www.archive-org-2014.com » ORG » S » SSAUGANDA

Choose link from "Titles, links and description words view":

Or switch to "Titles and links view".

    Archived pages: 42 . Archive date: 2014-01.

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: You are Here:.. Land.. Land Overview.. Land Overview.. SSA:UHSNET recognises the fact that the first essential condition for a vibrant and well-functioning housing sector is the availability of residential land, in ample supply and at affordable prices.. The network is working closely with other stakeholders in the sector to lobby and advocate for access to land for adequate shelter for vulnerable groups through building capacity of such groups to understand and articulate their rights to land and housing, facilitate engagement with key players involved in the issue, suggest interventions that would more effectively address the problem and generating awareness of the issues facing communities without formal access to land in urban areas.. Land is highly volatile and political issue.. In Uganda, land continues to be a critical area, as it is an essential pillar for both human life and national development.. The land question in Uganda has origins in the legacy of colonialism, wherein historical injustices deprived some communities of their ancestral lands that resulted in multiplicity of tenure regimes, multiple rights and interests overlapping on the same piece of land, and a heritage  ...   Uganda Land Commission.. It also abolished the Mailo system of land tenure and converted them into leaseholds of 99 years.. These were then vested to public bodies and to 999 years where individuals held these.. Although the Decree was not fully implemented, it persisted until 1995 when a new constitution was enacted, which reinstated the old tenure systems and gave land ownership back to the citizens of Uganda with the following land tenure systems: customary, freehold, Mailo and leasehold.. The Government also has also formulated a National Land Policy, through a widely consultative process.. Policy proposals in this draft of the National Land Policy, among other things, seeks to re-orient the land sector in national development by articulating management co-ordination between the land sector and other productive areas to enhance the contribution of the sector to social and economic development of the country.. The policy also recognizes the fact that Uganda has no human settlements and urbanization policy to guide the sector and proposes the need for government to formulate these policies in order to undertake a comprehensive plan for orderly and sustainable development..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=landoverview
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Land Policy.. Policy and legal framework.. The policy and legal framework that defines human settlements in Uganda are:.. Constitution.. Uganda National Land Policy.. The 1998 Land Act.. Land management institutions in Uganda.. Etteka lyetaka empya.. Land Amendment Act.. The 1995 constitution of Uganda abolished the land reform decree and re-stated the systems of customary land tenure, freehold tenure, leasehold tenure and Mailo tenure.. It also made new and radical changes in the relationship between the state and land ownership in Uganda it declared that land in Uganda would henceforth belong to the citizens of Uganda.. In the Constitution it is stated:.. Land in Uganda belongs to the citizens of Uganda and shall vest in them in accordance with the following land tenure systems-customary, freehold, mailo and leasehold [Article 237].. The Constitution sets out quite detailed provisions in relation to land rights, while leaving other provisions to be determined by.. subsequent legislation.. It permits the Government, or a local government body, to acquire land in the public interest, subject to the provisions of Article 26 of the Constitution, which protects people from being arbitrarily deprived of their property rights.. Article 26 states:.. Every person has a right to own property either individually or in association with others.. [Article 26 [1].. Uganda National Land Policy.. The Government embarked on the process of formulating a National Land Policy through a widely consultative process.. The vision of the policy is: ".. Sustainable and optimal use of land and land based-resources for the transformation of the Uganda society and the economy.. ".. The goal of the policy is to: ".. Ensure efficient, equitable utilization and sustainable utilization and management of Uganda s land and land based resources for poverty reduction, wealth creation and overall social economic development.. The policy came at a time were land conflicts began occurring and have now ensued and are spreading nationwide, which includes massive eviction of people from land and increased dispossession of rights holders.. Objectives of the National Land Policy, among others, include:.. Stimulate the contribution of the land sector to overall socio economic development, wealth creation and poverty reduction in Uganda;.. Ensure planned, environmentally friendly, affordable and orderly development of human settlements for both rural and urban areas, including infrastructure development;.. Reform and streamline land rights administration to ensure efficient, effective and equitable delivery of land services;.. Harmonize all land related laws, and strengthen institutional capacity at all  ...   denies women access to ownership, occupation or use of any land or violates the rights of women in the 1995 constitution is null and void.. The 2004 amendment to the Land Act gives all spouses the right to security of occupancy on family land and requires consent of the spouses for transactions of family land.. The Land Act further outlines what obligations tenants and landlords have towards one another.. The 2010 an amendment was made to the Land Act which requires court orders for a lawful or bona fide tenant on Mailo land to be evicted, and also requires landlords looking to sell to give tenants the first option to buy.. The land act follows the overall government policy of decentralised land management and dispute settlement mechanisms.. The legislation requires the creation of a large number of new institutions for land management administration and land dispute dissolution.. The land management hierarchy starts with the.. Uganda Land Commission.. , which is responsible for all government land and related issues.. The.. District Land Board is.. independent from the Uganda Land Commission and from any other government.. It is in charge of all land at the district level.. It is also responsible for, among others things, for managing and allocating land that does not belong to anyone, assist in recording, registering and transferring claims on land; mark, survey, plan, map and draw estimates on land; and maintain and revise lists of rates of compensation for loss or damage of property.. The.. District Land Office.. issues certificates of title and has technical officers such as physical planners, the land officer, the district valuer, the district survey and the district surveyor and the district registrar of titles.. Together these persons give technical advice to the District Land Board to enable the board to carry out its functions.. Area land committee [.. district.. ].. Assists the District Land Board on land matters, especially regarding the rights of customary land, helps people obtain certificate of customary tenure and certificates of occupancy, protects the land rights of women, children and persons with disabilities.. Recorder.. [Sub County, town, township, and division in the city], Accepts application for and issues certificates of occupancy and certificates of customary ownership, and keeps records of certificate of occupancy and certificates of customary ownership.. Land Dispute Resolution Institutions in Uganda include.. local council courts, magistrate courts, high court, traditional authorities, and mediators.. Back to top..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=landpolicy
