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  • Title: Zacuto
    Descriptive info: .. This site-in-progress of Zacuto Foundation commemorates life and works of Rabbi Abraham Zacuto and his Book of Lineage.. You are welcome to forward us all materials connected to RAZ.. Buy the English translation of the Book of Lineage.. Buy the Hebrew original of Sefer Yohassin.. Author's Introduction in Hebrew.. Write to the Editor and Publisher.. The Author's Introduction.. The Chronicles of Zacuto.. Exilarchs.. Tanna Sages.. Amora Sages.. Sages of Sepharad.. 500 years of Rabbi Abraham Zacuto.. I was overjoyed and thanked the Lord because the Book of Lineage by Abraham Zacuto recently arrived in Italy, printed by the esteemed notables of Constantinople.. Azariah de Rossi (1567).. Abraham Zacuto.. (1452-1514), probably of the first Jewish sages who embraced modernity while keeping the unbroken chain of tradition from Abraham to the Talmud scholars to Moses Maimonides.. He was a contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci, a leading astronomer who stood at the cradle of great geographical discoveries of 16.. th.. century, advised Columbus and guided Vasco da Gama, was a luminary at the Court of Kings of Spain and Portugal, merged science and Kabbala, taught at Salamanca University and lived in the Templar-built mysterious Castle of Tomar, travelled through the Orient from Tunis to Constantinople, to find his eternal rest in Jerusalem.. While meeting with kings and princes, he considered himself first of all a Jewish sage in the long line of Jewish sages.. The Book of Lineage.. , or Sefer Yohassin, his Opus Magnum, was completed five hundred years ago after a decade-spanning work.. This is the first historical chronicle covering the entire history of mankind from the Jewish perspective, integrating the records of Jewish chronographers.. This book provides a unique insight into the world of the Talmud populated by sages, their wives and their disciples, human beings of flesh and blood, the world he learned from his teacher, the great Jewish mystic Aboab, the author of.. Menorath Ha-Maor.. , and he knew it exceedingly well.. It is also a primary source dealing with appearance of the.. Zohar.. in Spain.. Thus this book allows to appreciate wonders of the world of Talmud and tradition, as well as those of pre-exilic Spain and Portugal.. The editor of this translation, the Israeli writer.. Israel Shamir.. , whose previous projects include the Odyssey of Homer, Joyce s Ulysses and the Hebrew Nobel winner S.. Y.. Agnon, keeps to the spirit of this time, and moves forward our understanding of tradition and history of Jews in its interaction with their neighbours.. More about the Editor.. Open The Book.. The Enchanting Life of Rabbi Abraham Zacuto.. and.. His Book of Lineage.. The author of the.. Book of Lineage.. , Rabbi Abraham Ben Samuel Ben Abraham Zacuto III (1452 1515), could be the main character of a major film or of a great book; his life was full of adventures and accomplishments.. His life is surrounded by legend as befits a Judaeo-Iberian sage, and it is quite difficult for us to separate the hard facts from the embellishments.. A Renaissance man and a contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci (they were born in the same year), Abraham Zacuto was a scientist and historian, astronomer and astrologer, Talmudic scholar and man of the world.. Zacuto was present at the birth of modernity: he advised Columbus before he sailed West, equipped with Zacuto s astrolabe -- and he advised Vasco da Gama before he sailed East, equipped with Zacuto s charts.. Thus Zacuto stood at the gate of the great breakthrough of European civilisation: discovery of America, of the Cape of Good Hope, of the seaway to India.. He was born and brought up in Salamanca, in Castile though the Portuguese dispute it and claim he and his family are from Evora in Portugal.. However, he was usually referred to as the Sage of Salamanca, a city of the great University that kept its place of honour next to Oxford and Sorbonne.. In 1473, at age of 20, the young Zacuto began his work on his famed solar declination tables, called.. Ha-Hibur ha-Gadol.. or.. Almanach perpetuum coelestium motium.. (Perpetual Almanac of the Heavenly Bodies), essential for the calculation of geographical coordinates.. The tables were completed in 1478 under the patronage of the bishop of Salamanca, Gonzalo de Vivero, who admired Zacuto's extensive knowledge of astronomy and history.. In 1481, the original Hebrew text was translated into Spanish by Juan de Salaya, a professor of astrology and logic at the University of Salamanca.. Translations into Arabic and Latin followed, and the first printed edition appeared in 1496 in Leiria, Portugal, prepared by Zacuto s disciple, Jose Vicinho, a Portuguese astronomer of Jewish origin.. The tables became a popular and necessary tool for navigation, accompanied by a technical invention of Abraham Zacuto, his copper astrolabe until his time, this ancient instrument was made of wood and did not allow for desired precision.. Zacuto wrote about his deserved success: When I was in the Kingdom of Spain and also in other Christian kingdoms, my books on astronomy appeared which were titled 'by Rabbi Abraham Zacuto of Salamanca.. And I am permitted to glory in this, as the Sages have said, What wisdom is it that has made the [Jewish] scholars important in the eyes of the nations? It is the calculation of times and signs.. And I bear witness to Heaven that they praised Israel very much for this.. When Christopher Columbus arrived in Spain, he met with the great astronomer and received a copy of the tables.. This manuscript with the marginalia of Columbus is extant in the Colombian library in Portugal.. It is often said that Zacuto was also instrumental in raising a big loan for Columbus with the tycoons Abraham Senior, Gabriel Sanchez and Luis de Santangel.. A prominent man of Jewish origin, Senior embraced Christianity, while Santangel and Sanchez were born into a recently baptised family.. Zacuto also introduced Columbus to Don Isaac Abravanel, a Jewish notable with great influence at the Court, and he arranged for the navigator s audience with the King and the Queen.. Soon Columbus set sail to America, bearing the Zacuto tables with him.. The family tradition insists that a young Zacuto, a son of R.. Abraham, sailed with him, and accompanied him in all his journeys.. If so, this young man was the first Jew on the American soil.. It is possible that he advised the Genoese navigator to use his father s tables in the moment of need.. During Columbus last voyage to America (1504), his small fleet was marooned on Jamaica, where the natives did not want to supply him and his sailors with food.. The Zacuto's tables provided him with a way out as they indicated there would soon (on February 29, 1504) be a lunar eclipse.. Columbus assembled the Caciques (as the native chiefs were called) and threatened them that he will banish the moonlight.. The eclipse frightened the natives and they asked Columbus to save the moon.. Columbus acquiesced, the eclipse passed and since then the Caciques respected him and provided with all he needed, says the legend.. Meanwhile R.. Abraham Zacuto became a professor of astronomy, first in Salamanca and later at Saragossa University.. But the dramatic events of 1492 changed everything.. After their conquest of the last Moorish kingdom of Granada, the Royal rulers of recently united Spain decided to convert their Jewish subjects, to finish off in one stroke the hundred years drive for Christianisation of Spanish Jews.. With the Moors subdued, there was no need for cultural plurality.. The conversion, in the view of Ferdinand and Isabella, would unify the people of Spain under one crown and one church.. (They repeated it a few years later with the Spanish Muslims, leaving them with no choice at all).. But the plan misfired: thousands of Jews left the country instead of agreeing to the most advantageous proposals of the Crown.. The Queen and the King did not expect it, but thus their Edict of Conversion became the Edict of Expulsion.. Eventually some forty thousand Jews and many Conversos left Spain, mainly for Portugal.. Amongst them was the great astronomer Abraham Zacuto who decided to accompany his master, the great sage and mystic Isaac Aboab.. In Portugal, Zacuto s fortunes even improved.. His advice was sought and his abilities as astrologer were also employed.. He became the Royal Astronomer at the court of King Joao II and advised Vasco da Gama before his voyage to India in 1497.. The Portuguese astronomer and cartographer Jose Visinho considered himself his disciple, translated and published his book and helped him to find a proper place in Portugal.. There are many stories of Zacuto s success in Portugal.. It is written in the book of.. Neshmat Haim.. : once the King Joao II came to try R.. Abraham Zacuto's wisdom.. He said he intended to travel to Iborra and demanded to know from the stars through which gate he would enter Iborra.. R.. Abraham replied, Whatever I'll say, you will enter by other gate.. The King said, No, put your divination in writing and seal it with your own seal.. He brought a clean sheet of paper and wrote, The King will open a new gate and enter through it.. And so it was - the king wanted to prove his fortune telling is false, and broke a new gate into the city and entered through it.. As he entered, he opened the R.. Abraham Zacuto s letter and read it out loud, and it was a miracle in his eyes.. Another time the King invited R.. Abraham Zacuto to his room and enquired about the distance between earth and heaven.. He gave the answer: In a year's time the king raised the roof of the room by one and a half cubit and asked R.. Abraham: tell me, Astronomer, what the distance between the earth and heaven is, as I forgot what you said.. The wise man replied, Since then, the earth was raised or heaven descended.. Abraham Zacuto spent much time in the Templar-built castle of Tomar, a centre of mystical studies in Portugal.. There he established a synagogue which exists till this very day and is known as Zacuto Synagogue.. But the stars did not bode him well: despite his contribution to the successes of Portugal, Zacuto lost royal favour.. The last king of Portugal wrote in 1920s of great and burning ingratitude of his royal ancestors to the astronomer.. The new king of Portugal, Manuel who came instead of King Joao, succumbed to the same idea of forced conversion of his Jews.. He did not want to lose these active and useful people, but he felt that their faith interferes with their full integration in his country.. Many Jews left for Holland, Turkey and North Africa, but apparently the majority could not leave.. The bulk of Zacuto family remained entrenched in Portugal.. They were baptised and took names of Rodriguez and Nunez, but when some of their descendents left the Peninsula in 16.. and 17.. cc, they came back into the Jewish faith and into their old family name.. Thus Abraham Zacuto Lusitano (or Lusitanus) was born in Lisbon in 1575, studied medicine in the Universities of Coimbra and Salamanca, moved to Amsterdam in 1625 and became a famous doctor and Rabbi before dying on New Year's Day 1642.. Another Zacuto, Moses or Enrique Nunez, moved to Holland in the 17.. century, and his sons settled in Venice, Hamburg and Poland.. His grandson Moses Zacuto became a renowned poet and mystic, known under the acronym REMEZ.. He lived in Poland, Amsterdam and Venice before settling in Mantua where he died in 1697.. He studied philosophy under Spinoza and Jewish mysticism under disciples of Vital, edited the Book of Zohar and maintained the Portuguese connection as well.. Other members of the noble Zacuto family traded and wrote books elsewhere, from Ukraine to Portugal.. But let us return to our Rabbi Abraham Zacuto.. Together with his son Samuel Zacuto left for Tunis, and reached this safe haven after many misfortunes, being captured twice by pirates.. He pushed a heavy oar on a galley, says the legend, until his captors discovered the extent of his knowledge.. Eventually he was duly redeemed by the Jewish community.. In Tunis, his son Samuel married into a prominent local Jewish family, and Abraham Zacuto regained some of his peace of mind.. His knowledge of Jewish history, astronomy and astrology were combined in his attempts to calculate the End of Days and Coming of the Messiah.. His views remained within accepted limits, as he wrote: Good deeds and repentance save from grief, and Salvation will come sooner if Israel will deserve it.. In his calculations, Zacuto predicted the end of the world and coming of the Saviour in 1514.. This belief caused him to leave safe Tunis and wander the roads on the Empire he went to Constantinople, to Damascus and eventually to Jerusalem in 1513; he lived in a theological college (Yeshiva) on Mt Zion, and died in 1514.. Thus his world ended and his soul embraced the Messiah, as he predicted for 1514.. His prophecy came true, at least for him personally.. But before that, in Tunis he completed his lifelong work, the historical Book of Lineage, a history of the world from Creation to 1500 from the Jewish perspective.. The central theme of the book is the great effort of Jewish sages crowned with the Talmud.. Zacuto was a great expert of the Talmud, the compendium of Jewish tradition which he learned from R.. Isaac Aboab and inherited from his ancestors who came to Spain from Provence, France in 1305.. Perfect scholars, they studied the Torah under R.. Asher Rosh , under his son R.. Judah, the Saint of Toledo, and under Rabbi Isaac Ben Shesheth.. On his mother s side, there were many renowned scholars, too, among them R.. Samuel Valenci.. His devotion to the Talmud was so great that he considered his scientific work as subservient to his Talmudic studies.. In.. he attempts to integrate his knowledge of history and geography with Jewish tradition.. Zacuto tries to synchronize Jewish and world events.. He places Hippocrates, Euclid, and Plato in the time of Mordecai and Esther, and he synchronizes the time of Priam, King of Troy, with the Jewish judges.. Even more important, Zacuto founded modern Jewish studies of Talmud as taught today in Jewish theological colleges and universities.. In words of his publisher Abraham Freimann he invested huge effort and succeeded in laying a sound foundation for the structure of Talmudic history.. In a sense, this book is a wonderful gateway to the strange world of the Talmud, so thoroughly forgotten by mankind, and still so beguiling.. He was a true Renaissance man, open to facts and new ideas as well as attached to tradition.. He included in his Book of Lineage some controversial (for his time) ideas and facts.. He accepted the great Jewish Gnostic Elisha as an important sage, saying: remember his wisdom and forget his faults.. He published the story of the Zohar, how this great book of Jewish mysticism was found in Spain.. For this reason, his book was banned for ten years by the Rabbinic authorities and remained out of print for a hundred years, being spread in carefully observed manuscripts.. In the 19.. century Zacuto was rejected by Heinrich Graetz, an enlightened Jewish historian who loathed Orthodoxy and Rabbinic Judaism.. His hatred of Zacuto spilled over onto his first publisher, the learned Dr Shullam: Graetz accused him of wasting the money of a wealthy Jewish widow on such an unworthy project as publication of the Book of Lineage.. With his usual venom, this secular modern Jew, Graetz, wrote of R.. Zacuto: '(A) man of  ...   to save his life.. Abraham Zacuto's tables told him there would be soon (on 29 of February 1504) a lunar eclipse.. Columbus assembled the Caciques and promised he will put a spell on them by withdrawing the moonlight.. During the eclipse the Cazics were frightened and prayed to Columbus to remove the spell.. Columbus pretended praying to his God, the eclipse passed and since then the Caciques respected him and provided with all he needed.. It is written in the book on Columbus' voyages.. [10].. The copy of R.. Abraham Zacuto's tables with marginalia of Columbus is extant in the Colombian library in Portugal.. [11].. Besides his astronomical investigations, R.. Abraham Zacuto dealt also with astrology that he trusted and believed in.. He was not above belief in demons and other superstitions.. In his book, he wrote about a Gentile whom he met in Salamanca.. The Gentile's voice was heard from the roof of the building though he sat quietly inside the house.. He also reported that certain Jewish women could prophecy in his presence.. [12].. Later R.. Abraham Zacuto apparently moved to Saragossa and taught in the University, while his wisdom and knowledge grew.. [13].. In AM 5252/1492, the Castilian king Fernando ordered to expel all Jews of Spain.. Abraham Zacuto was forced to leave his home country.. He saw those righteous people who preferred to kill themselves and their children rather then be forced to transgress the commandments of the Lord.. Abraham Zacuto moved together with his master R.. Isaac Abuhab to Portugal and settled in Lisbon the capital of the country.. Seven months later his master died and R.. Abraham Zacuto lamented him by quoting the verse.. See, I am sending an angel ahead of you.. (Ex 23:20).. The fame of R.. Abraham Zacuto preceded his arrival to Portugal and King Joao II who was a keen adept of astronomy and engineering provided him with a university cathedra.. The king liked R.. Abraham Zacuto and gave him the honorable title The Royal Astronomer.. When the king visited Turi di Tombo in AM 5254/1494 he presented Abraham the Astrologer with ten golden coins.. [14].. Nishmath Chaiim.. ,.. [15].. once the King Joao came to try R.. Abraham Zacuto's wisdom by riddles.. He said he intended to travel to Iborra and demanded to read by stars through which gate he will enter Iborra.. Abraham replied, Whatever I will say, you will enter by other gate.. The King said, No, put your divination in writing and seal it with your own seal.. He brought clean sheet of paper and wrote, The King will open a new gate and enter through it.. So it was - the king wanted to prove that his fortune telling is false and broke a new gate into the city and entered through it.. Abraham Zacuto s letter and read it aloud and it was a miracle in his eyes.. Abraham Zacuto to his room and enquired what the distance between earth and heaven is.. He gave the answer.. In a year time, the king raised the roof of the room by one and a half cubit and asked R.. Abraham, Tell me, Astronomer, what the distance between the earth and heaven is, as I forgot [your answer].. The wise man replied, [Since then] the earth was raised or the heaven descended.. After demise of Joao II, his grandchild, Dom Manuel sat on the throne of Portuguese kings.. He nominated R.. Abraham Zacuto to be his astronomer and secretary.. In AM 5256/1496, the tables of R.. Abraham Zacuto were published in Liria, in the printing house of Master Samuel di Ortas.. They spread in all lands of East and West, in the countries of Edom and in the lands of Ishmael.. [16].. Abraham Zacuto wrote about it: I have been in the kingdom of Spain and in other Christian kingdoms when my books on Astronomy were published and people said [it is written by] R.. Abraham Zacuto of Salamanca.. I am entitled to be proud of it as our Sages OBM said: What is the wisdom that the Gentile nations appreciate? and they meant the calculations of stars of Zodiac and of periods of time.. I bear witness to heaven that they glorified [the people of] Israel for it.. [17].. It was said that R.. Abraham Zacuto's advice on wisdom of stars to the Gentile nations and their kings is as good as Ahitophel's advice of old.. [18].. During his sojourn in Portugal, R.. Abraham Zacuto came to new conclusion about the origin of storms and gales in the equinoctial regions.. His investigations proved it is possible to reach India by circumventing Africa.. [19].. In AM 5257 [1496 CE], King Manuel equipped the fleet under command of Vasco di Gama to search for the way to India.. Before his departure, Vasco di Gama sought R.. Abraham Zacuto's advice in presence of his sailors.. [20].. King Manuel invited R.. Abraham Zacuto to the city of Beja and the astronomer told him that India soon would belong to Portugal.. It became true, as we know.. In AM 5257 [1496 CE], the Jews of Portugal were expelled as well and R.. Abraham Zacuto left the country together with his son Samuel.. Abraham Zacuto wrote about it: God granted me and my son Samuel the privilege (.. zechuth.. ) to glorify and sanctify His Name.. We came to Africa and twice we were made prisoners.. God in His great mercy to His pious ones will provide me and my offspring's posterity to worship His blessed Name.. [21].. Abraham Zacuto went with many other exiles to Africa and settled in Tunis, there was a big community, wealthy people and great believers in the tradition [.. Kabbalah.. ] of Torah.. [22].. Among the Portuguese exiles in Tunis, there was R.. Moses Alaskar as well.. The troubles and destitution caused by exile wore down the strength of R.. Abraham as he admitted: For my sins, for all these destruction and captivity and lack of food, I have nor strength, no wisdom, neither sense of distinction.. [23].. In Tunis, R.. Abraham Zacuto completed his.. Sefer Yohassin.. but he was short of [reference] books, as there were no books in Tunis except what the exiles brought with them.. Abraham Zacuto stayed in Tunis for a few years but apparently he could not find peace for his soul and left for the Middle East, to Turkey and at the end of his days to Syria and to Land of Israel.. He settled in Jerusalem and died there in AM 5275/1515.. [24].. Among colleagues of R.. Abraham Zacuto, there was the perfect scholar R.. Abraham ha-Levi Bokart, mentioned by R.. Abraham Zacuto in.. [25].. It appears he is identical with R.. Abraham b.. Eleazar ha-Levi, R.. Abraham Zacuto brother in law who wrote a few books on.. , including.. Galya Raza.. (Disclosing Mysteries) and.. Sefer Zikaron.. (The Book of Memory).. Among his better-known disciples, there was R.. Joseph Vecinho, the physician to the King Joao III and a member of the Lisbon Junta.. The Junta was the group of scientists, astronomers and navigators.. Joseph was a colleague and an adviser of Columbus.. He translated the explanation of R.. Abraham Zacuto s Tables into Latin.. Abraham Zacuto s grandson, R.. Abraham Luzitanus, was a great physician and a wise man.. 2.. THE BOOK OF YOHASSIN GENERAL DESCRIPTION.. The Hebrew medieval historical literature is rather lean and mean.. The historiographers described events and tales, marked years and dates but they could not present events and.. personae dramatis.. within the whole historical and spiritual context of their times.. They could not express the rise and fall of spiritual movements or show us some great historical personage by making him alive through exaltation of their own spirit.. They could not integrate the details into a united and live presentation.. Such purposes were foreign to the historiographers, as they did not consider history as a separate independent branch of knowledge.. The historiography was not writers art, they thought.. They intentionally limited their scope: some described the miracles to enhance the faith and arouse the spirit of believers, some preferred to dispute with Christians and free thinkers by compiling the traditions of transmission of the Oral Torah and.. They usually considered their work as subsidiary to the establishment of the.. Halachah.. , the Rule of Torah.. It was necessary to know the lives and times of the sages of Talmud and Mishna in order to determine who preceded whom and whose judgment prevails according to the rule of the oldest decision.. The Book of.. conforms to the rule.. The main intention of R.. Abraham Zacuto as the author of the book was to help the Talmud scholars, as he states openly in his foreword.. That is why R.. Abraham Zacuto concentrates his attention and efforts on the first articles in the book dealing with the Talmud personalities.. He writes at length about the Sages of Israel and tries to establish rules of preferment of Judgment.. His second aim was to support the Jewish side in disputes with Christians and he frequently refers to the opinions of Christian laity and clerics and of Jesus himself.. Chapter six of his work contains much of the Jews-versus-Christians polemics.. exceeds all previous historiographic writings by its completeness and perfection of the first chapters dealing with the Mishna and Talmud personae.. Abraham Zacuto invested huge effort in it and succeeded to lay a sound foundation to the structure of the Talmudic history.. Moses Haggis was right saying, If you wish to quench your thirst and to find the origins and descent of the Sages of Mishna and Talmud and to learn everything about them, their names and their virtues, keep close to