, obit 1023.. When the genealogical collections are augmented with this mini-genealogy they indicate that there may be two Lochlainns each with a single lineage back to Aedh Findliath rather than a single Lochlainn with two alternative lineages.. In the analysis that follows the ancestor of the MacLochlainns of Inishowen is referred to as Lochlainn A (A for ancestor) while the ruler of Inishowen and Magh Iotha is referred to as Lochlainn R (R for ruler) allowing the question to be formulated as follows.. Are Lochlainn A and Lochlainn R two people or are they two aspects of the same person?.. The Evidence.. The Cenél nEoghain genealogy in the fifteenth century manuscript Laud 610 [4] is a copy of a compilation made circa 1050 and terminates at a point at which the identification of Lochlainn R can be inferred but is silent as regards Lochlainn A:.. Aedh Findliath |____________________________ | | Domhnall Niall Glúndubh | | Flann Muircheartach : | : Domhnall : | Maelsechnaill Muireadhach |__________ | | Niall.. Lochlainn R.. Laud 610 is in normal text and the inference made is highlighted.. Note the discontinuity between Flann and Maelsechnaill which is bridged by the descriptor.. diatá.. ('as a consequence exists').. The Clann Néill and Clann Domhnaill genealogies in the twelfth century manuscript Rawlinson B502 [5] compiled circa 1120 are the earliest genealogical source in which Lochlainn A can be identified:.. Aedh Findliath |____________________________ | | Domhnall Niall Glúndubh | | Flann Muircheartach | | Maelruanaid Domhnall | |___________________ | | | Maelsechnaill Muireadhach Muircheartach |_________ | | | | | | Niall.. Lochlainn.. A.. Flaithbhertach | | | Aedh Ardghal Niall | | Domhnall Aedh.. Rawlinson B502 is in normal text and the inferences made are highlighted.. Lochlainn A is clearly a separate person to Lochlainn R.. Note that the Clann Néill and Clann Domhnaill genealogies flow straightforwardly from the earlier genealogy of Laud 610.. Note also that the lineage of Aedh son of Niall on the far right appears in the manuscript as an alternative lineage under the Latin header.. item.. ('also') immediately following the Clann Domhnaill lineage ascending from Aedh son of Niall on the far left.. Taken together with the discontinuity between Flann and Maelsechnaill in Laud 610 we can see that the Clann Domhnaill genealogy is somewhat uncertain even at this early stage with the Clann Domhnaill representative Aedh son of Niall having an alternative ascent through Flaithbhertach (clearly the prominent Cenél nEoghain ruler Flaithbhertach an Trosdáin O Neill who died in 1036) rather than Clann  ...   Iotha and Ardghal in 1053 and the men of Magh Iotha and Domhnall in 1080 flowed from the relationship that Ardghal and Domhnall enjoyed with Magh Iotha as descendants of Lochlainn R.. This is a very rash presumption given the rapidly shifting loyalties that were a feature of contemporary dynastic politics and so there seems little basis for his conclusion beyond its circularity.. Donnchadh Ó Corráin [9] attempted to remove the contradiction in the 1099 entry in the.. by re-interpreting the text so that Domhnall becomes a descendant of Flann and Niall [Noígiallach] rather than Flann and Niall [Glúndubh].. As Flann is himself a descendant of Niall Noígiallach Ó Corráin declares the entry in full support of the.. then goes on to suggest that the genealogy in Rawlinson B502 was faked in order to confer a more glorious ancestry upon the MacLochlainn dynasty.. We have seen above, however, that the verse in question is a late marginal interpolation and so its re-interpretation clearly offers us nothing of value at this point.. Of the faking allegation, moreover, all that can be said is that it would appear to be nothing but an unsupported conspiracy theory by which the contrary evidence is wished away.. Francis J Byrne [10] asserted that the 1064 entry in the.. was characteristic of a genealogical gloss silently interpolated into the main text of the annals so reducing its value as a witness.. He does not elaborate upon his assertion, however, which would seem to leave it as yet another conspiracy theory but when we work through the scenario we see that the 1064 entry harmonises with the Rawlinson B502 genealogy only when interpreted as (personal name)(patronymic)(surname) and so the genealogical content (the patronymic.. ) is irrelevant even if it were silently interpolated because the remainder of the entry still witnesses that Ardghal bore