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Land Rights.. The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda was adopted in 1995 and is the supreme law and has binding force on all authorities and persons throughout Uganda.. It contains one chapter which provides extensive protection of human rights, including: the right to equality and freedom from discrimination; protection from deprivation of property (article26 [1]); right to privacy of person, home and other property (article27); right to a fair and public hearing; freedom of movement and assembly; right to marry and equal rights in marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution ; and a right to just and fair treatment in administrative decisions.. All of these rights, which are in line with international human rights standards, have a potential bearing on land rights.. Chapter IV of the Constitution also provides for affirmative action in favor of groups marginalized on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.. Article 32 states that Women shall be  ...   rights and states that: the law shall accord special protection to orphans and other vulnerable children.. The land act also provides for protection of women rights.. For example:.. If your husband wants to sell, lease, exchange, transfer or mortgage land on which you live, you must personally give your permission in writing to the Land Committee.. If you have your own land, and your husband lives there, your husband must also consent to a sale, lease, exchange, transfer or mortgage of the land.. You may lodge an objection (called a caveat) on the certificate of title or on the certificate of customary ownership as a way of telling the public to consent to transactions of land.. The law does not allow for women to be discriminated against in decisions relating to land.. Any decision taken on customary land which denies a women ownership, occupation or use of land is illegal.. There are systems in place to provide for appeals inn any courts of law in case she is aggrieved by a decision on land..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=landrights
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Land Tenure.. Land Tenure Systems.. There are four types of land tenure systems recognised by the Constitution of Uganda; Customary, Mailo, freehold and lease hold.. The Land Act 1998 defines freehold tenure as a tenure that derives its legality from the Constitution and the written law.. Freehold tenure may involve either a grant of land in perpetuity, or for a lesser specified time period.. The Act specifies that the holder of land in freehold has full power of ownership of it.. This means that he or she may use it for any lawful purpose and sell, rent, lease, dispose of it by will or transact it in any other way as he or she sees fit.. Only citizens of Uganda are entitled to own land under freehold tenure.. Non-citizens may lease it for a period up to 99 years.. Leasehold tenure is a form of tenure whereby one party grants to another the right to exclusive possession of land for a specified period, usually in exchange for the payment of rent.. Any owner of land in Uganda whether through freehold, Mailo or customary tenure may grant a lease to another person.. In practice, much of the land that is leased was previously owned by government bodies, particularly the Land Commission and the  ...   Act was passed.. One of the most innovative aspects of the Land Act 1998 is in the recognition it gives to those who hold their land under customary tenure.. With the exception of land in Buganda (which is mainly held under Mailo) and urban areas (where it is held under freehold, or leasehold) most land in Uganda is held under customary tenure.. The 1995 Constitution restored recognition of the rights of those who held such land and the Land Act explicitly recognized that customary law should regulate this form of land tenure.. There are a number of different types of customary land tenure in different parts of Uganda.. In some places the land is held communally, in some it belongs to a particular clan while in others it is held by individuals.. The rules of customary law also vary in different parts of the country.. The Land Act 1998 states that customary land tenure shall be governed by rules generally accepted as binding by the particular community.. Anyone who acquires land in that community shall also be bound by the same rules.. The exceptions to this are that no custom is permitted which is repugnant to natural justice, equity and good conscience, or being incompatible either directly or indirectly with any written law..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=landtenure
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Land Access.. Access to land for Housing.. Secure access to land is critical to improving livelihoods of poor people in regard to production and access to decent shelter.. In Uganda notably in urban communities land markets are facing enormous competition and this is driving up the cost of housing to the point where even the most minimal standard of informal sector housing is unaffordable to the poor.. Limited access to land and poor tenure systems has led to increasing illegal settlements in form of slums mostly in poor drained areas since most poor people in urban areas is an option they can afford.. There is need to put up mechanisms for these groups to be able to access land for decent shelter.. Some of the ways in which different stakeholders in the sector can explore in this regard include:.. Land Expropriation;.. Most countries have legislation that enables governments to purchase or expropriate private land in the interest of the community at large, either at or below market prices, which they can use to enhance the supply of affordable land.. Land Banking;.. This is primarily used to acquire public or private land for development in advance of need at relatively cheap cost.. It can be used to contain land speculation, redistribute land  ...   most economically attractive part of the land.. In this way, land sharing brings gains to both parties.. Land readjustment;.. This entails land ownership and land use of fragmented adjoining sites being re-arranged to provide land for development purposes, e.. g.. slum upgrading or planned hosing development.. It often includes negotiated and participatory solutions, and has the potential to work as a self financing technique.. Incremental land development strategies;.. Allowing people to settle on subserviced land and infrastructure to be installed incrementally, over time can increase the supply of affordable land for housing.. Transfer of development rights [TDR];.. This can be used to generate low income housing on high value urban land through the participation of private land owners and developers.. It works where land is at premium and where permitted densities for residential development are high enough to leave surplus land after building low income housing.. Resettlement;.. This is commonly used where governments want to enhance the use of land where slums have developed.. however, it generally creates more problems than it solves, especially following forced evictions and demolition of slums, which destroys a substantial stock of conveniently located hosing which is affordable to the urban poor as well as livelihoods.. It should therefore be avoided, unless absolutely necessary or justifiable..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=landaccess