your heart this pleasant book and it will encourage your spirit to study the Oral Torah (.. Mishnath Chachamim.. , 625).. The author named his book.. the Book of Lineage but his provisional title was.. Sefer Chassidim.. the Book of Pious or.. Sefer Kedoshim.. the Book of Saints.. In his Conclusion he writes, That is why I compiled together.. The Book of Saints.. the Book of Lineage.. , to pay tribute to the wise and holy people of Israel.. Abraham Zacuto invested many labors and worked for many years.. The scientists are still divided as to the year when the book was written.. Zunz presumes the book was completed in the year AM 5262/1502 but the majority of experts prefer the year AM 5264/1504 (Graetz, Keizerling, etc).. The author of.. Zemach David.. gives the year AM 5263 [1503 CE].. Lev considers the chapter 6 being written in AM 5264 [1504 CE], while previous chapters were written in preceding years.. In the chapter 3, there is a reference, which was missed by scholars.. On page 204a, R.. Zacuto writes, This year is a thousand-year anniversary of the completion of Talmud and 73 years since the demise of The Rosh.. By R.. Zacuto s counting, it is the year AM 5259 [1499 CE].. Still there is no need to choose a specific year, as it appears that R.. Zacuto wrote some chapters in Portugal before the Expulsion, while other chapters were composed in Tunisia.. The best proof can be found on folio 22a, where he states that in Tunisia he had just a few books, namely.. Nezikin.. the Jerusalem Talmud.. and the Midrash.. Levitcus Rabba.. , etc.. In his first chapters, he freely quotes all tractates of the.. and all.. Midrash Rabba.. books.. It proves that he wrote his book over number of years.. Various chapters were composed at different dates.. Answer that is more precise we can find by inspecting his other books.. In the introduction to his Astronomical Tables or Perpetual Almanac, R.. Zacuto promises to compose a book on the Sages of Mishna and Talmud.. The introduction to the Book of.. also states that he considered the book as a certain supplement to his previous books on astronomy.. He writes, This book is similar to the books on wisdom of numbers and stars and a virtuous deed causes other virtuous deeds.. It means that R.. Zacuto started this book after completion of his Opus Magnum in the year 5238/1478.. In the year 5270/1510, R.. Abraham of Trotial composed his book of.. and he quotes frequently the Book of.. It proves the Book of.. was composed between 5240/1480 and 5270/1510.. During those years, R.. Abraham Zacuto collected the vast material for the book and carefully presented it in the first three chapters on the sages of Mishna and Amora.. The following chapters were written hastily after the Expulsion and the author had no time to arrange them properly and left it as an uncompleted compilation of various and contradictory sources.. Abraham Zacuto tried to correct the errors of preceding scholars on Transmission and related topics and frequently argued with Maimonides and with R.. Abraham ibn Daud, the author of.. book.. He modestly assesses his efforts in this field, Sometimes a small candle is better to look for holes and cracks than a great luminosity.. The last chapters of the Book of Yohassin have great historical value, as for instance the narrative on Book of Zohar.. The Book of Yohassin is our only primary source on the matter as the other writers just quoted the book of R.. Zacuto.. Nevertheless, the first chapters dealing with the Mishnah and Talmud scholars are also important as R.. Zacuto compared various manuscripts and printed books to present the reader with correct versions.. The latter glosses are also important, especially those by the first publisher R.. Samuel Sholem who quoted many old and otherwise lost, books.. For many years, the Book of Yohassin was the most important of historiographic Jewish books.. The previous generations of our forefathers in the darkness of the Diaspora read this book to enliven their souls.. Despite the reassessment of modernity, the Book of Yohassin remains an important step on the road from the mist of tales and legends to the light of scientific exploration.. Asher b.. Jechiel.. Popularly known by the initials of his name: The.. Rosh.. and so designated hereafter.. Eminent Talmudist; born in western Germany about 1250; died in Toledo, Spain, 1328.. Je.. c.. hiel was the most prominent disciple of.. Meir b.. Baruch of Rothenburg.. Of the Rosh s.. extant.. works,.. his.. abstract of the Talmudic laws (.. Halachahs.. ).. is where his.. fame rests.. Omitting the haggadic portions of the Talmud, and all the laws not.. practiced.. outside of Palestine, such as the sacrificial,.. criminal.. and political ones, Asher made an abstract of the practical.. Hala.. ch.. ah.. , leaving out the discussions, and concisely stating the final decisions.. The Book of Yohassin, folio 223a.. Ibid.. , folio 226a.. Rab Papa Saba, a disciple of Rab.. His ten sons are mentioned whenever a tractate is completed in a celebratory prayer called.. Hadran.. Rabbinical authority on halachic questions.. Keizerling on.. Columbus.. , pp.. 13, 45.. Correa,.. Lendas da India.. , quoted from Keizerling, p.. 45 note 3.. Libro deProfecias.. , p.. 59, quoted from Keizerling, p.. 43.. Keizerling, p.. 11.. , folio 88a.. It is written in.. Shosheleth Kabbalah.. , page 50:71 and in the book.. Neshmat Chaiim.. quoted from Keizerling, Portugal, p.. 121.. However, in his book on Columbus (p.. 41) he wrote that R.. Abraham Zacuto never lived in Saragossa.. Keizerling, Portugal, p.. 121, note 5;.. 99.. Menasseh b.. Israel,.. BT.. Chagigah.. chapter 23.. , folio 222a.. , folio 53a.. , 3:2.. Gaspar Correa,.. Lendas di India.. , quoted from Keizerling,.. Keizerling,.. Portugal.. 162 and.. 100.. , folio 223a.. , folio 215b.. Author s Introduction to the.. , folio 1a.. Keizerling claimed he died in Izmir (Smyrna) but could not prove it.. The date is according to Ramshash, p.. 101.. Folio 174a..

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  • Title: Hebrew
    Descriptive info: ,.. '.. ' ' ',.. (.. ).. ( ' :).. ) , ,.. ( '.. ) ,.. , , ,.. ( :) ( :).. ' ,.. ( :).. , , , ,.. ( :) ( :) ' '.. '.. ' , ' (.. ) ' ( :).. ( :) ( ,.. ) ( ').. ( ' ).. , ,..  ...   ).. , ' ( ').. ',.. ) ' '.. ' ( :) ' '.. ' , '.. , , ' ', ' '.. ) ' ' '.. ' ' ( :) , ( :).. ' ' ' ( :) ' '.. ' , ' , '.. , ( ' ) ' ,.. ( '.. ' ' ,.. Zacuto Home Page..

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  • Title: Autor
    Descriptive info: Sample I.. The Author s Introduction.. T.. hus said Abraham, the son of Rabbi Samuel son of Rabbi Abraham Zacuto, may he be remembered in the World-to-Come: The people of Israel are compared to the stars by name and number, akin to gold implements and the most precious stones.. Even more so are the wise and pious ones, for it is said, The wise men shine like the brilliance of the firmament and those who lead others to righteousness [shine] like stars forever and ever.. That is the great difference between those who provide themselves with merit and those who lead others to righteousness and provide others with merit.. The star is the light of the heavenly orb; likewise the soul in the body is its most important part, and that is surely so.. They, I mean the sages of the Mishna and Talmud and all those who came after them, who composed books to dispense merits among us, they illuminate our souls.. In order to provide others and myself with merit, I arose to compose this small book.. I intend to present by name and by date the sages of the.. Mishna and the Talmud as we have it.. But I am leaving out the sages of the Baraitha.. as I do not know them and their dates.. I shall mention the Gaons and the authors of books and their times whenever I find it.. I shall not glorify myself by saying that this is great wisdom , for because of my sins and due to persecutions and captivity and the need for food I have lost my strength.. I have neither wisdom nor knowledge.. For my taste has not lingered and my scent is spent.. However, in order to obtain merit I shall remember the important traditions and principles as cited and performed by the sages.. I composed this book and I am deserving of composing it, as it charts the generations from the Creation, which is when the world was created.. [The Creation] is the tenet of the Torah, as it contains all the miracles that explain the Creation of the world and the true Present Force, which alone makes miracles.. He alone helps in hard times and is very much present.. Although there are angels but they are exist by Him and their existence depend on Him and His presence and one cannot speak properly of Presence but of the presence of the Blessed Creator whose presence is certain.. This book is similar to [the one I wrote on] the science of mathematics and astronomy, as one fulfilled precept causes another precept to be fulfilled.. At first, I contemplated on the title for the book.. If I were to call it.. Sefer Zadikim.. The Book of The Righteous.. , it would diminish the honour due to.. Hasidim.. , the Pious who certainly were sages.. An ignorant person cannot be pious, explained Rashi, (though he can fear sin), as he deals with trade.. Although the prophet Samuel is called Samuel the Righteous at the end of Ch.. Bame Behema.. There is also Simeon the Righteous.. In the beginning of Ch.. Techeleth.. Rashi explained that the pious are punctuous in fulfilling the commandments.. In Ch.. Hameniach,.. it is said: He who wishes to be pious must [first of all] observe the [civil] laws of.. , and some say, the matters dealt with in.. Berachoth.. Others say, the [ethics] dealt with in.. Aboth.. Kol Kitvei,.. Raba says: Will the pious man take payment for Sabbath work? But Raba said that here we are dealing with a God-fearing person who does not wish to benefit from others but also would not wish to bother himself [for nothing].. Rashi explained: If they are pious men, they would rather give away their own in order to avoid even a hint of transgression.. Even though it is not to be considered as payment for work that had been done on the Sabbath, as he did not agree to do the work on certain conditions but received it as abandoned property, still, he is not called a pious man unless he does give up what is his [by right].. However, here we are dealing with a God-fearing man and not a pious man who would rather give up his own, as he is not comfortable by gaining ownership of somebody s abandoned property.. He understands that [the owner] gave up his goods unwillingly [due to fire] yet he does not wish to trouble himself for nothing for he is not a pious man who would relinquish what is [rightfully] his.. End of quote.. Therefore, it is apparent that the merit of a pious man is on a higher scale than the God-fearing one.. Temura.. and in the beginning of Ch.. Hagozel.. : A man is not called a pious one, unless he abstained from sin practically all his life.. That is why I was afraid to call the book.. The.. Book of The Pious.. , because of my respect for the sages that were [specifically] called pious , such as Jose b.. Joezer, R.. Jose the Priest, R.. Judah b.. Baba and R.. Ila i who was ordained by him; and King David, Ezra the Priest, Hillel, Baba b.. Buta, R.. Akiba, Samuel the Lesser and Simeon the Pious who are mentioned in Talmud and those akin to them.. For I was afraid they would burn me with their fiery breath, as for them silence is their glory.. Therefore, I called my book,.. Sefer Yohassin - The Book of Lineage.. , such as the book that was read by the sages obm.. Pesachim.. , Ch.. Tamid Nishchat,.. Simlai came into the presence of R.. Johanan and asked him: My master, please teach me.. Rashi explained it as the historical chronicles.. [R.. Johanan] asked, Where you from? He replied: From Lydda.. - Where is your [original] home? - In Nehardea [in Babylonia].. He said: We do not teach people of Lydda.. or.. of Nehardea, even more so with you who are of Lydda.. and.. originally of Nehardea.. Rashi explained that he wished to put him off.. Still, he pressured him and he agreed.. May my master teach it in three months, he said.. Johanan] replied: Even Beruriah, wife of R.. Meir and daughter of R.. Hanina b.. Teradion who studied 300 laws from 300 teachers in one wintry day, could not pass it in six.. years and you wish to do it in three months! and he took a clod and threw it at him.. This expression is also used in Ch.. Yedioth Hatumah.. He took a clod and threw it at him.. Also in the Ch.. One,.. AZ.. (in regard to R.. Meir) and in Ch.. Misheahazo.. we find that [Asmodeus].. threw Solomon for 400 parasangs.. As he was hastily leaving, [R.. Simlai] asked him, What is the difference between a Passover sacrifice, which is offered for its own sake and for a different purpose and the Passover sacrifice for those who can eat it and cannot eat it? He said, As you are a scholar, come and I shall tell you: When it is slaughtered for its own sake and for different purpose, its disqualification is in respect of itself.. When he slaughtered for those who can eat and who cannot eat, its disqualification is not in respect of itself, etc.. It is [not] possible to distinguish its prohibition, etc.. In the.. PT,.. Simlai came to R.. Jonathan and said to him, Teach me Aggada.. He said, My ancestors kept a tradition, not to teach Aggada to Babylonians or to Southerners, as they are uncouth and lack Torah [knowledge].. And you are a Nehardean who lives in the South! There, he also asked to be taught the difference between the Passover sacrifice, which is offered for its own sake and for a different purpose and the Passover sacrifice for those who can eat and those who cannot eat it, etc.. Rami b.. R.. Judan.. said, Since the day the.. was hidden,.. the sages lost their strength and the light of their eyes was dimmed.. For Mar Zutra said, between.. Azel.. they would load 400 camels with exegetical interpretations.. Rashi expounds.. hidden.. to mean that the explanations between the mention of.. in two verses in the Chronicles were forgotten.. Aruch.. explained that they refer to a single verse that begins with.. and ends with.. Even so, it required 400 camels to carry the explanations.. This explanation was given in the.. under the entry.. Genesis Rabah.. Exodus Rabah.. and in.. Midrash Ruth.. it is said, the Chronicles are included [in the Scripture canon] just for exegetic purposes.. You can see how they made it so significant.. Rambam.. [26].. obm said in the.. Introduction.. [to Mishna] that it is not too useful to mention the names of the sages and their lineage, but this is not so.. It is extremely useful as it supports our study of the Oral Law; it supports the transmission of the Tradition from Moses, Master of the Prophets who received [the Law] from The Holy One, blessed be He.. For it tells how it was transmitted from one pious sage to another pious sage, until [it was received by] the Light of the Universe, Our Saintly Master [R.. Judah the Prince].. [27].. Ask your father and he will tell you, ask your elders and they will explain it to you.. [28].. Rambam obm himself explained in the.. [to the Mishna], why Rabbi [Judah the Prince] compiled.. : In order to inform us of the transmission of the true tradition from one sage to another, etc.. Rashi explained this as an important tenet [of faith].. At the end of.. Elu Metziyoth,.. [29].. entry.. Hadar.. , he explained the expression Run to the Mishna as follows: He feared that the Mishna teachings would be forgotten and the names of the sages confused.. Wherever it said Liable , people will say Not liable , and wherever it is said Forbidden people will say, Permitted.. Not for naught was the Genesis made the  ...   language of the Sages.. [59].. Also, in Ch.. Reshith Hagez,.. [60].. Johanan was exacting with Rab Issi b.. Hini,.. [61].. and stressed the difference between the language of the Torah and the language of the Sages, and corrected R.. Issi b.. Hini.. According to Rashi s version, R.. Hini said to his son, ewes.. He used the plural [form] written in the Scripture,.. rechelim.. [ewes] and R.. Johanan told him to employ the plural used by the Sages,.. recheloth.. [ewes].. However, in the Gemara,.. [62].. Johanan studied with.. his.. son [and said, etc.. ] but Rashi was prudent in his commentary, as we do not encounter the sons of R.. Johanan for they had all died.. Still it is possible [that it was R.. Johanan s son] as he may have died at age ten or more, as it is said, At ten study the Mishna.. Perhaps, he had a son in his old age who stayed with the daughters he had.. We know he said to R.. Eleazar [b.. Pedath], if it is because of sons, etc.. [63].. And yet, R.. Eleazar had a son called R.. Pedath, [named] after his grandfather.. As we have remarked, they were careful with the names of the Sages.. Accordingly, we have found in.. [64].. Hanan, the son of Raba, repeated to Hiyya, the son of Rab [in the presence of Rab]: R.. Zechariah the son of Kefutal.. Whereupon, Rab said to him that it should be read with a.. Beth.. - Kebutal.. the PT,.. [65].. A priest [said to] Rab, How shall we read it,.. Kebutar.. Kebutal.. ? and because he was praying, he drew with his finger to indicate that it was.. Kebutar.. So too in Ch.. Ketzad Meabrin.. [66].. [or perhaps it is].. MeAbrin.. as R.. Johanan said that he studied with his master R.. Oshaia for 18 years.. [67].. and learned from him only one thing in the Mishna, that.. Meabrin.. is written with an.. Alef.. [instead of an.. Ayin.. ].. And in the same place, it says: People of Judea who were careful about their language, retained their learning but not so the people of Galilee.. [68].. Rehaba of Pumbeditha was praised [by the sages] at the end of Ch.. Ein Omdin.. [69].. for he was careful to quote the words and the names of the sources as received from his master Rab Judah, for [Rehaba] said: The Temple Mount was surrounded by a stoa.. [70].. He used the word.. stoa,.. [71].. iztaba.. iztabanith.. as in the Ch.. [72].. and in many other places.. There is an opinion that he was careful to quote the name [of the source], as there was doubt whether he heard the law from R.. Ila i or from Rab Judah.. That is the explanation given by R.. Zemach the Gaon, as it is stated in the entry.. Rehaba.. However, Rashi in Ch.. Makom Shenahagu.. [73].. said there was a doubt whether he heard the law from R.. Judah or from R.. Judah Nesi ah,.. [74].. as he was a contemporary.. That is also the interpretation of Rashbam obm.. However, in the Ch.. Beitzah.. [75].. Rashi reconsidered and said it is after all, Rab Judah, not R.. Judah Nesi ah, as Rehaba never met R.. Judah Nesi ah, though they were contemporaries, since he lived in Pumbeditha, while R.. Judah Nesi ah lived in Palestine.. The.. , under the entry.. Rab.. deals with this question at length and quotes Our Master Hananel.. Still, the Tosafoth.. in.. in Ch.. Elu Treifoth.. [76].. and in the beginning of.. did not agree to this explanation but the commentators did give [such an explanation].. We also saw in.. Kiddushin.. [77].. that R.. Judah was very meticulous with R.. Nahman, when he was summoned to be judged by him, even in the use of mundane words.. [78].. Ashi said to Mar Keshisha: Did I not tell you that you should not transpose the names of sages? That statement was made in the name of R.. Elai.. [79].. Ramban obm wrote to his son: The first of the rules of Talmud, according to R.. Campanton; know who the Tanna was, etc.. Bear their names on your lips like a banner.. In this small book of mine, I will endeavour to bring along an explanation of a law or some useful item that appears to me to be an innovation.. I ask assistance from the Blessed Lord to show me the way of truth and to allow me to complete my work and to write, Blessed are those whose ways are blameless who walk according to the law of the Lord,.. [80].. then I will answer one who taunts me for I have trusted in Your words.. I have more understanding than the elders, for I have obeyed your precepts, turn to me and have mercy upon me, as you do for those who love your Name.. Amen.. Daniel 12:3.. Zacuto means his merit.. This is an allusion to the cabbalistic idea that the soul is akin to Light.. Tannaitic source not included in the Mishna.. Cf Jer.. 48:11 his taste remained in him, and his scent is not changed.. 56a.. The Prophet was a sage, but he dealt with trade, as a judge.. Menachoth.. 40a.. BK.. 30a.. 120a.. The following discussion concerns the saving of goods from fire on Sabbath.. If the owner offers people to save things from fire in order to take the things for themselves, and they still return the goods to the owner, though they are entitled to keep it, they are entitled to receive it as a reward for their work, and it is not called a payment for Sabbath.. 15b.. 103b.. Cf Ps 65:2.. 62b.. This story throws light on the competition, enmity and sympathy between the Babylonians and Palestinian Jewry of that time, somewhat similar to the ambivalent feelings of Israeli and American Jews nowadays.. Three, in our texts.. Shevu oth.. 18b.. Jonathan b.. Jose asked for the Scriptural reason why one should be punished for having intercourse with a menstrual woman and his teacher threw a clod at him.. Gittin.. 68b.. The King of demons.. Appears in the apocryphal Book of Tobit.. An ancient Persian measure of distance, which is approximately 3.. 5 miles or 5.. 6 km.. 32b 5:3.. Judah in our Gemara.. Suppressed, forgotten or destroyed.. Interpretations on the chapter starting and ending with Azel (I Chron.. 8:38 9:44).. Sefer Aruch.. , (1) Talmudic lexicon by R.. Zemach, the son of Paltoi, c.. 880 and (2) Talmudic Lexicon, composed by R.. Nathan b.. Jehiel of Rome; 1035 - 1106.. Moses b.. Maimon, or Maimonides, born March 30, 1135, Córdoba [Spain] - died Dec.. 13, 1204, Egypt; Arabic name Abu Imran Musa Ibn Maimon Ibn Ubayd Allah.. The greatest medieval Jewish scholar, he codified the Talmud and in Guide for the Perplexed (1190) attempted to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Jewish theology.. Rabbi Judah the Prince, 135 - 220, the ruler of the Jewish community in Roman Palestine, and the editor of Mishna.. Elsewhere called Rabbi.. Deut 32:7.. BM.. 33a.. Num 29:7-11.. Megilah.. 15a.. Eleazar said in the name of R.. Hanina: Whoever reports a saying in the name of its originator brings deliverance to the world, as it says (Esther.. 2: 22).. and Esther told the king in Mordecai's name.. 104b.. Mishna 6.. Jacob Al-Fasi (1013-1103), a native of North Africa, lived in Spain.. Al-Fasi abridged the Talmud, compiling only the necessary laws.. Jehiel, born c.. 1250, on Rhine - died Oct.. 24, 1327, in Toledo, Spain; also called (by acronym) Rosh (for Rabbenu [Our Master] Asher), a major codifier of the Talmud.. Rambam did not give the sources from the Talmud in his.. Mishne Torah.. 107a.. 92b.. 89a.. Who said one should pay attention to a rumour that a certain girl is betrothed.. In Sura it was different; they used to suppress such rumour.. 29a.. Samson b.. Isaac of Chinon (1260-1330), or Maharshak.. He wrote a book on the methodology of the Talmud called Sefer Kerithuth (Constantinople, 1515).. 36a.. 19.. 141a.. Abaye said, One may scrape off the clay from his foot on to the ground, but not on to a wall.. Raba said, He may scrape it off onto a wall but not on to the ground.. Mar son of Rabina said, Both are forbidden.. Papa said, Both are permitted.. Nahmanides (c.. 1194, Gerona, Catalonia - 1270, Acre, Palestine); original name Moses Ben Nahman, or, by acronym, Ramban.. Spanish scholar and sage, a philosopher, poet, physician, and Cabbalist.. measures of volume.. II Kings, 6:25.. 47a.. Judah the son of R.. Shilath said in the name of Rab, The guests may not.. eat.. anything until the one who breaks bread has tasted.. 6a.. 58b.. This is the usual verb for to dilute wine with water , whereas R.. Assi used.. masak.. Prov 9:2.. His point is that in the language of the Rabbis.. mazag.. means mixing wine with water ; but.. , while having that meaning in Biblical Hebrew, means in Rabbinic Hebrew mixing strong wine with weaker wine.. 137b.. Also known as Assi b.. Hini or as Assi, was contemporary with R.. Johanan.. In our Gemara, Issi b.. Hini was teaching his son.. If it is because you lost children, you know I ve lost ten sons.. Eleazar lost children, still, he had a son left and maybe that is the case with R.. Johanan as well.. 19b.. PT.. 1:6, Gemara.. 53a.. In our editions: R.. Johanan said, I spent eighteen days at R.. Oshaia Berabbi.. who were not careful about their language, did not retain their learning.. 33b.. double colonnade.. The exact word used by his master, though the passage is based on a Mishna where the word.. 13b.. 52b.. A grandson of R.. Judah the Prince.. His title is transliterated, not translated just to avoid confusion with his grandfather.. 11b.. 70a.. He corrected every word used by the judge, in order to show his superiority, though he agreed to be judged by R.. Nahman.. 96b.. Instead of R.. Jonathan, as he erroneously stated.. Ps 119:1..