the surname O Neill as a member of Clann Néill consistent with Rawlinson B502.. The assertion of Byrne would thus appear to be unsustainable.. A New Theory.. Having dealt with these arguments one important question still remains.. Why does the.. contradict Rawlinson B502? We should always be open to the possibility of medieval Irish genealogies being reinventions of the past with the macro-relationships between lineages being periodically recast in order to validate the status quo by projecting it unchanged into the distant past [11].. I would suggest that the.. genealogy is the product of just such a construct created in order to underpin an important territorial settlement that occurred in the interim between compilation of the Rawlinson B502 genealogical collection circa 1120 and compilation of the.. genealogical collection circa 1170.. From a reading of the annals the lineage that gave rise to the MacLochlainn dynasty migrated northwards between the death of Ardghal in Tullaghoge in 1064 and the death of Domhnall in Derry in 1121.. Clann Domhnaill fade from view during this time and the MacLochlainn dynasty become paramount across Tír nEoghain until 1167 when the north/south split is reimposed by the O Connor dynasty of Connacht.. According to the.. in 1167:.. ro rann Ua Conchobhair an tír i ndó i Tír Eoghain o Shléibh Challain fo thuaidh do Niall Ua Lachlainn dar cend da bhrághadh i Ua Catháin na Craoibhe 7 mac An Ghaill Uí Bhrain 7 Cenél Eoghain ó Shlebh fo dheas do Aedh Ua Néill dar cend dá bhrághatt oile i Ua Maoil Aedha do Chenél Aonghusa 7 hUa hUrthuile do hUibh Tuirtre.. 'O Connor divided the territory into two parts, that is Tír nEoghain north of Slieve Gallion to Niall MacLochlainn for two hostages [named] and south of the mountain to Aedh O Neill for two other hostages [named]'.. If we tabulate the reigns of the territorial rulers appearing on a terminal generation in the particular.. genealogical tract in which the King of Aileach genealogy appears we find that with the exception of Connacht the reigns overlap only within the range 1152-1153:.. Ulster 1131-1157 Meath 1152-1155 Scotland 1124-1153 Desmond 1143-1185 Thomond 1118-1167 Leinster 1126-1171 Ossory 1151-1162 Aileach 1136-1166 Airgialla 1127-1168 Connacht 1156-1183 Breffni 1128-1172.. This indicates that the.. genealogical tract was in origin an O Connor of Connacht document produced between 1152 and 1153 to which the genealogy of the currently extant O Connor has been added by the.. compiler.. I would suggest that the MacLochlainn genealogy contained within the document was created in order to legitimise a territorial settlement agreed in advance between O Connor and the O Neill opposition within Tír nEoghain.. The MacLochlainn dynasty were to be restricted to Inishowen and the north so they were made to descend from the by then obscure Clann Domhnaill of Inishowen by conflating Lochlainn A and Lochlainn R.. The O Neill opposition were to be given Tullaghoge and the south so they were made to descend from Clann Néill of Tullaghoge by splicing them vertically onto the prominent Cenél nEoghain ruler Flaithbhertach an Trosdáin O Neill.. This created a sideways shift in the genealogies as they were first brought into line with the proposed settlement then pressed into service by incorporation within the.. to confer legitimacy upon it.. In summary the MacLochlainn genealogy was recast by O Connor for political purposes as follows:.. Aedh Findliath |_________________ | | Domhnall Niall Glúndubh |.. Clann Domhnaill.. |.. Clann Néill.. Flann Muircheartach | | Maelruanaid Domhnall | |___________________ | | | Maelsechnaill Muireadhach Muircheartach | ----------------| | Niall Lochlainn Flaithbhertach | | | ----------------| Aedh Ardghal Niall.. Aedh.. | | | Domhnall Aedh.. Domhnall.. | |.. Niall.. Flaithbhertach.. Muircheartach.. Conor.. Niall MacLochlainn.. Tadhg.. Inishowen 1167.. |.. Aedh O Neill.. Tullaghoge 1167.. Rawlinson B502 is the precursor and is in normal text.. The shifting territorial position to be accounted for within the artificial construct and the generations accruing subsequent to Rawlinson B502 are highlighted.. The sideways shift is shown as -----------.. Aedh Findliath.. |_________________ | |.. Niall Glúndubh | |.. Flann.. Muircheartach | |.. Maelruanaid.. Domhnall | |___________________ | | |.. Maelsechnaill.. Muireadhach Muircheartach | ----------- |.. Flaithbhertach | | -----------.. Ardghal.. Aedh | |.. Domhnall | |.. Flaithbhertach | |.. Conor | | Niall MacLochlainn Tadhg | Muircheartach | Aedh O Neill.. The MacLochlainn genealogy accruing subsequent to Rawlinson B502 can be authenticated from entries in the annals but the O Neill genealogy cannot so I would contend that the O Neill genealogy accruing subsequent to Rawlinson B502 and the conflation of Lochlainn A and Lochlainn R are an artificial construct of which the.. genealogy highlighted is a product.. On a methodological level this new theory dispenses with the need for a seperate theory addressing the other major problem in Cenél nEoghain genealogy (the unauthenticated and overlong O Neill genealogy [12]) and so is to be preferred for its economy leaving Lochlainn A firmly identified as a member of Clann Néill with an authenticated lineage back to the fifth century as follows [13]:.. Niall Noígiallach, son obit 465 | Eoghan, obit 465 | Muireadhach | Muircheartach Mac Ercae, obit 534 | Domhnall Ilchelgach, obit 566 | Aedh Uaridnach, obit 612 | Maolfithrich, obit 630 | Maolduin, obit 681 | Fearghal, obit 722 | Niall Frossach, obit 778 | Aedh Oirdnide, obit 819 | Niall Caille, obit 846 | Aedh Findliath, obit 879 | Niall Glúndubh, obit 919 | Muircheartach, obit 943 | Domhnall, obit 980 | Muireadhach, son obit 1015 | Lochlainn.. As a final point I would note that the ancestor of choice among the twelfth century Cenél nEoghain is clearly the prominent eleventh century ruler Flaithbhertach an Trosdáin O Neill having been appropriated as an ancestor by both Clann Domhnaill and the O Neill opposition that came to power in 1167.. The authenticated MacLochlainn genealogy makes no such illustrious claim but proceeds instead through the relatively obscure and non-regnant Muireadhach for little apparent gain so one might now hope that even conspiracy theories holding that the MacLochlainn genealogy was faked in order to confer a more glorious ancestry might finally be laid to rest.. A New History of Ireland.. Moody et al, volume 9, 127 - 128.. ibid.. , 128 - 129.. Gaelic Personal Names.. Ó Corráin and F.. Maguire, s.. Máel Sechnaill.. The Laud genealogies and tribal histories.. Meyer,.. Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie.. 8, 294.. Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae.. O Brien, 175-176.. , variant reading, 175-176.. The Ua Briain kingship in Telach Óc.. Hogan,.. Féilsgríbhinn Eóin Mhic Néill.. Ua Riain.. Gleanings From Ulster History.. , S.. Ó Ceallaigh, 73 - 85.. Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn and the circuit of Ireland.. Seanchas.. Studies in Early and Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis J.. Byrne.. , A.. P.. Smyth.. Irish Kings and High-Kings.. , F.. J.. Byrne (2nd ed, 2001), xxxvi-xxxvii.. , 85 - 87.. , volume 9, 128..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Political Geography of the North.. Early medieval Ireland was layered into a shifting hierarchy of political entities the content and boundaries of which remain largely unknown.. The earliest divisions of which we are aware are the.. cóiceda.. ('fifths').. That Ireland was anciently a pentarchy is indicated by the use throughout the historic period of the term.. to describe the provinces even though they numbered other than five.. From an examination of tribal and dynastic origin-legends embedded in the early narrative literature the five prehistoric.. would seem to have been Ulaid ('Ulster'), Mumu ('Munster'), Laigin ('Leinster'), Connachta ('Connacht') and Mide ('Middle').. These prehistoric.. may be broadly equated to the four modern provinces of Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connacht saving territory for a fifth province now vanished of unknown extent lying at their intersection.. This scheme may be restored to create the territorial position prior to an event that can then be presumed as the earliest knowable event in Irish history, the breaking of this ancient scheme by sons of Niall Noígiallach upon their conquest of a large part of western Ulster in the fifth century.. Shown in the seventh century regnal list.. ('Ecstatic Vision of Conn of the Hundred Battles') as having held the nationally important sacral kingship of Tara around the middle of the fifth century, Niall's own origins will forever remain obscure for want of historical records but to the faint reverberation of ancient battles men who by their patronymics are clearly his sons and grandsons emerge from prehistory into the earliest stratum of the.. as the Uí Néill ('Descendants of Niall'), a young