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Housing.. Housing Overview.. Housing Section Overiew.. The housing sector is very important in the overall socio-economic development of a country and has numerous multiplier effects, which include contribution to economic growth; fixed capital formation; employment creation; ensuring macro economic stability; enhancing quality of life and productivity of the population; shortage of affordable and decent housing; prevalence of slums and informal settlements; and a predominance of rental housing in urban areas.. Despite housing being a basic human need for all, the government of Uganda still remains unable to meet the housing needs of all people and cannot afford to build and maintain pool houses.. Subsequently, the Government has adopted an enabling policy to guide housing development, improvement and management.. The policy is under review to enhance the role of various actors in housing delivery improvement.. A recently released housing survey by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics points at an improvement in housing, but states that there is still a gap to be filled if the majority of the poor are to fully realise this right.. The survey indicates that Uganda has a housing deficit of 550,000 units.. About 160,000 of this backlog is in urban areas.. Kampala alone has a housing deficit of 100,000 units.. Uganda s population of 31 million, which is growing at a rate of 3.. 3% per year, is projected to increase to 45 million by 2020.. With a rapid rate of urbanisation, it is estimated that two decades from now, Uganda will have a housing shortage of close to 8 million units, of which 2.. 5 million will be in urban centres and one million in Kampala.. Policy and legal environment.. Understanding adequate housing.. Appproaches to low cost housing.. Policy legal environment.. The construction of structures for shelter in Uganda is guided by the National Shelter Strategy (1993).. In 1992, the National Shelter Strategy (NSS) was adopted as a means of formulating viable shelter strategies which are conducive to full mobilization of local resources and to strengthen policy making and housing programming capacities of key actors in housing delivery at all levels of administration.. National Shelter Strategy (NSS) adopted the enabling approach as its major policy under which Government operated to identify and remove bottlenecks that hamper housing development, by encouraging private sector participation in housing development.. However, due to changes in national development ideology and other policies, National Shelter Strategy (NSS) policy objectives were rendered irrelevant.. In 2005, a National Housing policy was drafted based on the ideologies and principles of the national shelter strategy.. The goal of the draft National Housing policy is a well integrated sustainable human settlements, where all have adequate shelter with secure tenure, enjoy a healthy and safe environment with basic infrastructure services.. It responds to a number of challenges, that are relevant to slum improvement such as:.. the recognition that in urban areas, over 60% of residents stay in slums, characterized by poor sanitation, high disease incidence and frequent epidemics;.. The private nature of housing; the enforcement of minimum standards and prevention of negative externalities associated with overcrowding and poor sanitation and;.. The improvement of living conditions of the urban poor is of potential benefit to urban market for investment in properties and an effective land sector reform.. The right to housing, as defined by international law, is  ...   upgrading.. On site upgrading means improving the physical, social and economic environment of an existing informal settlement, without displacing people who live there.. When cities and governments support the process of upgrading informal communities, it can be the least expensive, most humane way of enhancing a city s much needed stock of affordable housing, instead of destroying it.. For on site upgrading to be successful there is need to apply better approaches and principles which include among others it has to be: participatory done in partnership and provide secure land tenure.. Communities also have to contribute, upgrading must be affordable, the project must be financially sustainable, and it should be part of the larger development strategy.. Resettlement on suitable land.. Removing people from their homes in informal settlements and re-housing them on alternative sites should never be the first choice option for decision makers.. But in reality, the resettlement of informal settlements is sometimes unavoidable.. When this is the only option, it should always happen with the agreement of most residents.. It s important for local authorities and housing agencies to remember that resettlement is always an extremely stressful process which creates anxiety in the already precarious lives of poor people.. Some of the guidelines for the resettlement process should consider involving the effected people, communities have to be organised, disseminate information about the resettlement to the affected community, making use of best practices from other cities, surveying the communities, preparing the new plan, selecting the new site and organising the move.. Sites and services and incremental land development.. As a reaction to most government s inability to provide adequate, ready built shelter to the entire urban poor household who need it, there has been a shift in thinking around the world, from seeing the state as provider of housing to seeing it as a facilitator of the self help housing efforts of the poor themselves.. One form of this facilitation is when the government provides plots and basic services in a planned manner, but allows people to build their own houses on that land.. These are called sites and services schemes.. In a bid to support these sites and services, it should: stimulate and create conduce institutional, legal and policy environment to enable non-state actors top play an active role in housing finance and supply, promote the supply of a variety of affordable housing solutions, enable the development of different housing outcomes, establish a policy dialogue and promote savings for housing.. City wide housing strategies.. If you decide to take a city wide approach to solve low-income housing problems, you will have your hands full.. Besides coping with the cumulative backlog of years of housing shortages and upgrading all the under serviced areas in the city, you will also have to address future housing needs.. Current needs for affordable housing alone in most cities are so overwhelming that the challenge of meeting future housing needs can seem an impossible task.. Though if you are to use the approach the following should be ensured: political will, intergraded approaches and a city vision, a supportive local policy environment, the right national regulatory framework, responsive land and housing policies, policies to secure land tenure, mechanisms for financial sustainability, strategic alliances, strong and well coordinated institutions and technical capacity.. Back to Top..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Housing-Overview
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Policies and Legal.. Policy and Legal Issues.. The following documents heavily influence the policy and legal environment of Uganda as it relates to human settlements:.. National Policy Framework.. National Slum Upgrading Strategy.. International Policy Framework.. UN Habitat GC Meeting on Global Housing Strategy.. The 1995 Constitution of Uganda abolished the land reform decree and re-stated the systems of customary land tenure, freehold tenure, leasehold tenure and Mailo tenure.. In the Constitution it is stated:.. The Constitution sets out quite detailed provisions in relation to land rights, while leaving other provisions to be determined by subsequent legislation.. The vision of the policy is: "Sustainable and optimal use of land and land based-resources for the transformation of the Uganda society and the economy".. The goal of the policy is to: "Ensure efficient, equitable utilization and sustainable utilization and management of Uganda s land and land based resources for poverty reduction, wealth creation and overall social economic development".. Ensure planned, environmentally friendly, affordable and orderly development of human settlements for both rural and urban areas, including infrastructure development;.. Reform and streamline land rights administration to ensure efficient, effective and equitable delivery of land services;.. The Land Act also upholds the constitution s support for women and girls property rights by stating in Article 27 that any decision made on  ...   revise lists of rates of compensation for loss or damage of property.. The District Land Office issues certificates of title and has technical officers such as physical planners, the land officer, the district valuer, the district survey and the district surveyor and the district registrar of titles.. Area land committee [ district] Assists the District Land Board on land matters, especially regarding the rights of customary land, helps people obtain certificate of customary tenure and certificates of occupancy, protects the land rights of women, children and persons with disabilities.. Recorder [Sub County, town, township, and division in the city], Accepts application for and issues certificates of occupancy and certificates of customary ownership, and keeps records of certificate of occupancy and certificates of customary ownership.. Land Dispute Resolution Institutions in Uganda include local council courts, magistrate courts, high court, traditional authorities, and mediators.. Slum upgrading is a process through which informal areas are gradually improved, formalised and incorporated into the city itself, through extending land, services and citizenship to slum dwellers.. This strategy, released in December 2008, is Governments plan for how to address th issue of slums in Kampala and other cities across the countries.. The document also offers an interesting overview of the current situation of slums in Uganda.. To download the Strategy click.. here..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Policies-and-Legal