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    Descriptive info: Sample II.. The Chronicles.. of the Kings of Israel and.. the Kings of the Nations.. Abraham, son of R.. Samuel Zacuto, may his soul rest in Paradise, said that knowledge of what happened to each nation at different times gives us strength and faith in the power of Blessed God, in His attention to the affairs of mortals, in reward and retribution and in the deep roots of the Torah (e.. Generation of the Flood and similar events: earthquakes and fires; the earthquake in the days of Uzziah and Herod, and especially all that happened to the People of Israel, like the earth swallowing up Dathan and Abiram and other miracles).. The Holy Scripture says: Remember the olden days.. When the Lord Most High gave nations their inheritance, when He divided all mankind, the Lord s portion is His people.. Israel needs to know about Christians if we are to argue their religion with them.. Therefore I mention some people of alien faith, who otherwise would not be mentioned (for instance their saints ).. The Holy Scripture also mentions evildoers and heathens who deserve no mention.. This was necessary to inform us of our great advantage.. God forbid, do not think that, like our Holy Scripture, all is truth in what they wrote in their history books and that I quote.. Know that their mouths are full of lies, their right hands are deceitful.. I have seen many of the events recorded in their chronicles and they are incorrect.. They also lie about events of old, days of old and their miracles.. They further lie in their calculation of time and years when they say that a given event took place since the Creation.. There is a discrepancy of 1,439 years; in our count the year is [AM] 5264 [AD 1504], and by theirs, the year is [AM] 6703.. Be that as it may, they wrote of some events retold in the BT, PT and Midrash.. They supply many details about, for instance, King [Bar] Koziba, the years of Titus the Evil, the affairs of Hadrian the Oppressor (the era of the Bethar and the Ten Martyrs) and after him, Antoninus the Good.. , his era and that of his good brother as well as many other affairs.. All of them rely upon Joseph Ben Gorion the Priest.. , though I do not.. He tends to exaggerate and magnify while his calculations do not fit the simple meaning of Scripture.. While taking this into account, [I intend] to satisfy the desires of the sons of our nation who wish to know everything they wrote, I mean, the general affairs of what happened in Jerusalem and in Palestine, Italy, Greece, Egypt, Babylonia and Turkey as well as places cited in the Scripture and populated by Israelites, such as Crowned Tyre (in the language of Christians), only a day s walk from Acre, quite near Sidon and Palestine.. In olden days, Phoenicians lived there.. Thus, many were misled to believe that Venice was Tyre.. Likewise, people mistake Tunis for Tarshish, which is [actually] called Tarsus.. writes in the entry.. Tarsus.. boats of.. Tarshish.. - of Tarsus, or Malamestaras, or Turtus, close to Aleppo of our time, located to the east of Palestine.. As for such details about Spain, and France, and Germany, we left out all irrelevancies.. Many things admitted by the Nations could be of use, as they may have found them in the old books of the sages of Israel.. For our sins in this long Exile and many persecutions, we lost [books] such as the astronomy works of the sons of Issachar, books of medicine and the wisdom of Nature compiled by [King] Solomon, pbuh, or about trees, stones, plants, the influence of stars and most ancient history.. The true prophets (Nathan the Prophet, Isaiah, and others in the Prophets [in the Bible]) were much engaged [in mundane science and history] and usefully so.. Even in the days of Our Master Moses, pbuh, there was the.. Book.. of.. Lord s.. Wars.. and Joshua [compiled] the.. Jashar.. Let us leave the exegesis in peace.. Chronicles.. the.. Kings.. Israel.. , which are not found among us, hold tales that bring comfort and introduce fear of God into the hearts [of listeners].. On the Day of Atonement, they have read before the High Priest from the Chronicles, Job, Ezra and Daniel.. Rashi explained: [they have read] stories that attract and cheer, in order not to fall asleep.. Rambam of blessed memory explained: those were stories and calculations of times past, to cheer the soul, so they would not fall asleep.. That was the source for all Gentile kings to learn how to compile chronicles.. Thus Ahasuerus recorded that he was saved by Mordecai.. Its usefulness is obvious.. Thus I compiled it together with the Book of Saints, (this is the Book of Lineage [.. ], which I wrote of the holy sages of Israel), in order to tell all that happened since the Creation, to [explain] the difference between us and the history books of alien nations and to separate wheat from chaff.. In the beginning, God created the universe and on the sixth day He created Adam from red dust.. He was called Adam because.. Adama.. means earth , the earth is close to man s nature; and his wife was Eve; and Adam became father of 60 sons.. Know that, according to the Scripture, to the [Greek translation of the] 70 Elders who translated the Scripture for Ptolemy, and to [the Latin translation of] Jerome, may his name perish (he is the one who translated the Scripture into Latin), that 1,756 years passed from the Creation until the Flood.. Isidore says 2,242 years while Augustine, may his name perish, says 2,262 years.. Thus the author relied upon Isidore s calculations, as they say Jesus the Nazarene was born in AM 5199 and in AM 3760 by Jewish count.. The discrepancy is 1,439 years.. They say Cain was born in AM 15, while Abel his brother was born in AM 30; Seth was born in 130 and he started to learn the movements of heavens.. Enosh [was born in] 435; Kenan, in 625.. Enosh started to make images so that people would remember the Creator and it was a mistake in means.. Mehalalel was born in 795; Jared, in 960 and Enoch, in 1502.. He fought the evil sons of Cain.. In the Book of Joshua Ben Sirah, which is added to the Holy books, it states that Enoch lived in the Garden of Eden on Earth together with Elijah.. Methuselah was born in 1287.. It is generally agreed that he died in the first week of the Flood.. It occurred in AM 2640, by their count.. The Giants [Anakim] who lived in the days of Noah and Lamech were evil.. Noah fled the Giants as they scared him.. The Gentiles interpreted the words of the Scripture that his days will be 120 years as Onkelos did, that Noah was 480 when the Lord spoke to him and that the Lord gave 120 years [for people to repent].. If they did not repent, He would send the Flood.. During these 120 years, Noah built the Ark.. The length of the Ark was 300 cubits and each of their cubits was like six of ours.. Maybe he learned this from the angel that brought him the measure for the Temple.. That was the measure of the primary cubit created by God, and it is like six of our cubits.. I mean six cubits and an inch, though they said little finger' instead of inch.. The Ark rested atop Mount Ararat in Armenia, the highest mountain there.. There Noah and his sons emerged from the Ark.. That is.. the First Era.. From the Flood until Abraham s birth was.. the Second Era.. , 292 years by Jewish count and 942 years by other count.. Some think it was 652 years.. That is according to Isidore, perish the evils name.. According to Augustine, perish the evils name, it was 1,072 years.. In his book he gave the reason for the change, that they added 100 years of life to each generation from Arphaxad on, and 40 years as well.. There were 11 generations from Noah till Abraham.. When Noah planted his vineyard, he poured some blood of lion, pig, lamb and monkey as a sign for wine drinkers.. Our sages of blessed memory mentioned that he begat sons and daughters after the Flood [as well].. He had a fourth son named Yoniko [Jonitus.. ] who was very wise.. After the Flood [Yoniko] began to study astronomy and taught it to the whole world, namely to the four kingdoms from East to West.. He taught Nimrod how to become ruler over the sons of Ham.. Noah s kin consisted of 72 families; the sons of Japheth, 15; those of Ham, 32; and of Shem, 27 or 28.. The sons of Japheth were in Europe, one third of the known world, from Portugal and Castile, to Turkey in Great Asia, where lie the lands of Israel and Babylon.. Lusitania is Portugal.. In all those places dwelt Gomer and Magog, [their sons] are the Godosh [Goths], rulers of Castile.. Javan [Ionia] is Greece and Constantinople and their land is part of Turkey in Asia.. Tubal is Sepharad.. Further away is Cappadocia Caesarea, close to Armenia; in the middle flows the river Euphrates.. There is a big city called Silkia [Cilicia?].. [The Sons of] Tiras are strong.. The kingdom of Thrace appears populated by Hungarians.. Ashkenaz is Bohemia.. [The Sons of] Riphath are Trojans, of a small kingdom in Asia.. They came to Italy and built the city of Venice, originally named Benicia after Aeneas Benito.. Togarmah is Turliya or Turkey.. Tarshish is in Asia and called the capital of Syria [Aram].. Elisha is the Hellespont Isles.. It is an island, as it is written in Ezekiel, from the isles [coasts] of Elisha.. Kittim is Chethema or Gifri or Kabris [Cyprus]; it has the nature of a harlot, thus they worship Noga [Venus].. Dodanim is Rhodes, and Rodanim [with.. ] is the same place.. They say that Shem son of Noah is Melchizedek and he built Salem, which is Jerusalem.. Arphaxad was born two years after the Flood in 2244.. Shelah was born in 2379.. Eber was born in 2509.. Because of his name, the Jews are called Eberim [Ivrim, Hebrews].. Nimrod was a descendant of Anakim [the Giants]; he was evil and revolted against God.. He advised people to build the Tower and gathered them together in Babylon.. Peleg [=Division] was born in 2643; the day he was born, the Earth was divided.. Our Sages of blessed memory said it was in the end of his days.. In the Kingdom of Scythia, or Tartaria, there is Kefa [Kiev].. Their first king was Tino [Tanaus.. ] and the river [Tanais = Don] is named after him.. Half of the Sea de la Tino [Azov Sea] is in Europe and half is in Asia.. It does not belong to any of the four parts of the world, for they are Barbarians, meaning people without good qualities who do not understand justice.. In Tartaria, or Scythia, there are Amazons who inhabit the Kingdom of women; they cut off a breast each to fight better.. In the days of Reu, the Amazons lived between Scythia and Alboneses, close to Alemania [Germany].. As they count, [it was] in AM 2773.. Amazons means no breasts.. In the days of Reu the Kingdom of Egypt was established, and the first king was Shoresh [Soros].. That is Africa.. Then Bohemia was founded, it was named after their king Bohemio; he came in the days of Division.. Their capital is Prague.. There were Amazons, three sisters.. ; the youngest of them married and since then men began to enslave them.. Serug was born in 2905.. Twenty-five years later, the Kingdom of Syria was founded (2930).. To the east of Syria lays the Euphrates; to the west, Egypt; to the north, Armenia, and to the South, Arabia; there are Damascus, Palestine and Babylon.. Their first king was Bilus Nimrod, he was evil and made an idol named after himself, Bel , but in his days it was gone.. Nahor was born in 3035 and Tubal, in 3109, and he founded Hispania [Spain] and Lusitania, which is Portugal and Taragon, which is Aragon.. Terah was born in 3114; he begat Abraham, Nahor and Haran.. Haran begat Lot, Sarah and Milcah.. Nahor and Abraham married daughters of Haran in Haran.. Haran is in the Mesopotamian Kingdom in Aram Naharaim.. At first they were in the Chaldean kingdom, in the city called Ur.. Mesopotamia is in the middle of Tigri, to the east of it flows the river Tigris and to the west - the river Euphrates, to the south - Babylonia and to the North, Caucasus.. Parush was the first king of Syria (3141).. Some people identify him with Ham, son of Noah.. The Third Era.. runs from Abraham until King David, pbuh (940 by Jewish count; 941 by Isidore s).. Abraham was born in 1948 [1815 BC] according to Jews and in 3184 [2015 BC] according to the author that relies on Isidore.. The discrepancy is 1,039 years.. It is said that Abraham reigned in Damascus.. When there was a famine in Palestine, he moved to Egypt.. The pharaoh took his wife and God immediately inflicted serious suffering upon him.. His priests told him it was his fault for he had taken a wife of a stranger.. They knew he was a great sage.. At that time, Egypt had no wisdom at all.. The pharaoh asked [Abraham] to teach astronomy and mathematics, and he taught everybody.. They say Isaac was offered to God when he was 25 years old; a Midrash says.. he was 40.. Rebecca was 13 or 15 years old.. Some of our sages of blessed memory say.. he was 37.. It is strange, as Rebecca was three, at that time.. According to Abraham ibn Ezra.. , Isaac was 13 and [like a] slave to his father when he was offered by his father.. Nowhere did we find the merit [of the offering] ascribed to anyone but Abraham our forefather.. If Isaac were 37, it would be suitable to ascribe merit to him, but God [alone] knows the truth.. Jupiter reigned in Year 37 of Abraham.. Then people began to worship stars.. Sodom and Gomorrah sank in Year 99 of Abraham (3283).. By their count, Isaac was born in 3284, one year after the sinking of Sodom.. Crete is Candia, in the Peloponnesian Sea near Uzzon (3313).. Some say that Candia is in the middle of the earth.. There is music and other good things.. Abraham married Keturah in 3321 when Sarah died.. Our sages of blessed memory said.. he married her after Isaac s marriage, and so it seems from the Scripture.. [Of the sons of] sons of Keturah was Epher; he moved to Africa and as his name is Epher, it was called Africa.. Minerva is Tritona (Year 58 of Isaac; AM 3342); she was wise, performed miracles, and they worshipped her as goddess,.. deusa.. She established the lore of war and theoretical mathematics.. Diana, daughter of Jupiter and sister of the Sun, was worshipped as goddess.. In Year 60 of Isaac, when Jacob was born, King Iniko began to reign in Tisria, a part of Greece, that is Javan.. The river has been named after him.. Jacob was born in AM 3345.. In Year 91 of Jacob, Joseph was born.. A wise woman named Ceres married the king of Sicily in AM 3400, that is Year 25 of Jacob, and she instructed people to plough with oxen, to plant seeds and to bake bread from wheat.. Before that, people ate meat and suchlike.. She was like a goddess for them and they called her Proserpine, the goddess of fertility.. Sicily was called Sicula.. In 3408, Tisria was founded, it is in Javan [Greece].. In Year 75 of Jacob, he took the blessing from Esau and escaped to Laban in Haran in the kingdom of Mesopotamia (AM 3420).. Reuben was born in AM 3425 and Joseph, in AM 3434.. Jupiter II vanquished a cannibal king (3448).. For this good deed of killing the evil king, he was called Jupiter, the [God of] Justice.. Rhodes was established in AM 3459.. Rhodes , the native rose in Greek, gave its name to the island.. We mentioned (above) that the name came from Rodanim.. It was built in Year 15 of Joseph.. Jacob died in 3489.. Prometheus the Wise (3420) learned astronomy in the mountains and taught it in the kingdom of Syria.. Then he learned how to get fire from stone.. He taught people to wear a ring on the fourth finger, where there is a heart blood vessel; so a ring cheers the heart.. It became a custom in Rome; judges and grandees would wear a ring of gold; others wore rings of silver and slaves, of iron.. Everybody praised this sage.. Antares [Atlas] was a wise man and some people say he was the son of Prometheus.. He was knowledgeable in the theory of astronomy.. He learned astronomy in Greece and people said that he reached Heaven.. He had seven daughters.. ; one of them was called Maia Maio.. Maia was the mother of Mercury and a mistress of Jupiter III.. In her honour, there is the month of May.. And the Majas are civilized women.. Merchants worshiped and made sacrifices to Mercury.. In Christian countries, it is a custom to celebrate the First of May.. The days are long and thus this month is called May, for in the foreign tongue major means big.. His second daughter was Ilicata [Electra?] and his third was Istonofi [Asterope?], who was the mistress of Martin [Mars?], mother of Aperkon [Apollo?] and Zilbun [Sylvan?] They say she is forever a virgin.. That is hard for Christians.. His fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh daughters were called Fida.. Antares was king of Tuscany, in Florence and Parma (3610).. Then there was Aspiros [Ascanos?], brother of Antares, who was king of Hispania and the country was named after him.. So they called Noga [Venus] the star, and it is named after her.. His brother exiled him to Italy.. On the Captivity of Egypt in 3541, Isidore says it lasted 144 years after the death of Joseph.. Augustine, perish his name, says 141 years.. Our sages of blessed memory say that it was about 140 years, according to the tradition.. There is just a small discrepancy between them: about four years.. It would be good if that were the case for all other calculations.. They say there was a scribe from Persia at the pharaoh [ s Court].. He foretold that a son would be born to the Jews, he would humble Egyptians and elevate Israel.. Thus the pharaoh ordered all males put to death and gave the girls to Egyptians as wives.. They say that, before Moses was born, Amram had had prophetic dreams that he would have a son who would redeem Israel.. He told the dream to his wife and they rejoiced for it would reveal the greatness of Israel.. When Moses was born, his father and mother immediately saw the signs, (namely his beauty and words) and [understood the prophesy] would be fulfiled.. For three months they hid him before throwing him into the river.. Pharaoh s daughter named Tamor [Tarmuta] came to the river and gave the child to Egyptian wet nurses, but the child did not want to nurse.. His sister Miriam told the pharaoh s daughter that the child was unused to them, and she called for a Jewess.. She called his mother and named him Moses, which is an Egyptian composite name,.. moy.. , meaning water.. she.. , meaning taken out of.. So says Joseph b.. Gorion, but the Scripture does not say so explicitly.. Asia Minor extends from Philistines and Syria to India, which is already Asia Major.. It takes its name after the King Asia.. There were four kings named Mercury, some came before the Flood and some, after.. There was also Maia, as mentioned above.. Saturn was a great king in Candia [Crete] in 3600.. Aaron was born in AM 3604 and Moses, in AM 3607.. At the same time lived Pluto, who was called the Ruler of Hell for he disdained wisdom and merely worked the land.. He was a son of Saturn and brother to Jupiter.. Negroponte [Euboea] est.. in 3652.. The time of Job was before the Exodus.. He belonged to the fifth generation after our forefather Abraham.. He was a descendent of Esau.. He was a king of Edom, [his real name was] Yovav b.. Zerah.. He was born of Basra.. This was his mother s name, but according to the Scripture.. , this was the name of a city in Edom, south of Palestine.. The time of Job was three years before the Exodus, while the Exodus was in 3687 [BC 1512].. According to the true tradition of Israel, [the Exodus was in] AM 2448 [BC 1312], or Year 500 of Abraham, while Abraham was born in 1948.. The discrepancy is 1,239 years.. Mitolin [Mytilene], an island near Turkey est.. 3690.. Janus was the first king of Italy.. He killed a beast named.. janus.. and thus got his name.. They say he was Zepho, son of Eliphaz, grandson of Esau.. He applied to Saturn for he was removed from Candia and shared with him his kingdom.. It was Year 5 of the Exodus (AM 3692).. He gave his name to the month of January; he is shown with two faces and there were seven rulers by that name.. Janus I was a son of Noah; Janus II, son of Japheth and Janus III, son of Tubalcain, son of Japheth, and he was in Milan in Lombardy.. As we said, Janus IV was [he who gave his name to] the month of January.. The fifth was Janus Kreo and Janus VI, the Greek Grino.. son of Jupiter who came to Italy with Saturn.. Janus VII was a Trojan who enlarged the city of Genoa, and the city was established by Nagiano [Genoan], who came from Egypt, and because of the sea.. inogid.. [Ligurian?] in foreign tongue, Genoa was named after him.. Hannibal, king of Carthage (near Tunis) sacked Genoa.. The Ishmaelites sacked Genoa as well when they entered Spain.. Korah rose against Moses, pbuh, in the 22.. nd.. year of Moses reign in the desert (AM 3709).. In 30.. year of Moses reign there was Hercules, a great astronomer.. He had two sons, Sardinio and Corsico, and the two isles opposite Genoa were named after them.. Israel came to the Land with Joshua in 3727; Joshua reigned for 27 years.. It is close to the opinions of our sages of blessed memory.. The Isle of Sicily was built by Isiculus (it has the form of a triangle.. ), three years after Joshua s death in AM 3721; it was named Siculo Ascalia.. after him.. It is called the storehouse of wheat, food, meat, cheese and all else.. Othniel b.. Kenaz judged Israel after Joshua for 40 years (3779).. For Phineas the Hugh Priest (3701), we do not know how long he reigned.. In 