dynasty already in possession of the kingship of Tara and an arc of cross-provincial territory extending from Tara in northern Leinster through northern Connacht to Inishowen in western Ulster.. By the eleventh century the dominant political entity in the north of Ireland was Tír nEoghain ('Land of Eoghan') which was the territory directly ruled by the leader of the Cenél nEoghain.. An unravelling of references to this territory and its rulers in the annals, saints' lives and genealogies indicates an origin in a petty kingdom on the Inishowen peninsula ruled by Eoghan son of Niall who died in 465 [1].. Lying to the east was an area occupied by a people known as Airgialla ('Hostage-givers') who seem to have been a loose grouping of tribes once tributary to Ulaid that buffered the eastern remnants of Ulaid from the encroaching Uí Néill.. At a very early date the petty kingdom appears to have expanded its territory eastward across the river Foyle into the Airgialla territories delimited by the Sperrin mountains so that by the time of the battle of Móin Daire Lothair in 563 it  ...   Conaill ('Land of Conall') which was the territory of the Cenél Conaill ('People of Conall').. An unravelling of references relating to this territory and its rulers indicates an origin in a petty kingdom ruled by Conall son of Niall Noígiallach on the peninsulas and hinterlands lying west of Inishowen though his existence is unattested until 586 [7].. By the seventh century this petty kingdom had expanded south to include the territory of Magh Iotha delimited to the north by the estuary of the river Swilly and elsewhere by the western basin of the river Foyle [8].. By the ninth century it extended to Assaroe in the south but by that time opportunities for further territorial growth had been limited by the expansion of Tír nEoghain southward into Magh Iotha [9].. Prior to the seventh century Magh Iotha would seem to have been the territory of the elusive Cenél nÉndae ('People of Énna') whose slender genealogical remains ascend to an otherwise unattested Énna son of Niall Noígiallach whose petty kingdom this may once have been.. It was to remain highly contested between the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEoghain and one is left with the strong impression that the border here changed frequently, one such border being preserved in the boundary between the dioceses of Raphoe and Derry that has bisected the area since the twelfth or thirteenth century.. From sometime before 563 the Cenél nEoghain had joined with the Cenél Conaill (and presumably the Cenél nÉndae) in a northern Uí Néill overkingdom of.. In Tuaisceart.. ('The North') [10] which was in turn joined with the southern Uí Néill under the kingship of Tara.. A cross-referencing of annals and genealogies shows that the overkingship of The North was held between the Cenél nEoghain and the Cenél Conaill but by the ninth century the increased resources that became available to the Cenél nEoghain shifted the balance of power to such an extent that the Cenél Conaill were excluded from the overkingship thereafter [11].. From the ninth century the overkingdom is increasingly referred to as Aileach, from the tenth and eleventh centuries a new segmental nomenclature Tír nEoghain/Tír Conaill is applied to the territories lying within and in the twelfth century Tír Conaill is made immediately subject to the MacLochlainn rulers of Tír nEoghain [12].. , 465.. , 563.. Lee, Ard Eolorg.. , 827.. The Tripartite Life of Patrick.. Stokes, 155.. Both Domnaich.. , 1012.. Telach Ócc.. , 1113.. , 586.. The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh.. , L.. Bieler, Tírechán 47 (3).. Bernas, Bernas Conaill, Bernas Macc Conill, Mag Itho.. , 149 and 151.. Es Ruaid, Bernas.. Irish regnal succession: a reappraisal.. Studia Hibernica.. 11, 30.. , 867, 921, 1012, 1113..