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Housing Rights.. The right to adequate housing has been recognized in numerous texts at both the international and the regional level.. At the international level, the two most important texts are the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.. At the regional level, the most important texts are the various African instruments for the protection of the rights of the child and of women.. At an international level.. 1.. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).. 2.. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).. 3.. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966).. 4.. Conventions Protecting Particularly Vulnerable Groups.. Women.. Children.. Tribal and Indigenous Peoples.. Refugees.. Migrants.. 5.. International Declarations regarding Africa.. The African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights (1990).. The African Charter of the Rights and Well Being of the Child (1990).. The Protocol of the African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003).. Uganda s Constitution.. At the International Level.. The right to adequate housing was recognized for the first time at the international level in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.. In this declaration, the states parties proclaimed that:.. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.. (Art.. 25).. The strength of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights lies in its having been accepted by all countries.. In 1966, almost 20 years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations member states adopted the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), in which they recognized the right to adequate housing.. In Article 11, governments committed themselves to taking necessary measures to realize:.. the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including to the continuous improvement of living conditions.. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.. The same year, member states adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in which they recognized the right to life (Article 6), the right not to be subjected to subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Article 7) and the right not to be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference in one s privacy, family or home (Article 17).. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights are treaties.. They are legally binding on all states parties (156 and 160 in number, respectively) that have ratified them.. The right to adequate housing is everybody s right, without discrimination.. The fundamental right was established in the International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (1965), in which the states parties committed themselves.. to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, color, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the right to housing, (Article 5, e, iii).. However, to protect particularly vulnerable groups, such as women, children, the elderly, indigenous and tribal peoples, refugees or stateless persons, other treaties have been accepted by countries at the international level:.. The right to adequate housing for women was recognized in the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979).. According to Article 14, § 2(h), the states parties commit themselves to:.. to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications.. In the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the states parties commit themselves to helping parents or other persons in charge of the child, particularly in providing shelter.. Its Article 27, § 3, provides that:.. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programs, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.. Common Article 1,  ...   of living, including adequate housing, as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and urges Governments:.. to comply fully with their international and regional obligations and commitments concerning land tenure and the equality of women to own, have access and to control property, land and housing, irrespective of their marital status, and to an adequate standard of living, including adequate housing.. At the African Regional Level.. The African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights does not explicitly recognize the right to adequate housing, but several other recognized rights, such as the right to health (Article 16) and the right of peoples to a general satisfactory environment favorable to their development (Article 24), can be interpreted as protecting the right to adequate housing.. The African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights also provides that African states should realize the right to adequate housing that they have recognized at the international level, including by accepting the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 60 of the African Charter).. Thus, all those states that have accepted the African Charter and the International Covenant on.. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are under obligation to take measures to realize the right of their people to adequate housing.. The African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights has been ratified by 53 member states of the African Union.. The African Charter of the Rights and Well Being of the Child is more explicit.. The states that have accepted it commit themselves to taking all appropriate measures, according to their means, to assist parents and other person responsible for the child, and to provide, in case of need, programs of material assistance and support, in particular regarding housing (Article 20).. Observance of the African Charter of the Rights and Well Being of the Child is currently compulsory for the 41 states of the African Union that have ratified it.. The Protocol of the African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa is also explicit.. Article 16 provides that:.. Women shall have the right to equal access to housing and to acceptable living conditions in a healthy environment.. To ensure this right, States Parties shall grant to women, whatever their marital status, access to adequate housing.. Article 21, § 1, protects the right to inheritance in these terms:.. A widow shall have the right to an equitable share in the inheritance of the property of her husband.. A widow shall have the right to continue to live in the matrimonial house.. In case of remarriage, she shall retain this right if the house belongs to her or she has inherited it.. The implementation of the Protocol of the African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa is currently binding for the 21 states of the African Union that have ratified it.. The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda was adopted in 1995.. It contains one Chapter which provides extensive protection of human rights, including: the right to equality and freedom from discrimination; protection from deprivation of property; right to privacy of person, home and other property; right to a fair and public hearing; freedom of movement and assembly; right to marry and equal rights in marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution ; and a right to just and fair treatment in administrative decisions.. 