3770, the glass mirror was invented.. They say the rape of Benjamin [the Levite s] mistress in Gibeah took place in Year 30 of Othniel b.. Kenaz.. Ehud b.. Gera judged for 80 years (3800).. Trolaya Batikia, a great city, was founded in 3840 (Year 40 of Ehud).. It is in Asia Major.. Regarding Pisolina [Pistoia?] near Florence in the kingdom of Tuscany, these cities are the same as Florence and Pisa [and are] against Genoa.. Joseph b.. Gorion called it Toscana.. Pisolina was founded in 3842 [BC 1357].. Sibyl was the first prophetess in Italy (3843).. Every woman who foretells the future is called a sibyl.. Hercules, the last of that name, was a giant (3845).. He killed snakes as a baby in his crib.. He killed the lion and performed 12 [great] deeds, as written, from the days of Joshua till the Sack of Troy.. That was in Year 3 of Abdon b.. Hillel (AM 4033).. Then all Latin languages came into being.. Hapaitas in 3879 [BC 1320].. Deborah of the tribe of Ephraim, and her husband Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, judged for 40 years.. In Midrash [they say that] wife of Lapidoth [should read] woman of thunder [barakim] and lightning.. Those 40 years contain the 40 years of the oppression by Jabin, the King of Canaan.. Thus spoke the sages.. Our Master Asher said.. that, because women are not fit to bear witness, neither are they fit to judge.. How then could Deborah judge? He [gave two possible explanations]: Deborah was different for they agreed to be judged by her [or] she advised the judges of Israel by Divine guidance.. Mercury the last of that name invented the art of harmony, this is music (3900).. Gideon b.. Joash judged Israel for 40 years, including seven years of Midianite and Amalekite oppression (3919).. In Year 25 of Gideon, the Trojan War began (AM 3944).. Abimelech, son of Gideon, reigned for three years.. Then came Philemon.. He invented the musical instrument called.. kodo.. Years 3968 and 3961, (at the end of Abimelech s reign) there was a great war between.. aisentiaros.. [centaurs] and the men of Tisiria [Thessaly?] in Javan in Greece.. Then all the centaurs were killed; none of these beasts survived.. Thola b.. Puah (3962) reigned for 24 years.. Then reigned Paon, king of Latins in Italy.. Priam king of Troy reigned in the days of Thola b.. Puah for 52 years.. He had 60 sons.. Aeneas was his nephew.. Then there was the kingdom of Mibia Bara, its borders, or limits were Asia Misr.. , which is Damascus, Palestine and the Sea of Ocean, which is the Sea of Jaffa and Gifri [Cyprus] or Kabris in Arabic.. The kingdom was called Midia after the woman named Medea.. Then Theseus reigned in Athens, the city of wisdom in Greece, in 3974.. He did many good deeds for his kingdom, and he saved [his city] from their enemies, like Hercules.. Jair of Gilead judged Israel for 22 years (AM 4985 by their count).. In that year there was a woman called Nicostrata.. , who was a witch and wise woman.. She killed their wizards and escaped to a fortress where Rome was about to be founded.. She married a Latin king.. She made the Latin letters for the language they spoke.. She made the alphabet of 19 letters, to which others later added more.. Jephthah of Gilead judged Israel for six years; he sacrificed his daughter and slaughtered her and it was against the Blessed God s will (4007).. In 4010 came Hector, son of the king of Troy, and his son Astenakti [Astyanax] the Hero.. All men of Greece feared him.. Archilios [Achilles] the Greek killed Hector.. Then there was Penthesilea, Queen of the Amazons.. She taught the Trojans the art of war against Greeks.. That was in 4012.. When she heard about Hector, she desired him and went to the battlefield of the Greeks to see him (4012).. Then there was a king in Tusria [Thessaly?] in Greece who was a great astronomer, physician and sage.. It was Archilios [Achilles]; he waged war against Troy and killed Hector.. They asked their oracle when they went to Troy and were told to go with Irkilos [Achilles].. Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel for seven years (4013).. Some people say he is identical with Boaz who married Ruth.. So say the sages of Gentiles who took it from the words of our sages of blessed memory.. and from the [Aramaic] translation [of the Bible].. That year the Trojan War began.. The king was Priam.. The cause of the war was as follows.. The King invited three beautiful women to a feast.. They were called deussos [goddesses].. Then, an uninvited woman came in.. In order to annoy them, he sent three apples for the women, with the best apple intended for the most beautiful woman, in order to foster hatred among them for they were divided as to who was the most beautiful.. Elon the Zebulunite was tenth Judge of Israel.. Gorion called him Akilon.. He judged Israel for ten years.. In the Book it is written that the 70 Elders who translated the [Scripture] did not write the letter L.. Afterwards Abdon son of Hillel from Ephraim judged Israel for eight years (4030).. He had 70 sons and 40 warriors.. While those three reigned, times were good and people well fed, for they worshipped Blessed God.. In Year 3 of Abdon, Troy was sacked by Greeks and ruined forever (AM 4033 by their count.. The Turk called Bene Tomi.. said he sought revenge against Greece for the blood of his native Troy.. The city of Benevento in the Neapolitan kingdom was founded in 4037; it was called by Piaitas.. , Maleventum for 30,000 Romans died there.. It belongs to the pope.. Naples was founded the same year by the Roman king, while Gaeta was built by Aeneas.. He named the city after his nurse.. It is the most beautiful of towns and the great mother [of cities].. The city of Icilea was founded in Italy.. Samson son of Manoah judged Israel for 20 years (4038).. In Year 2 of Samson, Ruth the Moabite and Naomi came, according to Jerome.. Samson was the last of judges until year [40]58.. That year died Uzzi b.. Bukki b.. Abishua b.. Phineas b.. Eleazar b.. Aaron, the high priest.. The high priesthood went to the seed of Ithamar for 120 years.. Eli was the first and Abiathar was the last, because in his [Jerome?] opinion, Solomon killed Abiathar and the high priesthood reverted to descendents of Eleazar, namely to Zaddok the Priest.. Ancona was founded in Italy in 4051.. Eli the [High] Priest judged for 40 years (51).. According to the 70 Elders, who translated for King Ptolemy [Septuagint], Eli judged 20 years.. Padua was founded near Venice in 81.. Out of it rode 120,000 horsemen.. Sharbisenti was also built there.. That year began the kings of Zarephath, which is France and it was called Gallia (4082).. Its first king was Franco and thus the people of Zarephath are called Francos.. Lombardy is called Francia Sizarpina [Cisalpine], including Genoa and its area; the kingdom Francia Taraspina [Transalpine] means beyond rocks and mountains.. The kingdom of Inglatera [England] began in 83.. The first king was Brutanos, son of the Latin king.. He killed his father the king of Latins by mistake while hunting in the fields.. He escaped from Ililia [Italy?] to Inglatera [England], the big island in the Western Sea.. It is called Great Britannia in the West.. It has the shape of a triangle, like Sicily.. There were Giants whom he defeated and reigned over them.. The longest day is 17 hours long there.. It is a very rich place, they have gold, wool and hunting dogs.. His mother died at childbirth.. Then the Island of Birnia [Hibernia, Ireland] was founded; there are two sorts of precious stones, named akatis.. and iris.. In Year 4093, the Ark was captured.. The Prophet Samuel, pbuh, (98) judged Israel 26 years until 124.. There is a version that he reigned for 40 years, anointed Saul in his 12.. year of reign and Saul judged for 27 years during Samuel s life.. This version is erroneous for it says afterwards King David - [4]124.. In the book of Ben Gorion it says that king Saul reigned for 20 years: 18 years in Samuel s lifetime and what the Scripture says.. , two years after Samuel s death.. Aeneas of Troy came to Italy and became king in 4111.. That year Doeg put to the sword Nob, the town of priests.. The kingdom of Athens fell in 4113 [1086 BC].. Pisa was founded in [4]193.. They are strong at sea.. They also went to sack Jerusalem and took along the columns and vessels.. There is soil from Jerusalem.. If a man is buried there, his flesh disintegrates within three days, like in the land of Israel.. In Rome they also have a field of Jerusalem soil with the same properties.. The Fourth Era.. begins with King David, pbuh (4194 [1005 BC]).. From birth of Abraham to David s kingdom, there passed 940 years.. Our sages of blessed memory.. explained that 500 years passed from Abraham s birth to the Exodus and 480 years passed from the Exodus to David s kingdom.. Forsooth, King David came in AM 2487 [1273 BC] by Jewish count.. He reigned for 40 years.. In Year 13 of David, there was Dido, queen of Tyre.. Her brother killed her husband; she took all her husband s riches and went to [found] Carthage in Tunis.. There she bought a field as great as an ox skin could hold.. Then she had shred the skin to pieces and established [on the ground encircled by the shreds] the great city of Carthage.. On her way from Tyre she visited Cyprus and took along some girls who worshipped Venus the star.. After she built the city, King [Iarbas, who had sold her the land] wanted to marry her, but she refused for she did not wish to be unfaithful to her husband, though he was dead, and threw herself into the fire.. Solomon (4164) reigned for 40 years.. He uttered 3,000 proverbs, equal to the amount of trees in the world.. He compiled a book of nature, as well, but today only three books of Solomon are extant.. He cast a spell over the demons, and [with their assistance] began to build the temple early in his fourth year of reign.. He completed it in his eighth year, but the Scripture does not record it.. Shemaiah the Prophet appeared in Year 15 of Solomon.. [Later he] convinced Rehoboam not to fight Jeroboam.. Iddo, son of Nathan the Prophet, lived at that time as well (Joseph b.. Gorion called him Idan son of Nathan the Prophet ).. By his will, the hand of Jeroboam shrivelled up.. He ate bread with a false prophet.. A lion killed him.. The Queen of Sheba came to Solomon in his 15th year of reign (her name was Aqaula).. She crossed the Red Sea with great trouble and travelled far to listen to Solomon s wisdom.. She brought great riches and gave Solomon 20,000 weights of gold, nice perfume, balsam [.. afarsimon.. ] and other gifts.. Zaddok was from the beginning of Solomon s kingship and was the eighth.. high priest.. Rehoboam reigned for 17 years (4204).. Jeroboam reigned for 22 years (205).. Abijah son of Rehoboam reigned for three years (224).. Asa reigned for 41 years (226).. Then there was Hanani the Prophet.. Nadav b.. Jeroboam reigned for two years (288).. Baasha, king of Israel reigned for 22 years (230).. Capua was founded near Naples in 230.. Jehu son of Hanani the Prophet came in the days of Baasha (247).. Ilah b.. Baasha (252).. Zimri (203).. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah reigned for 25 years (261).. In the 13.. year of Jehoshaphat s reign, King Tiberio [Tiberinus] became the tenth king of Latins.. He fell into the river and died.. Thus the river of Rome was named the Tiber after him.. It was previously called the Albula.. He left Agrippa, a son who became the 11.. king of Latins (Year 22 of Jehoshaphat).. He reigned for 40 years and transferred in his lifetime the kingdom to his son Armolio [Romulus].. [Ahaziah] son of Ahab reigned for two years (Year 23 of Jehoshaphat).. Elijah the Prophet.. Some people identify him with Jonah the Prophet but it seems wrong for Jonah was a disciple of Elisha.. Joram son of Jehoshaphat reigned for eight years (4290, Year 167 of David).. When he was 40, he married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab.. Jehoram became king of Israel in the same year.. He reigned for 12 years.. In his days came the famine in Samaria, and Elisha was there.. Jehoiada the High Priest lived 130 years (4299).. Jonadab son of Rahab, son of Jethro the father-in-law of Moses, of good seed, of the House of Pharisees the Righteous ones: his sons lived in the time of Jeremiah, they did not plant a vineyard nor build a house.. Year 299.. Ahaziah king of Judah reigned for one year (4298); Athaliah reigned for seven years.. Jehu king of Israel reigned for 28 years (4303).. Hazael was king of Aram and Damascus, that is Syria, (Year 302).. Joash was tenth king of Judah (4306).. Jehoahaz son of Jehu reigned for 17 years (Year 39).. Amaziah reigned for 29 years (344).. In 362, Elisha died.. The Scripture implies it was Year 36 of Joash, King of Judah, which was year [4]342.. Perhaps this is a mistake.. Jonah followed Elisha.. Some people say Jonah was the son of [the widow of] Zarephath whom Elisha returned to life.. Amos the Prophet prophesied in year 362.. Amoz the Prophet, father of Isaiah, lived then.. Jeroboam son of Joash king of  ...   40 days and a city shifted its location.. In 330, the Christian king Fulk of Jerusalem reigned for 11 years; he went to Persia and fought the Turks, killing 3,000 and capturing 3,000.. Afterwards the king fell from his horse and died.. In 334, it was so hot that all the trees dried up.. In Italy, the earth broke apart and fire came out.. The plague began immediately.. In 339, the Mesopotamian city of Edessa (Jews call it Erek) was seized by the Turks who killed all the Christians.. That is the city of Rages, that Tobias went to.. [254].. , as written in his book.. In 340, the Christian king Baldwin of Jerusalem reigned for 24 years; he seized Ashkelon, built up Gaza, fought the Turks, killed 5,000 of them, and fought other nations up to Damascus.. In 348, the German emperor authorized the Genoans to mint imperial coin.. The same year, the Genoans went with the Duke of Barcelona to Almeria to fight the Turks and Ishmaelites there; he killed 20,000 Ishmaelites, captured 10,000 and sacked the city.. Ibn Sina.. [255].. [Avicenna] Isbili, the great physician, his name was Abu Ali.. He was the doctor of the king of Beitania.. Another physician poisoned him out of envy but he realized it and killed the physician before he died.. Ibn Sina wrote many books of divinity and five books of medicine (348).. In the same year, Ibn Rushd [Averroes], the philosopher and commentator of Aristotle from Cordoba.. He wrote a great respected book on astronomy, astronomers appreciate him very much and he wrote even more books on astronomy.. Al-Zuhri.. [256].. , the great physician, came at the same time.. In 392, King Alfonso of Spain went to Jerusalem and died instantly when he returned home.. His deserted son became king.. And then his brother Fernando immediately became king.. He went to the Ishmaelites and died.. His son Alfonso reigned in his stead.. In 357 [1157], the mountain folk in France accepted the new religion.. [257].. , to multiply and to lay with their neighbor s wives; they have no law and they still exist.. Then, the monk Joakim.. [258].. wrote.. Foklis.. , an abbreviated book of vision of John.. Abargilista.. [the Evangelist].. In 365, the Christian king in Jerusalem reigned for 12 years.. In 371, the Ishmaelites fought at Jerusalem and then ruled Egypt.. In October 372, three images of the sun appeared in the west, then came three moons and an earthquake: many cities sank in Syria and Cilicia, near Palestine, killing many Ishmaelites.. In 372, an earthquake hit Antioch, Tripoli of Syria and Damascus and houses collapsed.. The Sicilian city of Catania collapsed and 20,000 died; the sea rose in Sicily and 5,000 died.. In Italy there was hail the size of goose eggs.. In 377, a Christian king reigned in Jerusalem for six years; he was a leper and fought the Ishmaelites.. In 383, the Ishmaelites seized Jerusalem for the last time from the Christians and exiled them with their wealth.. At first it was in Christian hands for 89 years.. It was conquered on 2.. October.. [259].. , 1187 and the Christians departed for Tyre, Alexandria, Antioch and even to Seville; the [Moslems] destroyed all the houses of idol worship [churches] and kanpans, meaning kaskbilis that ring [belfries], but they did not destroy the Temple of Solomon.. The kingdom of Gifli [or Gofri], or Cabrum [Cyprus?] began in late 394.. The Thirteenth Era.. began in 401.. An emperor was enthroned in France.. In 402, the great king Tamerlane.. [260].. founded the kingdom of Tartaria.. In 408, the saints Francis.. [261].. of Italy and Dominic of Spain, established monasteries.. In 412, the African king came and attacked Toledo but could not take it, as all the Christian kings of Spain joined forces to defeat him.. In 418, the son of the sultan of Egypt came to Jerusalem, besieged it and destroyed all the city, demolishing the houses of their folly [churches] but not the Temple of Solomon.. The Christians asked him, and offered him great wealth and a tribute if he would spare the Tomb of That Man.. In 427, there was an earthquake and the sea rose at Friga; more then 100,000 died.. Then there was a great hailstorm in France that killed 5,000.. In 451 [1250], there was Iskoto who wrote many books.. There was Guido Bonto [Bonatti] who wrote books on the laws of astronomy.. [262].. ; he was very wise, like a prophet of laws.. But in Spain there was a great sage, like a prophet in law by the name of Gaon Gil.. [263].. ; there was nobody like him, either before or after his time.. In 453, the Arabs came to Jerusalem, demolished the Tomb of That Man and debased it.. In 458, the Genoans fought Venice for the cities of Tolomedia [Ptolemais, Acre] and Tyre in Palestine.. The Genoans were in Tolomedia, the Venetians were in Tyre, and the Genoans seized Candia [Crete] from the Venetians.. In 460, the Genoans seized the city of Sio.. In 462, there was a comet for three months.. The pope had died by the end of the three months.. There were 222 popes from That Man until 1503 AD.. Albert Magno.. [264].. , the great sage in Paris, wrote many books (463).. In 467, the Ishmaelites came from Africa to Spain and fought the Christians.. Thomas, disciple of Albert Magno, is called.. Thomas Aquinas.. ; he wrote many books on their religion and philosophy and quoted the the.. More.. by Rambam.. In 472, a religious dispute arose betwee the Pope and the Greeks.. The same year, Emperor Di Doko [Duke], enemy of king Don Juan of Castile, joined forces with king of France to march on Jerusalem.. He also waged war on the king of Bohemia.. In 480, the son of Carlos, king of Aragon, was caught in Apulia, as Sicily was his kingdom.. In older days, Apulia in Italy was united with Sicily, but the sea separated them.. In 482, a boy was born with fur and claws like a bear.. This boy was born of his cousin from her union with the pope.. Because of this infamy, he erased all bear images on his family s coat of arms.. A fish was caught in the sea with face of a lion and a voice like that of a human.. Then there was a great physician in Florence, who was comparable to Avokrat [Hippocrates] and used medicines as did Hippocrates.. [265].. In 484, Pisa won the battle of Milona [Meloria], an isle near Pisa in the war with Genoa, but afterwards Genoa was successful and 16,000 Pisans were killed.. [266].. In 489, Tripoli of Syria was conquered; it was in Christian hands; and Beirut was taken, too.. [267].. In 496, Genoa and Pisa were at war.. On 30.. November, 6500 (1301 AD), comets fell into the water with great noise, foretelling wars.. In 501, Juan Iscoto.. [268].. flourished; he wrote books.. In 504, the Pope of Rome moved to Avignon.. [269].. , and there was a split for over 100 years.. In 507, there began Maestrie.. [270].. on Rhodes and Priory in the land of Christians from Rhodes.. At first Rhodes belonged to the Turks and Ishmaelites.. In 512, three moons appeared for three months, as did a comet in the north on the edge of Virgo.. In November, King Philip of France died.. Nicola of Illyria.. , a Franciscan monk, argued with the Jews; he expounded all 24 holy books [of the Bible] and their New Testament.. They said he was a Jew at first.. In 519, schism arose among the Christians; which is like heresy, and it led to the Papal Bull of 523.. In 553, began the Turk (I mean the Ottoman kings), Ibn Tomin, who was not of royal blood and befriended thieves and robbers.. He took Turkey and Greece.. In 542, the very wise philosopher.. Francisco.. Pitrata [.. Petrarca.. [271].. ] flourished in Florence.. In 546, dust filled the air, land animals fell into the sea, the air was dusty and a great plague affected the entire world.. In 547 (1348 AD), Germany exiled [or burned] all Jews for there was false testimony that they poisoned wells.. That year the great plague.. [272].. befell the world; I mentioned it already in.. , and Guido,.. [273].. who lived in those days, notes in his book, that 2/3 of the world s people died for the conjunction of three superior planets (Saturn, Jupiter and Mars) in Aquarius that formed a shape of a man.. So they troubled the Jews in vain.. In 549, [AD 1350] a comet like a tree on fire appeared in the north in December, and there was a war between Genoa and Venice, and they took Gio (or Legio) from Venice.. There was a pillar of fire in the sky and it descended with great thunder.. In 555, there was an earthquake in Spain, especially in Seville and in Cordoba where houses collapsed