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: The Grianan of Aileach is a circular stone fort crowning the westernmost peak of the heights dominating the isthmus leading onto the Inishowen peninsula.. The structure is encircled by three earth ramparts, contains numerous passages, staircases and terraces within the thickness of its massive single wall and is thought to date from the Iron Age.. In the twelfth century body of onomastic tradition known as.. dinnshenchas.. ('place-lore') the structure is said to have been built upon a burial site in the time of an ancient people known as the Tuatha Dé Danann who were possessed of magical powers [1].. Modern historians believe the Tuatha Dé Danann to be artefacts of the gods and goddesses of the old pre-Christian religion reduced to mortality so as to accord with Christian sensibilities by seventh century ecclesiastical schools as they fabricated a pseudohistory projecting into the distant past known as.. ('Book of Invasions of Ireland').. So while we should not regard this tradition as being historical it could well be the case that the structure was built upon the site of a Bronze Age tumulus whose remains were still visible in the twelfth century.. What we do know is that the Grianan of Aileach first comes to the notice of history as a distinct structure in 676 as Aileach Fringrenn ('Aileach of Frigriu') within the earliest stratum of the.. [2].. According to the twelfth century.. Frigriu was one of the builders of the structure, though in the way of such tradition this is likely a fanciful rationalisation of a meaning that had long become obscure.. The modern placename Grianan of Aileach is an anglicisation of a placename attested from the twelfth century [3] formed from the elements.. gríanán.. ('solarium', 'summer-palace') and the name of the district (.. Aileach.. , 'Stony Place') within which the structure lies.. With the name of the district declined into genitive form the placename becomes Gríanán Ailigh ('Solarium/Summer-palace of Aileach').. The seasonal occupation implied by its name and inhospitable position would place the structure in constellation with winter quarters that can be posited to have existed at an intervisible high status site upon an irregular rocky outcrop now occupied by the remains of a fourteenth century enclosure castle at Elagh (an anglicisation of Aileach) in the fertile southern lowlands of the peninsula.. The ninth century hagiography.. Bethu Phátraic.. ('[Tripartite] Life of Patrick') narrates a circuit said to have been made by the Christian missionary Saint Patrick around the northern half of Ireland in the fifth century.. Of present interest it contains an account telling how  ...   they serve to bolster the Cenél nEoghain by indicating that they enjoy the favour of God.. The basic framework of the account would, however, appear to be more robust.. An.. Eogan i Fid Mór.. ('Eoghan at Great Boundary Tree') incident is referenced in eighth century.. notulae.. ('brief notes') contained within the.. Book of Armagh.. that act as an index to a lost collection of early traditions relating to Patrick [5] and so the account can be seen to reflect a more authentic early tradition of which we can say no more than it concerned a meeting between Eoghan and Patrick that took place upon a boundary marked by a tree.. In medieval Ireland a person was inaugurated into kingship by way of a ceremony during which he stood upon a flagstone or sat upon a stone chair that was consecrated to that purpose.. Whatever its provenance we might expect to find such an object at a royal site as important as the Grianan of Aileach.. No such flagstone or stone chair has yet been found within its precincts but a small tumulus now barely visible between the outer earthen banks could well be the place where such an object once lay.. Three miles away in the northern suburbs of modern Derry lies a flagstone commonly known as Saint Columb's Stone.. Lying next to a mound known as Saint Columb's Mount and having the impression of two feet left and right sculpted into its upper surface it is strongly suggestive of a flagstone upon which a person would stand while being inaugurated into kingship.. The Grianan of Aileach was seriously damaged during an incursion by the O Brien dynasty of Munster into the north in 1101 and thereafter seems to have been abandoned as a royal residence in favour of Derry so it may be that Saint Columb's Stone was moved from the Grianan of Aileach closer to Derry at that time.. As for the Grianan of Aileach it would seem to have been left to quietly deteriorate in its remote position until attracting the interest of antiquarians in the nineteenth century [6].. The upper reaches of its walls have since been rebuilt from fallen masonry and it is now in the care of the Irish state.. The Metrical Dindshenchas,.. E.. Gwynn,.. Royal Irish Academy Todd Lecture Series,.. volume 11.. , 676.. The circuit of Ireland by Muircheartach mac Neill prince of Aileach.. O Donovan,.. Tracts Relating to Ireland.. , volume 1.. Stokes, 153.. Bieler, notula 9.. Colby's Ordnance Survey Memoir of Londonderry.. , 217 - 234..