10 All of these rights, which are in line with international human rights standards, could have a potential bearing on land rights and this issue is discussed further in Chapter Four of this Guide.. This Chapter of the Constitution also provides for affirmative action in favour of groups marginalized on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.. 11 It states that: Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.. 12 It guarantees children s rights and states that: the law shall accord special protection to orphans and other vulnerable children.. 13 It also upholds cultural rights, stating that: Every person has a right as applicable, to belong to, enjoy, practice, profess, maintain and promote any culture, cultural institution, language, tradition, creed or religion in community with others.. It responds to a number of challenges that are relevant to slum improvement such as:.. the recognition that in urban areas, over 60% of residents stay in slums, characterized by poor sanitation, high disease incidence and frequent epidemics;..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Housing-Rights
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Housing Finance.. Sources of Housing Finance in Uganda.. :.. Commercial Banks.. Housing Micro-finance.. The Cash Loans Approach.. Community Self-Help Projects.. Non-Conventional Housing Finance.. Personal Financing.. Challenges of the housing Finance Sector in Uganda.. Uganda s housing finance sector has undergone both qualitative and quantitative transformation and growth over the last decade.. The sector has, since 2002, registered substantial growth, expanding from one government-owned institute to 4 privately owned commercial banks and 1 Micro-Finance Deposit Taking Institution (MDI).. The commercial banks mortgage portfolio has also grown, increasing from UShs 32.. 4 billion (US $ 1.. 9 million) in 2002 to UShs 190 billion (US $ 109 million) in 2007.. The sector is however small in comparison to the increasing housing needs of country and it has principally been serving middle and high income earners.. The lower income earners who constitute over 80% of the population have for a long time been left out of this bracket which is a reflection of the relatively weak foundations made by consecutive governments in building a sound housing industry for the mainly poor rapidly growing population.. The average mortgage loan size issued by commercial banks is between UShs 60 million (US $ 34,000) and 80 million (US $ 46,000), an amount too high for the low income earners.. Absence of adequate housing finance for the last 30 years and the weak foundations made by consecutive governments in building the country s housing industry have greatly crippled the formal private sector to such an extent that their contribution to housing delivery has been relatively insignificant.. The housing finance sector is still facing a major challenge of lack of long-term funding schemes within the domestic banking system and nascent capital markets.. Out of 5.. 2 million households in the country, only 0.. 68% can access mortgage loans through commercial banks, 19.. 95% can access housing micro-finance loans through Micro-finance Deposit Taking Institutions, 7.. 2% can access loans from Micro Finance Institutions and Savings and Credit Cooperatives, 10.. 3% can only access loans through Savings and Credit Cooperatives only and 62.. 3% have no access to financial services.. Housing demand in Uganda has been constrained by inadequate financial resources for both real estate developers and end buyers.. The low income levels of most Ugandans have also constrained the demand side of housing.. Habitat for Humanity-Uganda is one of the Non Governmental Organizations [NGOs] that have been at the forefront of providing low-cost houses for the rural poor.. It has built 4,500 houses in the last 2 decades through its 43 grassroots affiliates in 19 districts.. Through initiatives pioneered by Stromme Foundation and Habitat for Humanity Uganda, Micro Finance Institutions will be starting a housing micro-finance product where they will lend to low income earners up to UShs 8 million (US $ 4,600), payable between 2 to 5 years.. Commercial banks finance mainly residential property and a few commercial property developments.. Financed residential property developments which are offered by all the 5 commercial banks include: (i) house construction, (ii) house completion, (iii) home improvement, (iv) purchasing of houses, (v) equity release and (vi) refinancing mortgage.. Granting of loans is negotiable depending on the credit rating of the mortgagee and the quality and value of the houses to be built or purchased.. All loans offered have set repayment periods.. Securing loan financing of residential property development is premised on the borrowers income.. For those employed in the formal sector (public or private), who wish to secure mortgage loans, employment should be on permanent basis for the period in which one will repay the loan.. An individual is also expected to make monthly installations not exceeding 40% of confirmed monthly gross pay.. All institutions offer secured mortgage loans for residential houses between UShs 10 million and UShs 200 million, though Development Finance Company of Uganda [DFCU] Bank can finance up to UShs 1 billion for home completion.. Mortgages are given financing to cover 80% of the costs required to meet an individual s housing needs.. Development Finance Company of Uganda [DFCU] and Housing Finance Bank [HFB] also provide up to 80% of the costs for big developers in instances where the construction of houses is jointly financed by the real estate developer, the prospective buyer and the mortgage provider.. This approach has encouraged developers to go for bigger and better planned projects and eventually better quality housing units.. The East African Development Bank (EADB) has also undertaken the provision of structured loans though not directly through mortgages.. They part financed the construction of up to 29 housing  ...   Uganda (HFHU).. used to employ a product-led approach in which it would design and construct low cost houses for the poor at about Ugandan Shillings (UShs) 2.. 5 million (United States Dollars (US $) 1437).. Using the commodity index system, the poor would gradually pay for these houses within a 10 year period in a revolving fund.. Unfortunately, repayments made were inconsistent and poor.. As a result, Habitat for Humanity Uganda (HFHU).. adopted strict rules of repossessing building materials which improved on repayments, though not satisfactorily.. This factor and the imperative need for more creative innovations in providing housing to the poor created a strong impetus for Habitat for Humanity Uganda (HFHU).. to move from a housing provider to a housing micro-finance supporter.. Four self-help projects have been undertaken in Uganda to provide low-cost housing for the poor.. They have all had a Public-Private approach and donor support.. Non Conventional Housing Finance.. Through rotating credit societies, saving clubs and Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) which are under the Ugandan Government s program of Prosperity for All , the poor (who are unable to access the above means of housing finance) have been able to finance small scale businesses and in some cases they have enabled the construction of houses.. In Uganda, Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) have a relatively wide institutional outreach into the rural areas.. They have great potential as rural financial intermediaries though most of them have weak financial positions and their inability to operate strictly on commercial principles further minimizes their chances of becoming sustainable.. Since many poor individuals cannot provide conventional collateral to ensure compliance with loan repayment responsibilities, Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) issue loans on a revolving fund mechanism in which they do group lending where the borrower is not only responsible for the repayment of his loan, but also for the outstanding loans of other