and many died.. In 559, there was the war of Genoa with Venice and Aragon and the emperor of Constantinople.. In 563, Pisa became subject to Florence.. In.. the Fourteenth Era.. , Juan [Giovanni] Boccaccio.. [274].. in Florence wrote books (574 [1375]).. In 577, the papal seat moved from Avignon to Rome and there was a schism, like heresy, among the Christians.. For 39 years, there was one pope in Avignon and another pope in Rome.. Mytilene, some 50 miles from the city of Sio, fell to Genoa.. They held it for 90 years until the Turks took it after capturing Constantinople.. Paribiscenci, the Jew-hater from Valencia, preached against the Jews from 597 onwards.. In 1455 AD, the pope beautified him as a saint.. In 6599, the Jubilee of Rome, there was a great plague and 36,000 men died in Florence.. In 6601 (1410 AD), Tamerlane king of Tartars crossed the Euphrates with 400,000 cavalry and 600,000 foot soldiers and conquered great kingdoms in Palestine.. The Turks fought him and killed 200 000 men; they imprisoned Tamerlane and delivered him in the chains of gold.. In his power, Tamerlane was similar to Hannibal.. In 6424 (6604), Venice conquered Verona in Lombardy.. Then Pisa became subject to Venice.. Ibn Ezra says that Pisa is of Aquarius.. Venice took Padua in 605.. In 6603, the Pope of Rome had to escape when the Romans revolted against him.. Then another pope appeared who later left for Aragon.. In 6612, a woman reigned in Naples; she married a Frenchman, reigned for 11 years, and casted her husband away.. And then came King Alfonso of Aragon, for the kingdom was divided, and his son Don Fernando, king of Aragon also reigned there.. This Don Alfonso was the brother of King Don Juan of Navarre and Aragon, father of Fernando, king of Castile; he is the one who expelled the Jews from Spain.. In 621, the grandfather of the Duke of Milan, (which is now arrested by the king of France), drowned in the river.. In 622, the last king of Nifli [Naples?] reigned for 34 years.. In 626, Venice took Brescia in Lombardy.. In 627, the Tiber flooded and caused great damage to Rome, and in there was a plague in 474 of Christians.. In 627 (1426), there was the heresy in Bohemia.. The heretics said one may take any woman, and that the priests, and even bishops, should have no wealth at all.. In 634, Genoa expelled King Alfonso of Aragon; he is the one who took Naples.. He was sent to Naples, then Consulo di Basilia (meaning the Council) was in Germany.. The pope went there.. Then there was a schism, and the Duke of Savoy wanted to become pope.. In 638, there was a dispute between Greeks and Catholics over whether the host should be made of unleavened or leavened bread: the Greeks argued for leavened bread and compromised on something between leavened and unleavened bread.. There was also the dispute about the [Holy] Spirit: the Greeks said he emanated from the Father, not the Son, while the Catholics said he was from both.. Blessed we are, Israel, as we have only One God, who created us.. In 1440, Fernando, king of Aragon, Sicily and Sardinia died.. He reigned for 21 years; he was son of king Don Juan of Castile, who died after falling off his horse, and Fernando s brother was king Don Enrique of Castile, who died prematurely.. This king Fernando served as regent of Castile while the king s son Enrique was a minor.. When king of Aragon died without sons, Fernando was invited to reign in Aragon.. In 1412 he began to reign over the Balearic Isles (Majorca and Minorca), Aragon and Lusitania.. Now, that is untrue for Lusitania is Portugal.. In August 29, 448 there was a solar eclipse for half a day, and there was war among England, France and Italy.. For the next two years, there was great plague and earthquake.. 1450 AD [was] the Christian Jubilee.. In 1453 AD, and the mnemonic sign is daughter of Edom ; on 29.. May, the great Constantinople, the main city of Greece, was captured.. It was besieged for 50 days and the Grand Turk Muhammad ibn Tomi [Othman] captured it; then the king of Persia reigned in Turkey for 35 years.. In 1455 died king Alfonso, who captured Naples.. He bequeathed Aragon and Sicily to his brother Don Juan, and to his son (by a mistress) he left Naples.. His name was Pedro, after his grandfather.. King Don Juan of Aragon reigned for 24 years and he escaped from Castile during the war for Olmedo.. [275].. On 22.. May 1445 AD, he fled to Aragon.. He escaped together with the Castilian Almirante; he gave his daughter in marriage to the king, for the king was a widower, and she gave him son at noon on 10.. March 1452 AD.. This son was Fernando, who became king of Spain and Sicily, after his brother (by another woman) Carlos the Great died.. In 454 died Don Juan, king of Castile, and his son Don Enrique reigned for 20 years.. The king of Persia, Mede and Armenia (r.. 454) made great war against the Turk; he captured Negroponte [Euboea], and made peace with the Pope and with Venice.. He began the war to prevent the Turk from fighting Christians; the Turk sent his son, they fought, the Persian king captured a city from the Turks and defeated the son of Turk.. When the Turk heard of it, he was furious, and asked for help as they were of one faith, but [the Persian king] did not comply and he came with a great force.. The Persian king had 350,000 riders in the mountains.. The Turk established his camp in the vicinity, he had many ballistae which fired in salvos upon the Persians; the horses bolted and he killed the son of king of Persia and all his army: only 6,000 survived.. Of the Turk s forces, 40,000 survived.. So the Turk won the war, earning great fame and respect.. On 11.. June 1455, the Turk captured Negroponte from Venice and took great vengeance on them.. The same year, a woman of Brescia in Lombardy gave birth to a dog, while another in Pavia gave birth to a cat.. Two hours before sunrise on 15.. August that same year, there was a great earthquake with hailstones as big as ostrich eggs.. On 24.. August 71, a Sabbath, the king of Portugal captured Tangier and Arzila in the kingdom of Fez from the Ishmaelites.. January 72, there was a hairy-tailed comet full of fire in Sagittarius that moved north through all the signs of Zodiac within 80 days.. Remember that Aristotle said that the minimum time for a comet is a week and the maximum, 80 days.. Immediately afterwards, there was another comet in Aries, with its tail to the East.. That year, there was drought, famine, plague and war.. In 474, a monster was born in Verona with one head, two bodies, two sets of genitalia and four arms; two arms were strong and two were weak, and the bodies were attached at the navel.. His father and mother promenaded him and displayed him for money, becoming very rich.. In 75, there was false testimony against Jews in an Italian city.. [276].. that they had killed a goy boy called Simon, in order to eat his blood with unleavened bread on the eve of Passover and they killed all the Jews; God shall avenge their blood.. The same thing occurred in another city, and three Jews were burned in Venice.. The same year, the Turk captured the city of Kafa in northern Turkey, in the great sea, from the Genoans.. One year earlier, in 74, the Candians [Crete] had invited the Turk but they failed for the Venetians came and killed many of them.. Granada is so called, they say, because it was the first place there was grana,.. [277].. used for carmine painting; its previous name was Bitis.. King of Persia, son of the strong king, became king of Parthians, Persia, Mede, Mesopotamia and Armenia in 1475.. In July 78, there was a big solar eclipse and plague in Italy.. In 79, the Turks besieged Rhodes for three months but could not capture it.. In 480, the Turks captured L Otorato in the kingdom of Naples.. In 81, the Turkish king decided to go to Egypt but a physician poisoned him.. He was 58 and he had become king at the age of 24.. In 1482, they captured Alhama in the kingdom of Granada.. That was the beginning of a ten-year war between Ishmael and Edom.. On 18.. August 487, Malaga was captured.. On 1.. January 1492, Granada was captured; by the end of July that year the Jews were expelled from Castile, Aragon, Sicily and Sardinia.. The same year a man struck the neck of the king of Castile with a sword in Barcelona and the king nearly died.. In 494, at four hours of night on 12.. January 1494, there was a big earthquake in Spain and Africa.. In 495 AD there was a plague.. [278].. like those of Egypt, with rheumatic pains of hard, cold and evil moisture, and bodies were covered in.. buboes.. , meaning growths on the bodies and faces, that cover all the skin like black figs.. Many people died of this disease.. They say it came from Constantinople and is called the French disease.. For ten years it spread among all nations except Israel.. It starts in the genitalia.. The Christians said, that it was like the illness in the days of Pope di Oshdi in 515 AD, in the days of Muhammad, when Jupiter and Saturn aligned in Scorpio, and there is the same alignment nowadays.. In 1495, Mars was also in Scorpio, the sign of pudendum.. In the days of the pope, that was in the days of Muhammad, there was a big earthquake.. He healed a leper, they say, and forbade Christians to marry padrinos.. [279].. and become relatives.. In 497, the Jews were expelled from Portugal and Navarre.. Then a son of the king of Castile died in his 20.. year of reign.. He was married and died in Salamanca.. He died and his father had no other male heir but daughters.. In 98, died the elder daughter of the king of Castile, wife of the Portuguese king.. She died while giving birth.. In 500, the Turk began the war against Venice and captured Lepanto.. In 501, he captured Modon, a big port and fortified city, and killed everybody, perhaps 10,000 warriors; and captured Coron.. Then the Portuguese came to Marsa Kabir MeWahran.. [280].. , but could not take it; many died and others returned home ashamed.. The same year, two or three kings died in Egypt, as did many other men.. Then the French and Spanish kings captured Naples, Apulia and Calabria; and the king of Naples escaped to France; six or seven years earlier, the previous king of France had taken Naples, returned home and died.. The last king also seized Milan, the capital of Lombardy, before he took Naples and shared it between France and Spain.. In 503, a dispute arose between the emissaries of the two kings in Naples; the Spanish lord defeated the French one, then killed him and other Frenchmen and took the entire kingdom of Naples but Gaeta.. As Gaeta was the only remaining city, he besieged it with great force.. Thus the two kings fought in Salses near Perpignan, at the border between France and Spain.. Thus many men have died at war and it is still going on.. He captured Gaeta and the entire Neapolitan kingdom.. Hear ye all desirous of Salvation by our Lord! Be strong and become stronger! May the Messiah come and appear soon! In our time! Amen.. Thus are completed the.. of all that happened in the old days, of miracles and signs of the good things the Blessed Lord will give us and He shall lead us from darkness into the light, and He shall give us our righteous Messiah and He shall deliver us soon.. If such is His will, we shall become ever stronger, and the writer shall suffer no harm.. This part of the book was the last to be composed, in 1504 or 1505.. Filipowski named it Part Six.. Num 16.. Deut 32:7 - 9.. Ps 144:8.. A Roman Emperor who befriended R Judah the Prince in the Talmud; historically unattested.. Reference to Josippon.. Venicia, sounds similar to Phoenicia.. Tartus.. Tartous.. (pop.. 160,000), a Syrian seaside 90 km from Homs, 251 km from Damascus.. The Bible says they knew how to calculate time.. RAZ infers the knowledge of astronomy.. Gen 6:1.. Ez 40.. http://www.. leidenuniv.. nl/fsw/verduin/jonitus/jonitus.. htm.. Other versions of his name: Gionitus, Jonitus, Jonithus, Jonitho, Jonithon and Yonton.. RAZ follows the lineage of Gen 10, using mainly Ch.. VI of Antiquities of Josephus.. Gen 10:2, Antiq.. 1:6:1.. It is a reference to Iberians, the old name for Georgians.. Thus here Sepharad is not Spain, but Trans-Caucasian area.. Gen 10:2 Tiras are Russians, according to Josippon.. Gen 10:3 but identified with Brittany in Josippon.. Gen 10:4, sons of Javan.. RAZ identifies Tarshish with Tarsus, as he follows Josippon.. Gen 10:4, sons of Javan; Germans in Josippon.. Ez 27:7.. These two spellings appear in various MSS, while the majority of Masoretes spell with a D, Samaritan, Septuagint and some Masoretes spell with a R.. Gen 14:18.. Gen 10:25.. see Marcus Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus.. forumromanum.. org/literature/justin/english/trans1.. html.. A Homeric remark.. Gen 11:18.. reference to the three sisters who founded Prague, according to local legend.. Gen 11:20.. Gen 11:22.. Gen 10:2.. Mesopotamia.. Tosefta Yevamoth Ch.. 6, p 61b.. Genesis Rabah Ch.. 25, 4.. Gen 25:4.. Gen 25:1.. Genesis Rabah, end Ch.. 60.. Usually, her daughter.. Pleiades - Taygete, Elektra, Alkyone, Asterope, Kelaino, Maia, and Merope.. Cf Aphrodite, spouse of Mars.. Moy, water in Egyptian Arabic; mayia, in Syrian and maa in Classic Arabic.. Gen 16:13.. Ancient Bozrah or Greek Bostra, now Busra, ancient capital city of Edom 26 miles SSE of the Dead Sea near Petra.. Gen 36:18.. Grinnus, the king of Thera (Santorini)?.. Trinacria, old name of Sicily.. Sicels came after Sicanians, so it was called Sicania and became Sicily after their defeat (Thucydides).. Judg 19.. Jud 4:4.. Shevuath Haeduth, 4:2.. Minor, or alternatively, reference to Egypt (Misr in Arabic).. Nicostrata or Carmenta, Daughter of King lonius.. BB.. 91a.. 1166 BC.. The canonical Greek calculation was 1184/3 BC.. Bene Othman, or Osman, or Uthman Osmanli Turks.. Poets?.. Site of Pyrrhus defeat in 276 BC.. Benevento.. = good wind;.. maleventum.. = bad wind.. Probably Brutus, grandson of Aeneas, as described by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his.. History.. Britain.. Probably agate, as this stone protects against scorpions and snakes, according to Pliny; while Ireland is known as the land without snakes.. Iris quartz.. Samuel I, 13.. I Sam 22:19.. 9a.. Her brother Pygmalion killed her husband Sychaeus.. Kings I, 5.. Eccl, SS and Prov.. I Kings 6.. I Kings 12:22.. I Kings 13:4.. I Kings 13:20.. I Kings 13:24.. Makeda in Ethiopic or Bilqis (Belkis) in Arabic tradition.. Apparently, discounting the priests after Eli and before Zadok; otherwise, 12.. I Kings, 16.. I Kings 16:1.. II Kings 6.. II Chronicles 26.. Amulius Silvius.. Numitor.. Rhea Silvia, Livy 1.. 3.. Romulus and Remus.. Lupa is She-wolf and harlot.. Pekahiah 2 Kings 15:22.. 16, in the Kings 2.. 751 BC, standard dates 752 or 753.. Ps 10:14.. 29 in the Kings, 2.. Of Hezekiah s death.. Syracuse of Sicily.. II Kings 20.. Jesus.. Venetians?.. II Chron 36.. II Kings 25.. Tomyris or Tamyra, queen of the Massagetae, a Scythian nation.. Son of Perseus and Andromeda.. Mizhania? Mesopotamia?.. Laranda of ancients; modern Karaman near Taurus Mts, Turkey.. The Sibylline prophecies were offered by the Cumaean sibyl to Tarquinius Superbus,the last of the seven kings of Rome.. Or Balthazar.. Of Judith.. Bardiya.. Jerusalem.. Usually, 486-465 BC.. A dialogue by Plato.. 470-339 BC.. Judas acc to Josephus Flavius.. Esther 1:1.. Isocrates (436-338).. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC-43 BC).. 360 BC.. faithless and wanton, in Jewish view.. The native dynasty after the Persian rule; ended in 341 BC.. Nectanebo (Nakhthorhebe): the last native pharaoh of Egypt, reigned 359/358-342/341; he was considered the true father of Alexander the Great.. 384-322 BC.. 522-486 BC.. Xerxes I, the son of Cambyses.. He is referred as Ahasuerus 486-465.. 465-464 BC, reigned for seven months.. 465-425 BC.. Otherwise called Artaxerxes the Persian; reigned 45 days.. 423-404 BC.. 404-359 BC.. 359-338 BC.. 338-336 BC.. 336-330 BC.. 370-327 BC.. 222 BC, standard date 218 BC.. Onias II Son of Simeon the Righteous, (Antiq.. , XII, iv, 1-6) a man of little soul and a great lover of money, refused to pay the tribute to Ptolemy Euergetes, but Joseph, a nephew of Onias, went to Ptolemy and purchased immunity from invasion.. P 109.. Cartagena, Murcia; was called Cartago Nova.. Aristobulus of Paneas, 2c BC.. born 59/64 BC, died AD 17.. born 15 10 BC, died AD 45 50.. 134 BC, standard date 146 BC.. In 135 Hyrcanus' brother-in-law, Ptolemy, the governor of Jericho, assassinated Simon, Hyrcanus' father and two elder brothers.. John Hyrcanus I (BC 175 104).. He was the first of his house to adopt the title of king (basileus) in BC 104.. 104-103 BC.. Rather, Jehonathan.. Malarial fever caused by heavy drinking, according to Josephus Flavius.. the Holy of the Holies.. July 12/13, 100? BC, - died March 15, 44 BC.. Titus Lucretius Carus (c.. 99 - c.. 55 BC).. , p 8.. Read 135.. Sept.. 23, 63 BC - died Aug.. 19, AD 14;.. Daniel 9.. Jesus.. Herod Archelaus, born 23 BC, reigned from 4 BC to 6 AD.. Should be: Antipas.. Herod Antipas I, born 21 BC - died AD 39, tetrarch of Galilee, reigned from 4 BC to AD 39, when he was banished to Gaul.. Usually, Herod Philip, a half-brother of Antipas.. 42 BC - AD 37, Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus, second Roman emperor.. Valerius Gratus, 15-26; the fourth Roman prefect of Judaea.. Pontius Pilate, 26-36.. Sadducees and righteous differ by one letter.. Herod Agrippa I or Marcus Julius Agrippa born c.. 10 BC - died AD 44, son of Aristobulus Antipater son of Herod the Great and Mariamne I.. Herod Agrippa II born AD 27 - died c.. 93.. A confusion of Josephus and Josippon.. Should be.. Josippon.. Linus A.. D.. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79).. Should be 3828.. Or 203.. Nephew.. Aelia Capitolina, after his own name (Publius Aelius Hadrianus).. died July 10, 138, Baiae [Baia], near Naples, Italy.. The historian.. 57b.. RAZ uses an Arabic word for citizen.. Numerically destruction.. Rabbi Levi b.. Gershon (1288 1344).. 305 to 311, with Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great.. In 312 as the Emperor of the West, and from 324, as the only Emperor.. The True Cross.. In Const.. ed.. it is said that she placed the third nail in the saddle.. Probably Constantius II, (Flavius Julius Constantius), son of Constantine the Great, Roman emperor from 337 to 361.. 371; usual dates 361-363.. Probably Valentian I (364-375).. The great earthquake of year 365 that shook Crete and Libya.. St.. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397; born probably 340, at Trier, Arles, or Lyons; died 4 April, 397.. St Augustine of Hippo, 354 - 430.. Maybe Valens or Valentian II (375-378).. At age of 18 in 372, Augustine turned to philosophy.. Theodosius I the Great reigned 379-395 Theodosius the Elder, his father, was executed in 375.. Rather, 33; in September, 386.. The Saint was born on 13 November, 354 in Tagaste, now Souk-Ahras, about 60 miles from Bona in Algiers.. Rather, 410.. The Sack was described by St Augustine in the City of God.. St Jerome, born c.. 347, Stridon, Dalmatia - died 419/420, Bethlehem, Palestine.. RAZ describes the story of a Cretan Jewish Messiah in about 430 AD.. In that year a Rabbi named Moses appeared in Crete and announced that he was the same Moses who had led the Israelites through the Red Sea.. He promised that in the following year he would lead Crete's Jews to the Holy land.. On a specified day the Jews of Crete met together and threw themselves off the cliffs and into the sea believing that the sea will part for them.. Many were drowned; still others were saved by fishermen assembled in nearby boats to watch.. In the account of the historian Socrates (Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica, vii.. 36), special mention is made of the fact that there was a general conversion to Christianity on the part of the survivors.. What happened to R.. Moses is not known.. Merlin was the illegitimate son of a monastic Royal Princess of Dyfed.. Merlin's father, it is said, was an angel who had visited the Royal nun and left her with child.. Merlin's enemies claimed his father was really.. an incubus, an evil spirit that has intercourse with sleeping women.. Gen 6.. Isha.. 6.. Sotah.. 49.. Reference to Kidusha le-Sidra, the blessings of Lord at the conclusion of the Morning Service.. Marcian (450-457).. Leo I (457-474).. Zeno (474-491).. Anastasias (491-518).. Boethius (c.. AD 480-524).. Justin I (518-527 A.. Justinian (527-565 A.. Justin II (565-578).. 663 in the MS.. Tiberius II (I) Constantine (578-582).. Maurice (582-602 A.. Gregory the Great, the pope from 590-604, wrote the Moralia in Job, commenting the book of Job in 35 books running to over half a million words.. born c.. 570, Mecca - died June 8, 632, Medina.. The data provided by RAZ was widely spread in medieval Spain.. Sergius is mentioned in Petrus Venerabilis work of 12.. century.. Anno Hegira, beginning at July 16, 622.. Phocas (602-610).. Heraclius (610 - 641).. Hispalensis, native of Seville.. baladi Ishbiliyya - a native of Seville, in the Arabic (Glick).. Heraclonas (April/May - September 641) and Constantine III (February - April/May 641).. Constans II (641 -668).. 