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  • Title: Genealogy of the MacLochlainn Families of Inishowen
    Descriptive info: Medieval Irish Kingship.. The office of.. Ard Rí Érenn.. ('high king of Ireland') was in origin a pseudohistorical construct of the seventh and eighth centuries in which a kingship of all Ireland projecting into the distant past was placed atop the fragmented pyramid of kingship actually existing at that time.. The concept of a high kingship fed back into the political consciousness and acted as a spur to greater centralisation so that it was converted into the political reality of a kingship of Ireland by the middle of the ninth century.. Unfortunately until quite recently the historical development of kingship in Ireland has been expressed in simplistic terms for political purposes with an Irish viewpoint emphasising national unity in the notion of the high kingship and a British viewpoint emphasising national division in the notion of Irish kingship as a fragmented tribal savagery requiring external intervention.. Neither of these schools is correct.. The historical reality as currently understood is more complex and more closely mirrors the development of national kingship elsewhere in Europe.. Early Irish kingship was sacral in character.. In the early narrative literature a king is a king because he marries the mythological sovereignty goddess, is free from blemish, enforces symbolic.. buada.. ('prerogatives') and avoids symbolic.. gessa.. ('supernatural injunctions', 'taboos').. According to the seventh and eighth century law tracts a hierarchy of kingship and clientship progressed from the.. rí.. ('king') of a single petty kingdom through the.. ruiri.. ('overking') of several petty kingdoms to a.. rí ruirech.. ('king of overkings') who was regional king.. Regardless of their position in the hierarchy each king ruled directly only within the bounds of his own petty kingdom and was responsible for ensuring good government by exercising.. fír flaithemon.. ('ruler's truth'), convening its.. óenach.. ('assembly', 'fair'), raising taxes, public works, external relations, defence, emergency legislation, law enforcement and promulgating legal judgement.. The lands within the petty kingdom were held allodially but bonds of clientship had created a population stratified into grades of noble, free and unfree and so the king was drawn from the dominant.. fine.. ('kin') within the.. cenél.. ('people'), a group encompassing the noble kingroups within the petty kingdom.. Even at the time these law tracts were being written these petty kingdoms were being swept away by newly emerging dynasties of dynamic overkings.. The most successful of these dynasties were the Uí Néill who as holders of the nationally important sacral kingship of Tara had been conquering petty kingdoms, expelling their rulers and agglomerating their territories under the direct rule of their expanding kindred since the fifth century.. Native and foreign, pagan and Christian ideals were commingled to form a new paradigm of kingship.. The pagan ideal of  ...   anew generation by generation and held by force of personality rather than right in law.. By the twelfth century the continued agglomeration of territory and consolidation of kingship saw the few remaining regional kings abandoning the traditional royal sites for the cities, employing ministers and governors, receiving advice from an.. oireacht.. ('court', 'assembly') of noble counsellors, presiding at reforming synods and maintaining standing armies against the background of a national kingship that was becoming less intermittent.. Early royal succession had been by alternation between collateral branches of the wider dynasty but succession was now confined to a series of father/son, brother/brother and uncle/nephew successions within a small royal.. marked by an exclusive surname.. These compact families of O Brien of Munster, MacLochlainn of The North and O Connor of Connacht intermarried and competed against each other on a national basis so that in the decades before the Anglo-Norman incursion of 1169 even their regional kingdoms were divided, dismembered and transformed into fiefs held from (or in rebellion against) one of their number seeking to confine succession to a real and continuous kingship of Ireland within his own family.. As the twelfth century Norman-French.. chanson de geste.. composed in celebration of the incursion.. The Song of Dermot and the Earl.. was to observe:.. En Yrland erent reis plusur.. Cum alures erent les cunturs.. Mes qui tent Mithe e Leynistere.. E Desmund e Munestere.. E Connoth e Uluestere.. Que jadis tendrent le sis frere.. Qui celes tenent sunt chef reis.. De Yrlande solum les Yrreis.. 'In Ireland there were several kings.. As elsewhere there were earls.. But whoever holds Meath and Leinster.. And Desmond and Munster.. And Connacht and Ulster.. Which formerly the six brothers held.. Whosoever holds these are high kings.. Of Ireland according to the Irish'.. This valuable contemporary benchmarking of an inflated Irish nomenclature against its more prosaic continental equivalent finds distant reflection in the fourteenth century German armorial.. Uffenbach Roll.. in which arms are attributed (albeit anachronistically) not just to a kingship of Ireland but also to four regional.. grafs.. ('counts').. It becomes clear that by 1169 the plethora of sovereignties that had covered Ireland in the early medieval period had vanished and that their kingships survived in mere antiquarian form as the titular accoutrements of mediatized rulers and appointed officials functioning at the level of earl or count within a greater national sovereignty.. Nationality and kingship in pre-Norman Ireland.. Historical Studies.. 11, T.. Moody.. A Guide to Early Irish Law.. Kelly.. Early Irish Kingship and Succession.. Jaski.. The Song of Dermot and Earl Richard Fitzgilbert.. Conlon, 142 - 143.. Some English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish arms in medieval continental rolls.. M.. Collins,.. The Antiquaries Journal.. 21..

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  • Archived pages: 25