group members.. Self financing through personal savings forms a key element in housing finance in Uganda as institutional frameworks for lending are not fully developed.. This process is faced with many pitfalls because it takes a long time as savings may not be available for housing but used to meet other pressing needs such as medical and school fees.. As a result investments may be undermined over time as materials that are bought may waste away, be stolen or construction could be abandoned representing large losses.. A number of households frequently sublet rooms and run small businesses out of their homes meeting both domestic financial needs in an effort to provide for longer term economic expansion.. Personal finance of housing includes three components: self-financing from personal savings, contributions from family and remittances and finance from extended from social security sources (ie.. pension, gratuity, medical benefits) and contributions from saving groups/ Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs).. Commercial banks have in the past mainly concentrated on financing the demand (mortgage) side.. This is so because mortgages provide more definite security, given that it is tied to the income of the mortgagee as well as the physical asset itself.. Also, the current systems in place do not allow for developers to prove the effectiveness of demand for their products, making it more difficult for them to receive financing.. The other major challenge with regard to financing housing in Uganda is the lack of long-term funding schemes within the domestic banking system and nascent capital markets.. Though government has channeled funds through NSSF to HFB and DFCU Bank to support the mortgage financing industry, the lack of long-term funds has stalled the provision of affordable mortgage finance and in turn limited the supply of housing.. The sector is however small in comparison to the increasing housing needs of country and it has principally been serving the middle and high income earners.. The lower income earners who constitute over 80% of the population have long been left out of this bracket which is a reflection of the relatively weak foundations made by consecutive governments in building a sound housing industry for the mainly poor and rapidly growing population.. The sector has principally been serving the middle and higher income earners.. The average mortgage loan size issued by commercial banks is between UShs 60 (US $ 34,000) and 80 million (US $ 46,000), an amount too high for the low income earners.. The housing finance sector is still facing a major challenge of lack of long-term funding schemes within the domestic banking system and the nascent capital markets.. 95% can access housing micro-finance loans through Micro-finance Deposit taking Institutions, 7..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Housing-Finance
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Actors and Suppliers.. Locally available materials.. Alternative Building Technology.. Challenges for low income earners in accessing building materials.. Low Cost Housing Examples.. Existing low cost housing projects in Uganda.. BeadforLife Housing Program for Women.. UN-Habitat Mpumudde Housing Project.. Namuwongo Slum Upgrading Project.. Masese Women Housing Project.. Alternative Building Material/Construction Documents.. Introduction.. The past twenty years have seen a boom in the construction industry.. Beginning with the liberalization of the economy in 1990, many foreign and local investors have selectively entered key sector industries.. Investment in the building and construction sector is governed by a number of laws and regulations including the Building Code, Condominium Properties Act, National Shelter Strategy and the National Housing Policy.. The government of Uganda is currently in the process of passing other laws and policies to consolidate building construction standards to increase competitiveness in the industry.. Specific incentives currently offered in the industry include a 20% initial allowance on the cost base of industrial and commercial buildings in the first year of use; a 5% industrial building allowance on cost of assets; a Withholding Tax exemption on the supply of plant and machinery; a VAT exemption for road construction; and a 0% Import duty on Paint and Machinery.. There are several actors in the construction sector in Uganda.. These include; government institutions, parastatal bodies, non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, local councils, opinion leaders, private developers, contractors, women s groups, technical schools and consulting firm.. While the actors are many, their activities are not well synchronized as the sector is poorly organized.. These actors operate through the following institutions; government ministries, Architects Registration Board (ARB), Contracts Committee (CC), Central Government (CG), District Local Government, Engineers Registration Board, Federation of Ugandan Consultants Organization (FUCO), Institution of Surveyors of Uganda (ISU), Kampala City Council Authority (KCCA), Local Government (LG), Public Private Partnerships (PPP), Surveyors Registration Board (SRB), Uganda Association for Consulting Engineers UACE), Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS), Uganda Institute of Professional Engineers (UIPE), National Association of Building and Civil Engineering (UNABCEC), Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) and the Uganda Society of Architects(USA).. Materials used for wall construction.. Materials commonly used for house building in Uganda include stones, cement, sand, un-burnt bricks, mud blocks, mud and wattle, adobe and timber.. Other materials such as mass concrete and cement blocks are rarely used except in high class commercial/public buildings.. In a few cases stabilized soil cement, lime bricks are used, especially in housing project schemes, but they are not widely accepted by individual developers because the technology is not yet embraced.. New technologies such as interlocking stabilized soil blocks (ISSB) have not been integrated into the educational curricula of secondary vocational institutions and tertiary engineering and architectural institutions and thus their adoption has been slow.. Yet integrating new technology into the educational system is the most effective way of ensuring technology use in the future.. At present one of the key challenges is changing the mentality of the companies and individuals already manufacturing and using the conventional of construction such as burned bricks and concrete blocks.. Materials used for roof construction.. Iron sheeting is by far the most commonly used roofing material.. Largely because of the costs, few developers can afford to use clay tiles on their dwellings.. It is thus assumed that tiled houses are for the rich.. Production of tiles in Uganda is mainly under the formal industries and as such their costs are beyond the reach of the majority of low and medium income households.. Sun-dried bricks.. Also known as adobe, sun-dried bricks are widely used in Uganda.. The bricks are not officially accepted for use in the urban environment because they are considered to be temporary, not standardized and vary widely in quality.. Sun-dried bricks are produced and used by the informal sector mainly for low-cost housing.. They are ideal in use in low cost housing and if proper guidance is given as to their use they can adequately contribute to alleviating the housing problem in the country.. Whereas they are not popular in their current form they can be improved by stabilization, compression and standardization.. Burnt bricks.. Local burnt bricks are currently the most commonly used material for single storey buildings, however material made from clay are gradually becoming scarce in Uganda due to the limited availability of appropriate clay in the country coupled with high demand associated with an enhanced construction sector.. Timber.. A variety of timber species are available in Uganda including mahogany, mvule, pine, elgon, olive, nkoba, eucalyptus and many others.. In the construction sector, timber is used for making roof trusses, shuttering, doors, windows and furniture and tools.. Cement and