710 in the MS.. Actually Tariq Ibn Ziyad landed at Calpe (Gibraltar) in 711.. Mezezius (668-669).. Constantine IV (668 -685).. Justinian II (685-695).. Leontius (695-98).. Tiberius III(II) (698-705).. Justinian II (705-711).. Philippicus Bardanes (or Vardanes) (711-713).. Anastasias II ( 713-715).. Theodosius III (715-717).. Leo III (717-741).. In 717.. In 732 Charles Martel, the major-domo of Austrasia, defeated the Muslim force at Poitiers.. Constantine V Copronymus (741-775).. Leo IV (775-780).. St Irene, who brought back icon veneration.. Actually, St Irene reigned in Constantinople until 802; her son the emperor Constantine VI reigned (at least, formally) from 780 to 797, while St Irene was the actual and sometimes the official sovereign.. So the correct reading would be After his death she reigned for ten years with her minor son, that is from 780 to 790, while Constantine VI was a minor.. In 790, Constantine came of age and was proclaimed the emperor.. Eight years later in 797 he parted with his mother i.. he died.. She reigned additional five years alone.. Died in 778 at Roncesvalles, killed by Gascons and Basques.. Nicephorus I (802-811).. The MS refers more correctly to emperors 38, 39, and 40 , thus covering the rule of Strauracius (811), Michael I (811-813), Leo V (813-820), while Michael II (820-829) is the 40.. emperor of RAZ.. In 831 the Saracens from Spain landed and took Palermo and completed their conquest of Sicily in 965.. A medieval urban legend ; modern criticism has at length succeeded in excluding from history.. Perhaps the earliest writer to mention Pope Joan is Marianus Scotus, who in his chronicle inserts the following passage: A.. D.. 854, Lotharii 14, Joanna, a woman, succeeded Leo, and reigned two years, five months, and four days.. Sigebert de Gemblours (d.. 5th Oct.. , z 112) inserts the same story in his valuable chronicle, copying from an interpolated passage in the work of Anastasias the Librarian.. His words are, It is reported that this John was a female, and that she conceived by one of her servants.. The Pope, be-coming pregnant, gave birth to a child; wherefore some do not number her among the Pontiffs.. Otto of Frisingen and Gottfried of Viterbo mention the Lady-Pope in their histories, and Martin Polonus gives details like AZ.. William Ockham alludes to the story, and John Huss provides the lady with a name, and asserts that she was baptized Agnes.. Others, however, insist upon her name having been Gilberta ; and Germans palm her off on England.. The Protestant writers were not satisfied that the father of the unhappy baby should have been a servant: some made him a Cardinal, and others the devil himself.. (Byron Reese) Between Leo IV.. , who died A.. 855, and Benedict III.. , a woman, who concealed her sex, and assumed the name of John, it is said, opened her way to the pontifical throne by her learning and genius, and governed the church for a time.. She is commonly called the Papess Joanna.. During the five subsequent centuries the witnesses to this extraordinary event are without number, nor did any one, prior to the Reformation by Luther, regard the thing as either incredible, or disgraceful to the church.. (Mosheim).. Basil I (867-886).. Coalition of Byzantine-Frank-Lombard and Slavs besieged and eventually took Bari from the Arabs.. Though St Michael s Day, or Michaelmas is indeed on September 29.. , the apparition of St Michael on Mount Gargano in Apulia, Italy, is honoured by a memorial feast in the whole Western Church on May 8.. On February 2, 962, the pope crowned Otto as the emperor.. A dubious claim, unless one notes as the contemporaries did that Charlemagne was proclaimed Emperor of the West when there was no Emperor, but Empress Irene on the throne of Constantinople.. John I Tzimiskes (969-976).. Basil II Bulgar-slayer, (976-1025) with his younger brother Constantine.. the Egyptian caliph al-Hakim destroyed the Holy Sepulchre in 1009.. The Church was restored the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Monomachus in 1048, by Caliph s permission, as Jerusalem was not conquered.. The Turks took bigger part of Anatolia, but did not conquer Constantinople.. 37.. 858-929, Ibn Sinan al-Battani, Latin Albatenius, Albategnus, or Albategni.. Isaac Judaeus? born 832/855, Egypt - died 932/955, Al-Qayrawan, Abu Yakub Ishaq Ibn Suleiman al-Israili, also called Isaac Israeli, or Isaac The Elder.. In 1099.. Correct date.. Tripoli (now in Lebanon).. Rages, a city of the Medes ,- Book of Tobias 1: 16.. 980 - died 1037, Ibn Sina, described as Sevilian for his Latin translator was John of Seville.. Apparently RAZ s contemporaries believed Ibn Sina was from Seville.. When medieval people read translations of Greek or Arabic texts, they often didn't know whether the authors were living, recent, or ancient, or where they lived and wrote.. (Glick).. Probably Ibn Zuhr (Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr; born: Seville, 1091.. died: 1162, rather than al-Zuhri the Geographer.. (fl.. 1130s 40s).. Cathars?.. Joachim of Fiore, Italian: Gioacchino Da Fiore, or Folkis (1145-1202) a pre-Cathar theologian.. 1187 AD.. Timur, 1336 - Feb.. 19, 1405; Timur the Lame , English Tamerlane, or Tamburlaine.. born 1181/82, Assisi - died October 3, 1226, Assisi.. Liber Astronomicus.. Raymond Lull? (born 1235 Majorca 1315).. St Albert Magnus, or the Great, 1200-1280.. Gentile da Foligno?.. The naval battle at Meloria on 6 August 1284 ended with Genoese victory over Pisa.. By Mamluks in 1289.. Perhaps John of Eschuid or Eschenden, Escynden died 1378; wrote on the Black Death, explained it by the conjunction.. Popes resided in Avignon in 1309 to 1376 (and even until 1417 as anti-popes).. 1309.. Francesco Petrarca; 1304 - 1374.. Black Death: Sicily (1347); North Africa, mainland Italy, Spain, England, and France (1348); Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, and the Low Countries (1349); and Scandinavia and the Baltic lands (1350).. There were recurrences of the plague in 1361 63, 1369 71, 1374 75, 1390, and 1400.. Gui de Chauliac?.. born 1313, Paris - died Dec.. 21, 1375 Tuscany.. Battle of Olmedo, 1445.. 1475, Trento.. Carmine dye.. Syphilis made its appearance in Naples in 1495 being brought there by Columbus sailors.. Padrino Godfather; refers to prohibition of godfather to marry his goddaughter.. This may mean a.. Christian who is the client of a Roman cannot marry into his patron's family (Glick).. Mers el-Kébir of Oran..

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  • Title: Autor
    Descriptive info: II.. Order of Tanna Sages.. And Now We Will List Them Alphabetically.. So That You Will Be Able to Readily Find Them All.. ALEPH.. Abba Saul.. is mentioned many times in the Mishna and Gemara.. [.. Abba Saul Bar Nash and some say bar Rosh in Ch.. Hamapeleth.. on the inspection of a deformed foetus.. I am surprised at the author of such a comprehensive treasury of the Talmud, for not mentioning this name at all.. Yavetz.. Abba Saul is mentioned.. ZHF].. Abtolos.. (i.. , Abtalion) We have already said that he was the Head of the Court, a descendent of Sennacherib, a colleague of Shemaiah the Prince, the master of Hillel and Shammai during the time of the second Temple, approximately 120 years before the Second Temple s Destruction, from the sixth company.. Abtolemos.. Three,.. Jose said, Abtolemos testified in the name of the five elders that an.. eruv.. in doubt is usable.. The Gemara says that he was the master of R.. Jose.. There are versions that say Absholem or Abtolos and there is a version Ben Abtolemos.. Me ilah.. before R.. Yohai and R.. Jose went to Rome, Abtolemos cancelled three harsh decrees of religious persecution since he was close to the authorities, and they did not realize that he was a Jew.. At that time, R.. Mathia b.. Heresh and his Court were in Rome.. When the Romans realized that he was a Jew, they decreed again, what they had decreed until R.. Yohai went to Rome and had the decrees cancelled.. In the Baraitha.. it mentions a Tanna, R.. Abtolemos, who is his son.. RH.. Jose said, Abtolemos testified in the name of the five elders about a citron picked for the tithe, etc.. and at the end of Ch.. Merube.. , Abtilus b.. Reuben is mentioned.. [The sages] permitted him to get a.. komi.. haircut since he was close to the authorities.. Rashi explains (at the end of.. ) the.. haircut is trimming in the front, an Amorite hairstyle where the hair is trimmed in front but tresses are left behind.. Another interpretation;.. is the Roman fashion of shaving off the hair above the ears.. Thus, it is written in the Responsa of the.. Gaons.. The Tosafoth.. explains (in.. Me ilah).. that Abtolemos b.. Reuben had a.. haircut so that the Romans would not realize that he was a Jew.. But I saw in the Gemara of.. just the name of R.. Reuben Istroboli.. who was perhaps his father.. Zemach in his.. , under letter.. , explains that.. hamesaper komi.. is one who talks in the language of royalty, using oaths.. [The sages] did not permit the house of Rabban Gamaliel to talk in that language if not out of respect for the kingship.. This does not seem coherent, for the Gemara says that [the sages] permitted Rabban Gamaliel s household to speak about Greek wisdom because they were close to the royalty and it does not mention.. , except in reference to R.. Abtolemos b.. Reuben, when it speaks about the Amorite ways in the Gemara.. But the Greek wisdom was banned by the sages in the days of the Hasmonean kings, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, when they fought each other in Jerusalem, as was mentioned above.. Afterwards I saw (under letter.. Sameh.. ) that R.. Zemach Gaon had changed his mind and explained as Rashi did.. Abba Jose b.. Dosethai.. In the beginning of the Ch.. is quoted by Rabbi.. ].. Admon.. was a judge during the time of Abtalion.. Kethuboth.. it says that Admon b.. Gedai and Hanan Absalom were the two civil judges in Jerusalem.. Johanan b.. Zakkai said: I agree with the words of Admon b.. Gedai and Hanan because they were great sages.. Ela.. was a sage of Jabneh in the Ch.. Four,.. Bechoroth,.. who could ascertain the permissibility of firstlings.. They permitted him to take recompense for lost time, which is four.. issar.. s for a small animal and six for a large animal, disregarding presence or absence of a defect.. I do not know which one was his expertise.. There was also an Amora named R.. He was certainly a sage, for only a sage could know how to permit firstlings since the permissibility of the firstling is stricter than voiding vows.. Instead of an expert sage, three laymen who are learned and have understanding may undo [vows].. It is not so with firstlings unless there is a missing limb, in which case permission may be given by three laymen as it is stated in the Ch.. Kirah.. In our days, the Rosh obm said that there is no expert for voiding vows and even Rab was not authorized by Rabbi to permit firstlings.. Elihoeini.. b.. Hekef, the High Priest who sacrificed a [red] heifer during the time of Onias (Honi) Hameagel and in the times of Judah b.. Tabbai and Simeon b.. Shetah.. Diglai was left out by the author.. He is mentioned in.. Tamid.. 30b (Prague printing).. Diglai said, My father had goats in the cities of Macherus.. and they would sneeze from the scent of the incense.. ZHF.. Eliezer ha-Modai.. We have already spoken of him above, that he was martyred at Bethar.. He was a colleague of R.. Tarfon but he would call R.. Tarfon,.. Rabbi.. He was a great exegete quoted by Rabbi Eleazar b.. Parta.. Hananiah the nephew of R.. Joshua and R.. Azariah quoted R.. Shevuath Haeduth.. : We still need ha-Modai.. Eliezer ha-Kappar.. Kol Hatzelamim.. :.. Joshua b.. Levi was walking behind R.. Eleazar.. ha-Kappar Berabbi.. In the Tosefta in the Ch.. Seven,.. , R.. Eliezer the son of R.. Eleazar ha-Kappar answered regarding circumcision, etc.. Five of.. Menahem b.. Nafah tells in the name of R.. Eliezer ha-Kappar of a deed by R.. Tarfon who married 300 women so that they could eat from the priestly offering in a year of famine, etc.. Perhaps there are two, [Eleazar and Eliezer].. Levi sent a chicken to R.. Eleazar Berabbi; that is to say, the greatest in his generation.. Kisui Hadam.. we see R.. Eliezer ha-Kappar Berabbi together with R.. Hiyya and in Ch.. with R.. It seems that he was one of the latter sages, though he is mentioned in.. Pirkei Rabbi Eliezer.. It is well known that although it is called after R.. Eliezer, the later sages wrote its chapters; similar to the.. , which is ascribed to R.. Simeon and the.. Sefer ha-Yetzira.. , which is ascribed to Abraham our forefather, as Ibn Ezra writes.. Alternatively, perhaps there are two and he is called Berabbi.. Rashi explains in Ch.. that he was the great sage in his generation and that he explained in.. Nazir.. the verse Because he sinned by being in the presence of the dead body.. There are versions of the beginning of the explanation of the Mishna in Ch.. four where he is mentioned amongst those of the second generation.. Eliezer.. the Great b.. Hyrcanus.. He was the greatest disciple of R.. Zakkai and he wrote.. His father, Hyrcanus, vowed not to leave him any of his money and he was a very wealthy man.. Eventually he came and voided the vow when he found out what happened with his son.. Aboth deRabbi Nathan.. ;.. in the Mishna of Jose b.. Joezer, there is a story how R.. Eliezer learned from R.. Zakkai.. When Rabban Gamaliel the Elder died, R.. Eliezer was old and he saw the death of Rabban Gamaliel his grandson who was his brother-in-law.. His face shone, as they said: The face of Moses is like the face of the sun and the face of Joshua is like the face of the moon - so is the face of R.. Eliezer, when he preached.. We have already explained his life above.. Bachyah said, And the name of the other was Eliezer.. for it says in the Midrash that he was descended from Moses.. , perhaps from his mother s side.. Eliezer Hisma.. We have already spoken at length about him.. He was a great astronomer and mathematician and knew geometry, as it is said in.. Horayoth.. He was the disciple of R.. Akiba and the colleague of R.. Gudgada and R.. Jacob, in the Ch.. ; and R.. Beroka  ...   saw the destruction of the Temple and he was an early Tanna and he saw the daughter of Nakdimon b.. Gorion, etc.. as is written in Ch.. Metziyath Haisha.. Arba Mitoth.. it says that he was a prominent man before the destruction of the Temple.. He testified that he saw the daughter of a priest who had fornicated and was burned surrounded by tree branches.. It would seem that he lived at least 40 years before the Destruction for afterwards they did not judge capital crimes.. Shammua.. the priest who lived a long life, in Ch.. He was the master of Rabbi and we have already explained his affairs.. Rab called him the.. tuvaina.. of the sages.. Zemach interpreted it as extraordinarily wise, while Rashi translated it as the happiest of the sages.. They said that he was the last of the Ten Martyrs and that he was martyred on Sabbath eve, as he was beginning to sanctify the Sabbath day.. He said, Leave me in peace until my soul departs.. When he got up to,.. that He had created.. a Divine Voice exclaimed: You are blessed, Eleazar, My son! In this world, your soul was like God s and your soul has departed with the word God.. I wonder about [his martyrdom], because he was the master of Rabbi, as we have said.. It seems that there were no persecutions during the time of Rabbi.. However, at the end of Ch.. Im Einan Makirin.. Rashi explains in the name of his master that during the sighting of the new moon there was persecution, when Rabbi sent a message to R.. Hiyya.. This does not seem to be correct and the first explanation of Rashi is preferable.. Eleazar, son of R.. Yohai.. You already know all about him, that he was in a cave for thirteen years with his father and received the suffering with love.. All his saintly words are in Ch.. He was a friend and colleague of Rabbi but died many years before Rabbi.. Elisha b.. Abuyah.. We have already spoken of him above.. He was called Another (.. Aher.. He was the master of R.. Meir and he was one of the four who entered Paradise.. He gained the [eternal] life in the World-to-Come because of his knowledge of Torah and of his disciples.. He did not cause others to sin, for he said to R.. Meir: «That is the limit [of travel] for the Sabbath.. ».. Fire from the sky surrounded his grave.. He was granted that R.. Jacob the Tanna.. was the son of his daughter.. He (R.. Jacob) told us the secrets of the World-to-Come in.. Pirkei Aboth.. and at the end of.. Hulin.. Rabbi also included Elisha in.. along with our saintly fathers.. He saw the destruction, praised R.. Akiba and lived many years after him.. Ila'i.. , the father of R.. Judah, was the disciple of R.. Eliezer, as stated in the Ch.. Hakometz Rabah.. He was like a colleague to R.. Ishmael but he called R.. Ishmael my master and R.. Ishmael called him my son as we find in the Ch.. where he was stricter than Rabban Gamaliel in his ruling.. , he interpreted the law before R.. Eliezer and R.. He was an Elder,.. as it says, R.. Ila i the Elder said: If a man feels that he cannot control his passion, etc.. Abba Eleazar.. Dolai [is mentioned] in the Ch.. Mikva oth.. It seems that he flourished in the time of the disciples of R.. Akiba: R.. Meir, R.. Judah, R.. Simeon and R.. Kol Haget.. , the Tanna in the Baraitha is Abba Eleazar b.. Gamla.. Dama.. We have already said that he was the nephew of R.. Ishmael and that he died of snakebite but he died in holiness.. There are those who say that he is one of the Ten Martyrs and not R.. Tema.. Alternatively, the one who died from snakebite was Joshua b.. Dama, the nephew of R.. Ishmael, while R.. Dama was martyred for wearing phylacteries and they were still on his head when they executed him and he died in holiness and purity.. Jannai was left out by the author.. He is found in.. Beitzah.. 34a.. Jannai said in the name of R.. Antigonus, in.. 45 and 55.. Antigonus said in the name of R.. Jannai.. Antigonus.. of Soko received [the tradition] from Simeon the Righteous.. Because of his words stated in the Mishna.. , Zadok and Boethus, his evil disciples, sinned.. They are the heresiarchs, as we have already mentioned.. His pious disciples were Joseph b.. Joezer and Joseph b.. Johanan, the first was the Prince and the second was the Head of the Court.. Onkelos the Proselyte.. was the nephew of Titus as well as the Tanna in the Baraitha in Ch.. Hamocher Perot.. Onkelos the proselyte said: The cherubim were like the image of children.. He received [the tradition] from R.. Eliezer and from R.. Joshua and translated the five books of the Torah according to their words but he is not mentioned in the Mishna.. Demai.. , it says that he was strict with himself in regards to what he inherited and shared with his brothers, for they were goyim; he threw it into the Dead Sea.. Afkashion.. Yoma.. 28b.. Nidah.. 25b.. 35a.. Above RAZ brought up a doubt whether he was one of the 18 sages who were missed by Rambam at the end of his Introduction to the Mishna.. 17a.. There are var.. lect.. that read Jonathan b.. 49b.. Reuben pretended that he wants to harm Jews, and said that observance of Sabbath makes Jews poor, while circumcision makes them weak.. They believed him and annulled the prohibition of Sabbath observance and circumcision.. When they discovered that he was a Jew, they reinforced the prohibition.. Mesaper haircut, or a way of talk.. 22b.. He was one of the 18 sages that the author added onto Rambam obm.. 46b.. Found in the texts as Elihoeini in.. A fortress town located on the other side of the Dead Sea opposite Masada.. 43a.. The Talmud mostly has this spelling.. Tosefta Kethuboth.. 5:1 and in.. PT Yevamoth.. 4:12.. 84b-85a.. 147a.. Num 6:11.. Above RAZ brought up R.. Eleazar Ha-Kappar from the.. Tosefta.. on the fourth chapter in.. , who ate the guilt offering.. of a Nazirite from the South.. What the author said here There are versions of the fourth chapter of the explanation of the Mishna, it seems to me that he did not know whether his name was Eliezer or Eleazar.. For even in the Gemara we have found both versions, and in place of the fourth chapter, it should read the second chapter.. It is appropriate to note that the author, by the way, states as a well-known fact, that both the.. Pirkei R.. and the.. were written by other persons.. That he was such a great scholar, respected by all the great men of Jerusalem.. Ex 18:4.. Eliezer was the son of Moses.. On his mother s side - as this R.. Eliezer he was not a Levite.. 10 a-b.. Or strong in overcoming his former ignorance.. 23:4.. Lev 17.. Ta anith.. 24a.. 75a.. From Abel, near Sepphoris.. The Talmud has.. , Ibelim.. 55b.. Eccl 10:2.. 113a.. 32a.. Ex 21.. Ps 37:25.. 27b.. 54b.. Hiyya b.. Abuyah,.. Sanhedrin.. 82a and 104a, Sanhedrin PT 2:4.. Revenge was exacted upon this but yet another is yet to come.. Mishna 9,.. Halacha.. 5.. A variant spelling for Judah.. 147b.. Mishna 7:9.. 17b.. 22a.. Mishna.. Kilaim.. 7:2.. Daughter of one of the wealthiest men in Jerusalem, picking up barley from under the horses hooves in Acre.. Kethuboth 5:10.. Midrash.. Lamentations Rabah.. 2,.. Ele Ezkerah.. Gen 2:3.. A part of the Kiddush, the blessing of Sabbath eve.. RH.. 25a.. Abuyah is mentioned in a Mishna in the fourth chapter of.. and in a Baraitha in MK.. 20a.. But in.. 44a, the proper reading is R.. Ishmael b.. Elisha.. Hagiga.. Korshai,.. 39b.. Mishna 4:16, 17.. 4:20.. Menachoth.. 18a.. 23a and 26a.. Important old man.. 16a and.. 1:3.. 5, 13.. Cf the first chapter of.. If it is not an error of a copyist, it seems that there must have been two persons named Onkelos the Proselyte.. 99a..

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  • Title: Autor
    Descriptive info: V.. Order of Amora Sages.. (in alphabetic order).. ALEF.. , his.. amorei.. said: Thus did R.. Ashi say.. Thus,.. Amora.. is an interpreter who interprets and explicates the Mishna.. Also in PT, Rabbi ordered Abdan his.. , meaning his interpreter , as mentioned in the.. Pesakim.. Tefilath.. Hashachar.. Also, R.. Huna and R.. Hisda placed an.. Abba.. Abba came up [to Palestine] he met R.. Abin.. Or variant reading, R.. Johanan, at the end of.. Yom.. Tov.. And he met R.. Hanina and R.. Papi and R.. Zera, and some say R.. Abbahu, R.. Pazi and R.. Isaac Nappaha.. Ein.. Maamidin.. a ship carrying fish brine arrived at the port of Acre.. Abba of Acre placed guards.. Jeremiah said to R.. Zera: Perhaps the ship has come from Tyre with its abundant wine? He told him: There are narrow waterways and.. pishurei.. , which means the water of melted snow.. said to R.. Abba of Acre: Who guarded it until now? etc.. Abba was in Babylonia at the time of Raba, Abaye s opponent.. He and R.. Zera came up to Palestine, however R.. Zera came first.. Abba was in Babylonia with R.. Jeremiah b.. Abba came from the school of Rab.. Ela, R.. Eliakim and R.. Eleazar all lived at the same time.. It seems, he is.. Abba of Babylonia.. However, I am in great doubt who is the R.. Abba.. Is it R.. Abba b.. Memel or somebody else? For the sake of this issue, at the proper time, I shall write about it at length.. Abba raised an objection to Ulla.. The case of R.. Abba s bar.. A certain man snatched a.. nasecha.. , which means a bar of silver.. He came before R.. Apparently, judging by Gemara versions in the Talmud, it refers to R.. Memel.. When the Talmud speaks of the [silver] bar of R.. Abba in Ch.. Shevuath.. Haeduth.. it refers to R.. Abba sent R.. Safra to collect money from R.. Hama, Raba s father.. Abba was very old.. Raba gave advice to his father how to pay.. Elu.. Metziyoth.. , the Tosafoth infer from [the case of] R.. Abba s bar that R.. Abba was a disciple of R.. To me, it seems the contrary, because R.. Ammi said: our Palestinian Masters.. refers to R.. Ammi was the Academy Head in Palestine in place of his Master R.. Johanan at that time.. It states there: R.. Abba sat before him, in Ch.. Kol.. Hanishbain.. Hamafkid.. Ammi sat and related a teaching.. Memel challenged R.. Because of that, sometimes he relates a law in the name of R.. At the end of Ch.. Hakelim.. Abba said in the name of R.. Ammi who said in the name of R.. Though he was not his master, [he still said it in R.. Ammi s name] because [R.. Ammi] had said in the name of R.. Also at the end of Ch.. Hezkath.. Habatim.. Ammi sent to R.. Zabda who was a disciple of R.. Huna - asked of R.. Abba although, R.. Huna was greater than him.. Hasholeach.. Get.. Abba said to R.. Huna: Our Master, you have taught us.. MK.. , he eulogised [R.. Huna]: Our Master was worthy of having the Divine Presence abide with him etc.. Huna who said in the name of Rab.. when R.. Abba came to Palestine, he met R.. Zera.. Abba] said to him: Since you had left Babylonia, we had an opportunity of asking R.. Huna etc.. and once I found R.. Abba etc.. Rashi commented: R.. Zera and R.. Abba were both from Babylonia.. Zera came over [to Palestine] first; consequently R.. Abba said to him: Since you have left Babylonia etc.. Abba sat behind R.. Kahana and R.. Kahana sat before R.. Abba went and said in the presence of R.. Eleazar and [then] R.. Eleazar went and said in the presence of R.. Jeremiah asked pardon because he had annoyed R.. Our Palestinian Masters referred to in the Ch.. - this is R.. The reason for.. of R.. Abba is stated in Ch.. It seems that it refers to R.. Abba and to R.. Jeremiah.. Abba asked of R.. Huna.. It seems that he was rich, because every Sabbath eve, he would pay 13.. Astiris.. to 13 butchers and he would say: Prepare these quickly which Rashi interpreted in two ways.. Abba, the colleague of R.. Zera, or R.. Zera, the colleague of R.. There is a version at the end of.. Memel asked, and some say Come and hear etc.. Abba spoke before R.. This does not undermine my interpretation, because R.. Ammi was an Academy head.. Similar to this, in Ch.. Ammi came before R.. Assi , to which Tosafoth commented: Even though he was greater than him, the fact that he came before him to consult him poses no problem, since he was his colleague.. However, if the correct version is that [R.. Ammi] came before R.. Abba, it is problematical, because R.. Ammi as proven in the case of.. Abba , so why would he come before him? End quote.. According to the way I explained it above, the version before R.. Abba is fine, as I have said above.. Ammi sent him to R.. Abba since he was like a colleague to him, and he studied in Babylonia with Rab and R.. Also in Ch.. Haholetz.. : The Raabad wrote that the law follows the opinion of R.. Abba because he was the Palestinian judge, as it states in.. Shevu'oth.. and a judge delves into depths of the law.. Joseph [sat] behind R.. Abba and before R.. Abba challenged R.. Assi and R.. Abbahu.. It seems that he lived a long life since he lived from the time of Rab until the time of Raba.. He imposed upon Raba to pay the price of an ox, because he declared it ritually unfit for eating.. It also seems that he returned to Babylonia, as we shall explain in the entry.. Ketina.. who is R.. Haomer.. , he would go on his pilgrimage before R.. Isaac Nappaha and that he bought a field and he was not aware that R.. Gidal had expressed his intention of purchasing it first.. He [R.. Abba] forfeited his ownership and the land was called Rabbinic Land.. Ashi, in.. Shoel.. , in Ch.. Haisha.. , in the Ch.. Hakometz.. , and in Ch.. Tosafoth at the beginning of.. use the version R.. Assi to R.. Abba because R.. Ashi never saw R.. Ammi b.. Perhaps, he is the R.. His son was a disciple par excellence of R.. Johanan, that is R.. Hiyya, his son was.. : The father of R.. Abba had taught.. Rab said about him that he was  ...   ) that it was out of fear of the tax collector.. If they would not find the seal, they would say that he short-changed the tax.. Hinena, a proud and prominent man, was not afraid.. Rashi s commentary seems to be the most suitable one.. Ada b.. Ahba, a Rab s disciple, was present at the burial of Rab, in Ch.. Ketzad.. Mevarchin.. Rab attended to Rabbi [Judah the Prince] and R.. Hiyya while sitting and R.. Johanan while standing.. He was a Master of the entire Torah and great in piety.. The ten qualities of piety were all found in Rab as we shall explain in the entry.. , Resh Lakish said about him: This man is to be remembered for good.. Reshith.. Hagez.. Johanan said to Issi b.. Hini, Who is the head of the Academy in Babylonia? He replied, Abba Arika.. He told him: You called him Abba Arika? I remember (.. nahirna.. , in Aramaic.. Nahirna.. is of the word memory ; thus [a child born under] that star [Mercury] shall be.. nahir.. ve-hakim.. which means one of retentive memory and wise as the.. interpreted) when I was sitting seventeen rows behind Rab in the presence of Rabbi, seeing sparks of fire leaping from the mouth of Rabbi into the mouth of Rab and from the mouth of Rab into the mouth of Rabbi, and I could not understand what they were saying; and you simply call him Abba Arika!.. , Rashi commented on the controversy that one reference to Rab contradicts another reference to Rab.. : Even though Rab was an Amora, he could challenge a Tanna opinion because he was the Master of all Exile in that generation, besides Samuel.. Abba:.. Abba son of R.. Johanan; One may pass water in public, however one may not drink water in public.. A man wished to urinate but didn t and his belly burst, in Ch.. Mumin.. Perhaps there is a mistake and it should be R.. [Samuel Shullam has said: Perhaps he is Samuel s father, for (in.. ) once Samuel was preaching and needed to urinate and he demanded that they bring a cloth to serve as a partition, and he urinated.. His father was angry at him and demanded: get out [from behind the partition] and tell people that even without a partition it is permitted.. He went out and expounded: One may pass water in public etc.. See text.. Abba Bar Abba the Priest.. , the father of Samuel, the colleague of Rab.. , he [returned the find] beyond the requirements of the law, because he was a very pious man.. Habasar.. , Rab said: [Heaven] forbid that the issue of Abba b.. To which Rashi commented: Abba b.. Abba, the father of Samuel, was a very pious man.. Hamekadesh.. , [Heaven] forbid that the issue of Abba.. The father of Samuel and Levi were colleagues.. Why was he called the father of Samuel ? He was told on the night that Samuel s mother became pregnant that he will have a wise son.. He was miraculously transported to his wife on that night, and afterwards he immediately returned to his distant place.. People thought that his wife was pregnant from somebody else.. His father came and declared that he is his son.. This is what I have heard.. I have also found in Ch.. Asara.. , that the Rosh obm wrote As in the case of Samuel s father who came [to his wife] by the use of the Name as it states in the PT.. 31b.. Pesakim or Piskei of the Rosh (our Master Asher).. 38a.. 34b.. Perhaps it contained wine, and brine mixed with wine called for special consideration, by Jewish law.. Jeremiah tries to explain the reason for R.. Abba s action.. His opponent says: It is difficult to get wine from Tyre; so people won t put expensive wine into cheap brine.. Thus, no reason to put guards.. Rather, shallow waters.. In real life, Tyre to Acre is a short sailing of few hours; but the Iraqi sages had imprecise knowledge of Palestinian geography.. Melted snow is a European contribution to this [mis]understanding, unless one considers the mountain streams.. In the Gemara text, Raba to R.. Sometimes, Raba is written as R.. Abba and Rabin as R.. Freimann.. 57.. By default i.. if there are no other names or titles.. 32b.. Or rather, how to avoid payment.. 24b.. 37a.. Or Assi, in other version.. 125b.. 59a.. 87a.. 47b.. A Roman coin,.. sesterce.. , or.. sestertius.. Rosh.. Ch.. 4, section 10.. i.. it became ownerless.. 150b.. 62b and 65b.. 4a.. Nedarim.. 32a,.. 20a.. 56b.. Sod ha-Ibbur the secret of intercalation , the ancient term designating the mechanics of the Jewish calendar.. Until the 4.. , this term referred to the council of intercalation that set the calendar.. 20b.. This is a part of funny exchange.. Samuel said: I can do the Calendar; Abba made the remark, Samuel professed his ignorance, and Abba concluded: Since the Master does not know this, there must also be other things which the Master does not know.. 21b.. It is a nice story: Abaye sent to him two scholars in order to test him.. He received them and gave them food and drink and in the evening he prepared woollen mattresses for them [to sleep on].. In the morning the scholars rolled these together and took them to the market [for sale].. There they met Abba and they said to him, Sir, value these, how much they are worth, and he replied, So-and-so much.. They said to him, Perhaps they are worth more? He replied, This is what I paid for them.. They then said to him, They are yours, we took them away from you; tell us, pray, of what did you suspect us.. He replied: I said to myself, perhaps the Rabbis needed money to redeem captives and they were ashamed to tell me.. They replied, Sir, take them back.. He answered: From the moment I missed them I dismissed them from my mind and [I devoted them] to charity.. 84a.. Abba comes from a healthy family, but as for us, whosoever amongst us has a penny in his purse should hasten with it to the shop-keeper.. Nahman said: As for us, we must even borrow to eat.. 47a, and Rashi.. Hagiga 5b.. Sukkah 33a.. 66a.. Rashi.. Of different marriages.. Hulin 85a.. 58a.. 42b.. 54a.. In our texts, dahirna , the usual Aramaic word for remembering.. 156a.. Beth Shammai accept the teaching of R.. Judah in the name of Rab, and Beth Hillel reject the teaching of R.. Judah in the name of Rab; this is a Tanna controversy.. 44b.. 111b.. 4, Sec.. Cf Halachoth Gedoloth, end of Halachoth..