lime.. Both materials are well used building construction material for housing development.. Stone and marble.. Stones are used in the construction industry largely in unprocessed form for structural and non-structural elements, including finishes.. Crushed stones.. This is either hand crushed by local community members on a small scale or machine crushed on a wider commercial scale.. Machine crushed stones are quite expensive and is often of high quality and of even dimension.. Stones are used in various ways ranging from the construction of drainage channels to external cladding in house construction.. Sand.. Sand may be categorized in many different forms such a beach sand, fine sand, utility sand, fill sand, mason sand, concrete sand and many others.. Imported materials.. In Uganda the existing steel producing companies produce far below their installed capacity.. There is heavy reliance on imported materials including steel roofing materials, iron sheets, cladding materials and fitting materials that make the construction industry vulnerable to global financial changes.. This is also partly responsible for the high costs of housing in the country.. Earth Materials.. The types of materials available locally of course vary depending upon the conditions in the area of the building site.. In many areas, indigenous stone is available from the local region, such as limestone, marble, granite, and sandstone.. It may be cut in quarries or removed from the surface of the ground (flag and fieldstone).. Ideally, stone from the building site can be utilized.. Depending on the stone type, it can be used for structural block, facing block, pavers, and crushed stone.. Most brick plants are located near the clay source they use to make brick.. Bricks are molded and baked blocks of clay.. Brick products come in many forms, including structural brick, face brick, roof tile, structural tile, paving brick, and floor tile.. Caliche is a soft limestone material which is mined from areas with calcium-carbonate soils and limestone bedrock.. It is best known as a road bed material, but it can be processed into an unfired building block, stabilized with an additive such as cement.. Other earth materials include soil blocks typically stabilized with a cement additive and produced with forms or compression.. Rammed earth consists of walls made from moist, sandy soil, or stabilized soil, which is tamped into form work.. Walls are a minimum of 12? thick.. The soil should contain about 30% clay and 70% sand.. The use of locally available and indigenous earth materials has several advantages in terms of sustainability.. They:.. Reduce energy costs related to transportation.. Reduce material costs due to reduced transportation costs, especially for well-established industries.. Support local businesses and resource bases.. Both brick and stone materials are aesthetically pleasing, durable, and low maintenance.. Exterior walls weather well, eliminating the need for constant refinishing and sealing.. Interior use of brick and stone can also provide excellent thermal mass, or be used to provide radiant heat.. Some stone and brick makes an ideal flooring or exterior paving material, remains cool in summer and possessing good thermal properties for passive solar heating.. Caliches blocks have been produced for applications similar to stone and brick mentioned above.. Caliches or earth material block have special structural and finishing characteristics.. Rammed earth is more often considered for use in walls, although it can also be used for floors.. Rammed earth and Caliches blocks can be used for structural walls, and offer great potential as low-cost material alternatives with low embodied energy.. In addition, such materials are fireproof.. Caliche blocks and rammed earth can be produced on-site.. It is very important to have soils tested for construction material use.. Some soils, such as highly expansive or bentonite soils are not suitable for structural use.. Soils for traditional adobe construction are not found in some areas, but other soils for earth building options are available.. Many areas have a high percentage of soils suitable for ramming.. Caliche is also abundant in many areas and is readily available locally.. Compressed earth brick technology.. The advantages of compressed or rammed earth blocks are many.. Since the blocks are machine made they are uniform in size and, with some care, uniform in density.. It is common practice to dry stack (mortarless) or thicker walls immediately upon ejection from the machine since the blocks are smooth and sharp cornered.. This saves on mortar costs as well as handling and damage costs as the blocks are only handled once.. All adobe press machines can be  ...   1.. 5 or 1: 2.. Secondary grade lime available locally in many areas can also be used by adjusting the mix proportions.. Variety of pozzolonas like burnt clay pozzolona, rice husk ash, good quality fly ash or combination of pozzolonas can be used.. Ideally lime and pozzolana have to be inter-ground in a ball mill.. But such mixtures have poor shelf life (15 days).. Volume proportions of 1: 3 or 1: 4 (LP cement: sand) can be used.. The strength of the mortar mix can be easily manipulated by adjusting the proportions of various materials.. LP cements are low energy consuming materials and can be used for a majority of secondary applications except for reinforced concrete works.. Although building materials supply has increased in Uganda, it still can not meet rising demand.. For low income housing developers, the use of quality materials is not paramount because of their limited capacity to afford them, and then has led to a dual market-one for the informal materials and another for materials that meet formal standards.. If Uganda is to cope with growing demand for housing it has to invest in appropriate technologies, materials production, and develop sustainable building designs in terms of energy consumption and environmental pressures.. Low Cost Housing.. The programme to construct low-cost houses started in the 1960 s but was hampered by lack of funds.. The housing backlog has been worsened by the high urbanization rates in the city.. According to the 2003 Demographic Survey 2003, Uganda suffers from a deficit of 1.. 6 million housing units.. The private sector has had an initiative to have houses constructed but the rent charges are too high for the average income earners to afford.. Currently, most developers have targeted the middle class.. On average, the house rent charged by private developers on housing units cost about UGsh 500,000 per month.. The Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimates that by 2025, about 4.. 8 million people in Kampala will have no houses.. Housing Project for Health Workers and Teachers in Lango and Acholi.. The project introduced an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective method of construction through the use of alternative building materials and technology and injected cash into the communities by using local contractors.. The goal of the project is to facilitate the sustainable return and reintegration processes of Northern Uganda by supporting the provision of basic services, such as health services and schooling by providing housing for teachers and health workers.. The main activities included:.. Construction of 64 teachers houses using alternative building technology.. Raising awareness and building capacity of local contractors in the use of alternative building technology.. Supporting the development of standards, norms and designs for the alternative technology with ministries.. Mobilizing communities to take part in planning, implementation and monitoring of physical construction and tree planting.. BeadforLife is a poverty eradication organization based in Kampala.. Since its inception in 2005, BeadforLife has changed the lives of 700 individuals living in extreme poverty (primarily women) with income generation through bead making.. About half of the BeadforLife participants are women living with HIV, many of whom are caring for orphans as well as their own children.. Others are persons internally displaced by the war in Northern Uganda, or are living with other serious health challenges.. Members are taught to make bead jewellery from recycled paper, and are paid fair-trade prices for their products which are sold in the United States of America (USA) and Europe.. Under the BeadforLife program, members generate between Ushs.. 300, 000 - 400,000 per month.. In addition, BeadforLife members are educated about HIV prevention, family planning, malaria diagnosis as well as prevention through distribution of mosquito nets under the health programme.. The members also embark on business planning and skills development within one month of enrolling in the 18-month programme to enhance long-term economic self-sustainability beyond bead-making.. Upon graduation from the BeadforLife programme, the women are supported in their own micro-enterprises.. When asked about their number one priority for improving their well-being, it is not surprising that the BeadforLife participants named housing.. Thus, BeadforLife took direct and meaningful steps to help improve the living conditions of its members.. In 2007, BeadforLife purchased an 18-acre plot of land to develop its Friendship Village in Mukono district.. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity, BeadforLife developed 130 affordable houses.. The beneficiary homeowners are given a plot free-of-charge and then take out a mortgage of approximately Ushs.. 3 million to cover the building labour and supplies.. The mortgages are entirely paid off in beads, although beneficiaries are required to make a down-payment of Ushs.. 1million in cash, leaving the remaining balance of Ushs.. 2million to be paid in beads.. It was revealed that approximately 50 families have already paid off their mortgages.. Friendship Village is an idyllic retreat away from the bustle of Kampala City, with extensive green space, yard gardens, fresh water wells within close walking distance, and neat rows of permanent three-room brick houses.. These houses are a far cry from the living conditions the members experienced before joining BeadforLife.. Like so many urban poor in Uganda, their living conditions were characterized by substandard buildings with hardly any sanitation waste management facilities, hunger and overcrowding.. The UN Habitat Housing Estate in Mpumudde is a housing project aimed at empowering poor urban women entrepreneurs through housing development and land rights.. The project is collaboration between the UN Habitat, JMC and Akright projects LTD.. The UN Habitat provided the funding under the coordination of JMC while Akright projects LTD, offered the technical services to the project in kind.. JMC allocated 50 plots, about 5.. 73 acres, to the women s housing project.. The housing scheme consists of detached small single story houses on relatively big plots.. The units have initially two bed rooms, one waterborne toilet with a shower, a living room and an outdoor cooking space, but can grow to become a four- roomed unit if necessary.. They are accessed through the front yard, while the back yard serves as a working area where domestic duties and agricultural activities are practiced.. The materials used in the constructions are concrete, in foundations and floor slabs, burnt bricks for walls and iron sheets for roofing.. Namuwongo Slum Up-grading Project.. In 1990, the Uganda government embarked on Namuwongo upgrading and low cost housing Project- (UGA/86/005.. UNCHS, GOU) and Shelter Afrique at a cost of US $ 4.. 2M in provided funding.. Initially, the area was a slum settlement occupied by over 2,000 households who were being accommodated in 500 dwelling units of very poor quality.. The area was large but ownership of 120 acres (51.. 3ha) was limited to about 180 absentee land lords (Nuwagaba, 1996).. The key principle of the project was that of incremental development.. The growing house principle was used in the design of type of plan and infrastructure.. There were approximately 900 plots of (10x25) meters.. To achieve the aim of the shelter improvements for the residents, 120 acres (51.. 3) was acquired and 1,016 surveyed plots were then allocated to beneficiaries using comprehensive prepared criteria.. Basic services like water, roads, drainage, and power reticulation were provided in partnership with the private sector beneficiaries.. However, due to poverty and lack of sustainable means of livelihood, only, few intended residents did benefit from the project.. The well to do grabbed the opportunity, bought off the bona fide holders of the allocates of plots and erected executive structures hence replacing approximately 40% of the original intended beneficiaries who have ironically developed and settled in a nearby slum area (National Action Plan-Habitat 11: 1996; 62).. This project was implemented in Jinja town.. The project was planned using adoptive approaches.. It was executed by a local NGO in collaboration with the target beneficiaries as implementers.. The targeted project beneficiaries were poor women who were unemployed.. The major economic activity of the women prior to the commencement of the project constituted petty commodity trade, brewing of local liquor and casual labour around Jinja and surrounding areas.. The project employed participatory methodologies in the whole process of the project right from identification, formulation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.. With the use of state-of the art knowledge and hands on -skills , the women were engrained in skills of producing building materials which they were to use in the construction of their dwelling units.. The local women beneficiaries were involved in the design of dwelling units as well as in the actual construction.. Small sized dwelling units were constructed with minimum utilities, which include; a pit latrine.. In addition to the training women in the production of building materials, they were trained in production of other hardware materials such as san plats, culverts and blocks for sale on the open market.. This was meant to facilitate income generation for their day- to- day sustenance.. The results indicate that the majority of the women beneficiaries are living in their constructed units.. Rammed Earth and Stabilized Soil Tanks (Warwick Uni).. Stabilised Interlocking Rammed Earth Blocks: Alternative to Cement Stabilisation.. Interlocking Stabilised Soil Blocks - Appropriate earth technologies in Uganda..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Building-Materials
    Open archive

  • Title: Shelter and Settlements Alternatives
    Descriptive info: Cooperatives.. Housing cooperatives in Uganda.. The most important and fundamental change that has occurred in the recent past is the adoption of Habitat Agenda which directly relates to co-operatives and the way they operate.. The financing of housing for the low income in all countries including Uganda is supposed to be encouraged (paragraph 82 of the Agenda) through removing of obstacles both legal and administrative, and encourage the expansion of savings and credit co-operatives, credit unions, co-operative banks, co-operative insurance enterprises and other non-bank financial institutions in order to establish savings mechanisms in the informal sector, especially for women.. This policy change and emphasis on co-operatives as one way of financing housing will affect the co-operatives to see themselves as possible financiers rather than looking outside  ...   disabilities.. Co-operatives have an important role to play in the country's housing delivery process, particularly for the low income earners, however changes in their management, organization and legal set up need to be reviewed to reflect the currenteconomical and social environment.. Presently, formal co-operatives are going through very fundamental issues which has but pressure the co-operative movement.. There are many other players in the market place and no area is restricted and reserved for co-operatives.. There is therefore a need for re-education and fresh look at the laws and regulations governing co-operatives to bring them in line with the reality of Uganda society to enable them to play a meaningful role in shelter development.. The potential for greater involvement in housing development by the co-operatives is great..

    Original link path: /index.php?q=Cooperatives
    Open archive





  • Archived pages: 42