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  • Title: Autor
    Descriptive info: Sample.. Later Generations.. O.. ur Master Hai [Gaon] the son of R.. Sherira Gaon, the son of R.. Hananiah Gaon, the son of R.. Judah Gaon marks the end of the Gaonic era.. Mekach.. uMimkar.. , the book of.. Shavuot.. Mitzvoth.. and other books.. He died in AM 798, four years after the demise of our Master R.. Samuel ha-Cohen b.. Hophni.. Our Master Hananel and his colleague our Master Nissim took over the Rabbinate in Africa in AM 4810 [1050].. Our Master Hananel wrote the book of.. Mikzooth.. and a commentary to the Talmud.. Samuel the Nagid, the disciple of R.. Enoch from Cordova, died in the year 815 and his son R.. Joseph was killed on the ninth of Tevet in the year 827 along with the community of Granada.. Rashi in.. said that Jacob b.. Yakar died a short time before R.. Isaac ha-Levi and then R.. Kalonymus came from Rome.. They both died [in the year 830 [1070].. Yakar and R.. Isaac ha-Levi Segan ha-Levi the son of Asher ha-Levi were the masters of Rashi.. Another master of Rashi was R.. Judah as mentioned in the.. Maksha.. [died same year].. The great scholar and poet.. Solomon Ibn Gabirol.. and our Master R.. Gershom.. the Light of Exile.. , of France and Germany, the author of.. Responsa.. who instituted many ordinances; they both died in the year 830.. Their contemporary was R.. Moses the Preacher [ha-Darshan] from Narbonne, the master of R.. Nathan the author of the.. This information can be found in the entry.. kazar.. Among the greater disciples of R.. Moses the Preacher were R.. Moses the Meek [he-Anav], R.. Maran and R.. Levi the nephew.. Isaac.. The greatest of the disciples was R.. Isaac who was called.. Abad.. Also the Raabad.. Zerahiah author of the.. Maor.. Meshullam b.. Jacob, R.. Moses, R.. David, R.. Jonathan ha-Cohen, and R.. Shalamiah flourished at the same time.. However, R.. Abraham, the Head of the Court, was the greatest of all.. Also at this time, approximately the year 840, flourished R.. Judah Ibn Barzilai al-Bargeloni [of Barcelona], author of.. ha-Itim.. Abraham the Prince, the Ibn Shartmoqash.. and R.. Jacob Ibn Ezra.. Isaac Ibn Giat died in the year 849; he had written books and liturgy.. However, the most renowned poet was R.. Solomon Ibn Gabirol b.. Judah, who was born in Malaga (while some claim in Cordova), grew up in Saragossa and was buried in Valencia in 830.. Judah ha-Levi.. were the sons of two sisters.. They were buried together.. He, that is to say, R.. Judah ha-Levi wrote books and poetry.. He wrote the.. Kuzari.. Judah ha-Levi was fifty years old when he went to Palestine, as it is written in his poems.. [His contemporary was R.. Yomtov Elem; Rashi,.. SeMaG.. , and our Master Asher refer to him].. Baruch from Cordova died in the year 854 and he had written the book.. Kupath.. Rochlim.. , but had not completed it.. Hiyya of Spain [ha-Sepharadi] who wrote many books on astronomy [died] in the year 861.. Jacob, also known as R.. al-Fasi obm, wrote the.. Talmud.. Katan.. He received his tradition from our Master Nissim and our Master Hananel.. He died at the age of ninety in the year 863 in Lucena.. He is also called.. our.. great.. Master.. The great luminary, who wrote commentary on the Talmud and the Holy Scriptures,.. Rashi.. the French commentator, known as.. Parshandatha.. and his disciple R.. Simcha of Vitry.. who wrote.. Mahzor.. Vitry.. died in the year 865 [1105].. Rashi, pbuh, lived to the age of 75 and he wrote the.. Pardes.. Our Master Shemaiah was his disciple and he also wrote books.. Also in his time was the RIBA.. Nathan author of the.. , [died] in the year 867.. Moses the Preacher of Narbonne was his master.. He was also [the master of] Rashi, as evident from Rashi s commentary to the portion.. Vayishlach.. , where he states that he heard it from R.. Moses the Preacher.. Joseph ha-Levi Ibn Migas b.. Meir ha-Levi from Lucena died in the year 901.. He wrote books and a commentary to the Talmud, which is quoted often by the commentators.. Our Master Gershom the Light of Exile mentions some of the great scholars and poets of the early generations such a R.. Jannai and R.. ha-Kalir.. He also mentions poets of the later generations who preceded him shortly as R.. Kalonymus and his son R.. Meshullam who was a brilliant scholar.. Rashi in Ch.. Omar Lahem.. ha-Memune.. wrote: «the correct text according to our Master R.. Hananel of Rome».. If so, this can t be our Master Hananel from Africa, who was the colleague of our Master Nissim and the master of the R.. Isaac al-Fasi.. Zerahiah ha-Levi of Gerona was the author of.. ha-Maor.. which he wrote when he was in Lunel in the year 910.. He was very critical of the R.. , [it is mentioned] that R.. Ephraim is a disciple of R.. At the same time, there was R.. Ephraim, a disciple of Ramban.. RIBAN is R.. Nathan, the son-in-law [and disciple] of Rashi mentioned in the.. ha-Basar.. RIBAM is R.. Meir who is mentioned in the Tosafoth.. Hiyya al-Daudi, whose lineage is traced to [King] David, came from Babylonia to Spain and died in the year 914.. Abraham Ibn Ezra and R.. Judah ha-Levi are both buried near R.. Ila i in the village of Kabul in Palestine.. The well known R.. Meir Ibn Ezra of Granada, who wrote a commentary on the Torah and wrote books on astronomy lived to the age of 75 and died in the year 925 [1165] in Calahorra.. However, I heard that he is undoubtedly buried in Palestine and he died in the year 954 [1194].. Thus R.. Solomon b.. Simeon from Palestine was told, and he saw with his own eyes the tomb of R.. Abraham Ibn Ezra there.. I also read that R.. Abraham Ibn Ezra who wrote many books;.. ha-Shem.. and plenty of books on the Torah, astronomy, mathematics, liturgy and.. Bakashoth.. , died in the year 954 on Monday, first of Adar I at the age of 75.. It is also written so in the book.. Yesod.. Olam.. If this is indeed so, he died 11 years before Rambam, obm.. This seems to be a better version than what I wrote above, that he died in the year 992.. , because this version includes the month and the date and rightly so.. Maybe there was another R.. Abraham Ibn Ezra who lived in the year 985.. After this generation, the disciples of Rashi arose, our French scholars, the Tosafists.. The greater scholars among them were the sons of the daughter of Rashi, our Master Samuel who is known as RASHBAM and our Master Jacob who is known as our Master Tam, also called Jacob b.. Our Master Tam became angry at our Master Meshullam who permitted a goy to handle vinegar as written in the.. He also said so in a response and he called him a new name which should not be voiced by Jacob.. In his time lived R.. Meshullam mentioned in.. , the son of our Master Kalonymus.. Our Master Tam was the brother of R.. Samuel, who wrote commentary on B.. and is called RASHBAM.. Our Master Tam wrote.. ha-Jashar.. and died in the year 930 [1170] in the province of Ramero.. , three parasangs from Troyes.. Tam s disciple, R.. Haim Cohen.. ha-Nose.. , that had he been there at the time of his death, he would defile himself for his sake.. Haim was the maternal grandfather of R.. Moses from Coucy, author of the.. Ephraim of Regensburg, Germany [died] in the year 935.. Samuel from Evereux would quote RASHBA.. RIZBA.. was the brother of R.. Samson.. Samuel, also known as RASHBAM, was the brother of our Master R.. Tam b.. Meir, who was the maternal grandson of Rashi.. He studied with his grandfather and wrote a commentary to.. His son, R.. Joseph Porath also wrote a commentary to the Talmud, as mentioned in.. Tosafoth.. The great Rabbi, our Master Isaac the Elder b.. Samuel was the nephew.. of our Master Tam.. Wherever the acronym RI is mentioned, the reference is to him, the Tosafist.. He studied and taught in the Academy and our French Masters witnessed that 60 Rabbis would study by him, and each one would hear exactly the law he taught.. He would also teach each one individually a tractate, and they would repeat it by heart.. [RI] wrote his books in the days of our Master Tam, his uncle.. He wrote to our Master Tam.. referring to forbidden wine that was touched by a goy child, that «according to you and your grandfather all wine is permitted».. He prevailed over our Master Tam; and our Master Tam said: your words are true; he did not shy away and admitted it.. From this sage, Halacha was renewed by his great sophism, never thought of by his predecessors.. Most of the [laws] concluded by our Master Asher were from the Tosafoth of RI.. It has been said that he died in the year 935 like the Rashbam, however I doubt it.. Our Master Asher also mentioned the RI the Junior.. , to differentiate from the RI the Elder.. In the law of.. Hachana.. mentions R.. Abraham, meaning our Master R.. Samson from Sens the Tosafist, who was a main disciple of R.. Isaac the Tosafist.. It also has been said that the Rashba.. died in the same year in which his old.. Master did.. He was called the Jerusalemite and was buried on Mount Carmel.. He argued with Rambam in Galilee after he had written the.. Yad.. [Hazakah].. Caleb, Rambam s disciple prevailed in the dispute.. Tosafoth in the Ch.. , quote R.. Samson of Coucy.. Tosafoth in Ch.. Havith.. wrote, The explanation of Rashi did not suit my grandfather, Master R.. Samson obm.. Another R.. Samson, b.. Yekutiel b.. Isaac wrote the book of.. Kerithuth.. , a profound book which explores the ways of the Talmud.. Through this book, his vast knowledge of the Talmud became well known.. He, that is R.. Abraham also wrote commentary and compiled Talmud to tractates of which no Gemara was made, such as the orders of.. Zeraim.. However, the truth is that it was not the Rashba.. who wrote it but a disciple of R.. Meir of Rothenburg, a colleague of our Master Asher.. Samuel the great poet, he had no peers but R.. Solomon Ben Gabirol (nobody was like him before or after his days!), and R.. Isaac Cardinal died in the year 938.. He.. is buried by R.. Ila i in Safed.. Benjamin of Navarre.. who wandered in the world in sixty voyages, did so in the year 938.. He met with the R.. David in Posquières, France and he told of him that he was a wise and rich man.. In Rome, he saw the grandson of the author of the.. , a handsome young man.. The great luminary,.. obm, whose light shined upon Israel, concluded forty generations from the time of the Great Assembly.. Joseph ha-Levi Ibn Migas was the 38.. generation as we have said before.. After him, a new generation arose with R.. Meir, the son  ...   criticized Rambam.. obm in his days.. It has been said that Rambam thanked him and added that «I was defeated by only one wise man».. At that time lived R.. Moses ha-Cohen, known as the RAMAH.. , who also criticized Rambam.. He was answered and retracted his remarks.. It seems that the Raabad died before Rambam and priests buried him.. His contemporary was R.. Plat, who answered R.. Isaac the Head of the Court on the precepts that necessitate a blessing, as recorded in the introduction to the commentary on the prayers written by R.. David Abudraham.. Also at this time there was the great sage, R.. Abraham ABAD.. as mentioned by the Ran in his.. Hidushei.. Batra.. He died in the year 945.. In the year 969 [1196], there was the persecution of the community of Beziers.. In the year 956, on the 28.. of the month of Ab, there were great persecutions in the Kingdom of Leon perpetrated by two kings.. who attacked them in a certain fortress.. Afterwards, they removed from the fortress the 24 books.. , which were penned 600 years earlier by R.. Hillel and were named after him the Hilleli Edition.. His books were perfect, and served as the source for all copies.. I personally saw two; of the major and minor prophets, which were written neatly and in large letters.. They were brought by expellees from Portugal and were sold in Bejaia in Africa; they are still there today, 900 years since they were written.. In R.. David Kimche s treatise of Grammar, on the verse so that you may remember,.. it is written that a Hilleli Pentateuch was in Toledo.. Baruch of Worms, a disciple of our Master Tam and RI the Tosafist and also R.. ha-Ezri.. He, R.. Baruch wrote.. ha-Terumah.. in the year 960.. In the same year 960, R.. Zadok died in Cordova.. It is not true that.. Hovath.. ha-Levavoth.. was translated in the year 969.. Judah Ibn Tibbon.. who lived before Rambam translated.. into the holy tongue.. Samuel Ibn Tibbon translated the.. in Rambam s days and by his orders, and Rambam died in the year 65.. Bahya Ibn Pakuda.. wrote the full version of.. in the year 940 and this [later dating] is not true as mentioned above.. Tibbon, the father of R.. Samuel translated the book into Hebrew as written in the introduction to the.. Isaac ha-Levi, b.. Zerahiah, R.. Kalonymus and R.. Saul ha-Cohen all died in the year 965.. [The same is the case with] Rambam who is called a disciple of R.. Joseph ha-Levi Ibn Migas, and R.. Abraham Ibn Migas, the Head of the Court, and R.. Jonathan ha-Cohen of Lunel, who commented upon al-Fasi, R.. Mezach of Toledo, and our Master Tam of Orleans and R.. Aaron of Polag who all died in the year 965.. Ramban, who is known as the.. N.. oble Rabbi.. would not call Rambam even Our Master Moses out of respect for Our Master Moses the Lawgiver.. This is because we find in the Mechiltha on the verse.. and Moses said, eat it today.. : Israel had said to him [to Moses]: «Our Master Moses, let it come in the morning etc».. Ramban was careful not to call [Rambam] Our Master Moses , so as not to compare him to Moses the Master of all prophets.. We also find [the same title in regard to Moses the Lawgiver] in the.. on the verse.. may God add on to you.. : He said to him, Our Master Moses etc.. At this time, R.. Abraham from Montpelier, the Master of Rabbi Jonah, R.. Leon in Rome in the year 970 [1210].. The great Rabbi who defended our grand Master RIF from critique of the author of the.. Zerahiah ha-Levi, was R.. Nahman obm.. He wrote new interpretations to the Talmud, but they were so sophistic he himself doubted their validity.. Our Master Asher wrote in Ch.. ha-Dayanim.. in regard to a law set down by R.. Joseph ha-Levi and the Rambam, Ramban explained, but what he said is incomprehensible.. [Ramban] wrote a commentary on the Torah and the book of Job and he was also a great Cabbalist.. After the time of Ramban, until the expulsion [from Spain], in the Academies in Aragon and Castile, the Talmud was studied with Rashi and the novellae of Ramban.. There were only very few who studied the Tosafoth and they were considered insignificant.. Later he moved to Jerusalem where he set up a synagogue.. He lived for many years as we have mentioned above.. In the year 970, he began writing his books.. Shulchan.. Shel.. Arba.. Torath.. ha-Adam.. ha-Zekuth.. ha-Milhamoth.. and his reservations to the.. of Rambam obm.. Ramban, author of the novellae, passed away in Jerusalem in the year 20.. Jonah, his disciple, were the sons of two sisters from Gerona.. Samuel of Spain, b.. Isaac, wrote the.. ha-Terumoth.. ha-Gadol.. in the year 985.. Todros ha-Levi died in the year 985.. In the year 991, the year of the king s death, there were great persecutions throughout the entire kingdom of Leon; namely in Astorga, Majorca, Benevento, Torio, Zamora, Salamanca, Alba, Granadilla and the Ciudad Rodrigo.. RIZBA wrote to R.. Simeon, his brother, in Ch.. Almana.. in the.. Madlikin.. in the Tosafoth.. Jacob of Corbeil, the holy Cabbalist, died in the year 992.. Simeon of Coucy, see the.. , precept 141.. Moses of Coucy, b.. Jacob, was the disciple of our Master R.. Samson the Tosafist, and R.. Judah the Pious and R.. Baruch, b.. Isaac of Worms who wrote.. and who is mentioned in the.. , precept 78.. These were all his Masters.. He came to Spain to warn the community for they neglected to put on phylacteries.. in the year 996 [1236].. Died in 1013 AD.. Betza 24B.. Rosh [Rabenu Asher].. , 4.. EB: born c.. 1022, Málaga, Caliphate of Córdoba - died c.. 1058/70, Valencia, Kingdom of Valencia, in full Solomon Ben Yehuda Ibn Gabirol, Arabic Abu Ayyub Sulayman Ibn Yahya Ibn Gabirut, Latin Avicebron, or Avencebrol, one of the outstanding figures of the Hebrew school of religious and secular poetry during the Jewish Golden Age in Moorish Spain.. He was also an important Neoplatonic philosopher.. 960, Metz, Lorraine [now in France] - died 1028/40, Mainz, Franconia [Germany].. Note of Dov Goldberg (DGB): I found a manuscript of a substitute marriage contract (Ketuba D irkisa, replacing a lost one) to his wife that she was widowed from another man.. This Ketuba was written in the year AM 4737.. In another manuscript, I found that our Master Gershom died in the year 4725.. According to this Ketuba he lived about another 13 years.. Therefore the tradition of the author of the Yohassin in regard to the year of death of our Master Gershom, can not be correct.. Maor ha-golah, often spelt Meor, or Ma or.. Isaac s brother s son.. Acronym for Ab Beth din, the head of the Court.. Isaac of Narbonne, 1110-1179.. David of Posquières (?).. Ibn Migas?.. : born c.. 1075, Tudela, Kingdom of Pamplona [Navarre] - died July 1141, Egypt; Hebrew in full Yehuda Ben Shemuel ha-Levi.. Among his major works are the poems collected in Diwan, the Zionide poems celebrating Zion, and the Sefer ha-Kuzari ( Book of the Khazar ), presenting his philosophy of Judaism in dialogue form.. EB.. born 1040, Troyes, Champagne - died July 13, 1105, Troyes.. Commentarissimo.. Vitry-le Brule.. An acronym of R.. Abraham, or possibly of R.. Asher ha-Levi.. Rashi to.. Gen.. 35:8.. However, Rashi does not say there that he heard it from R.. Moses personally, rather that he learned it.. Elsewhere known as Eleazar not Eliezer.. 29b.. Otherwise known as RIF.. Rosh,.. Chap.. 8, Sec.. 29.. The Bakashoth are a specific type of prayer, part of the liturgy of the time.. However, above he wrote that he died in the year 905.. Unsuitable for a Jew.. Probably Ramerupt, the place of R.. Tam s abode.. Haim b.. Hananel ha-Cohen, lived in Paris.. Tosefta to Kethuboth 103b.. he would approach his dead body, even though he is a Cohen and such conduct would normally be forbidden.. This refers to R.. Abraham from Sens who was the brother of the Rizba.. Abraham.. 134b.. The son of his sister.. Tosafoth.. as they produced wine themselves.. This refers to the RIZBA,whose first initials are also RI, who was a disciple of RI.. Acronym for R.. In the Const.. the following is added: There is doubt in regard to this, since he expressed reservations to Rambam after his supposed death.. This refers to the 14 volumes of Rambam s work the Mishne Torah.. Yad in Hebrew has the numerical value of 14.. 14B.. 146b.. Text corrected by Freimann.. Above it was said that R.. Judah bar Ila i was buried in a village called Kabul.. Popularly known as R.. Benjamin of Tudela.. , 933.. Nathan, see above.. Cf below.. II Kings 23:25.. In Rambam s Yad Hazaka.. of Yad Hazaka.. Simeon of Kairouan.. Moreh Nevuchim, Guide to the Perplexed.. 1170, Spain - died c.. 1235; man of letters, last representative of the golden age of Spanish Hebrew poetry.. He wandered through Provence and also the Middle East, translating Arabic poetry and scientific works into Hebrew.. Glossa in the Const.. : Frankly speaking, R Judah al-Harif s translation is no good.. Joseph ibn Aknin (born in Ceuta, Morocco approx.. 1160 - died 1226) b.. 49:13.. This does not appear in our Rashi.. An adaptation of the Kaddish prayer.. In Hebrew,.. M.. a amin.. Since Ramba.. m.. and Ramba.. n.. are phonetically similar and easily confusable, this title emphasizing the.. is used for the Ramba.. m.. , while Ramba.. was called the.. RaDaK, 1160-1235, fought against the ban imposed on Rambam by Montpellier Rabbis.. The following exchange is very witty.. I Sam 16:11.. Num 22:32 (words of Valaam s Ass).. Zechariah 3:12.. He left Narbonne to promote the case of Rambam; passed Aragon, and in Castile, he was detained by illness in Avila; from there he wrote to Toledo.. Written by Rambam.. The Hebrew.. tears, has the numerical value of 65.. This seems to be a play on words on the verse in Samuel I 4:22 in which the word Aron, Ark, is also a coffin.. Lev 26:3.. Samuel I 4:1-22.. Our Master Jeroham b.. Meshullam.. Corrected from Solomon.. 1125-1198.. Num, 25.. On his works in Mishne Torah.. The Hebrew acronym for R.. Moses ha-Cohen.. Act of extreme reverence.. acronym for the Hebrew.. Beit.. Din.. , Head of the Court.. Alfonso VIII of Castile and Pedro II of Aragon.. Meaning the entire Old Testament.. Num 15:40.. Joel ha-Levi known by the acronym Raavya, and also as R.. ha- Ezri.. Bahya b.. Joseph ibn Pakuda, about 1080 wrote, in Arabic, Al-Hidayah ila-fara id al-qulub ( Duties of the Heart ) or Hovath ha-Levavoth in Hebrew translation.. This title in Hebrew is ha-Rav ha-.. e eman.. Cf above re Rambam.. Ex 16:25.. Deut.. 1:11.. Cf Rosh Shavu oth Ch.. 5020.. Note of Yavetz: This differs with the words of Ramban obm, as in his lamentation upon entrance to Jerusalem he says that he came to Jerusalem in [50]27, on the 9.. of Elul.. Maybe there is an omission in the text, and it should be after 20 years.. Cf Rosh, Kethuboth Ch.. Cf Tosafoth.. 23b..

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  • Title: The Later Generations
    Descriptive info: VI.. The Later Generations.. Our Master Hai [Gaon] the son of R..

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  • Title: Biography
    Descriptive info: Biography.. I.. srael Shamir is an Israeli translator and a scholar.. A native of Novosibirsk, Siberia, a grandson of a professor of mathematics and a descendant of a Rabbi from Tiberias, Palestine, he grew up in Israel where he moved to in 1968.. He served as paratrooper in the army and fought in the 1973 war.. After a long career as a journalist and writer, which included assignments in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia during the war, a spell at the BBC, a long sojourn in Japan and a work for various Israeli newspapers, he turned to more scholarly quests.. ·.. He translated and annotated the cryptic works of S.. Agnon.. , the only Hebrew Nobel Prize winning writer, from the original Hebrew into Russian.. His work was published and reprinted many times in both Israel and in Russia.. Haaretz.. newspaper called this the best translation of Agnon into any language.. His Commentary to Agnon opened the oblique world of Jewish tradition to non-Jewish readers, said the newspaper.. Shamir s reputation as a Judaic scholar  ...   was published in London.. Jewish subjects were not the only theme of his broad interests.. Shamir translated selected chapters of Joyce's.. Ulysses.. , which were published in Moscow, Tel Aviv, New York and Austin, Texas.. They were also included in the anthology of best Joyce translations by Moscow.. Raduga.. publishers.. Shamir also translated the.. Odyssey.. , a second or third such endeavour in Russian literary history.. Following an idea of Borges, Shamir attempted to translate the Odyssey as read by the eyes of Bloom, the hero of Ulysses.. The Odyssey.. and selected chapters of.. in Shamir s translation were published in 2000 in St.. Petersburg, Russia.. Shamir also published many works of non-fiction dealing with the question of the Jewish people and Palestine.. They are available in many languages on the.. web.. and in printed form.. He is a firm believer in full integration of Jews within the society of the countries they live in.. Shamir (60) lives in Jaffa and spends much time in Moscow and Stockholm ; he is father of three sons..

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